As reaction is reversible, removal of water or the addition of an excess of one of the reactants (cheaper one) drives the reaction towards formation of ester. Excess carboxylic acid is used) ј Adding excess arbitrarily acid is preferred as it is easier to separate carboxylic acid and ester compared to removing water t] solvent used is (Chocoholic), as water is insoluble in the solvent, so reverse reaction will not take place D using concentrated acid as catalyst rather than aqueous drives equilibrium to the right Reactivity of alcohol: COUCH > primary > secondary > tertiary > phenol In the reaction, no anion can exist, as it is in acidic condition, or acid will react Why dilute the reaction mixture after refluxing?
When it is diluted, the ester will be depredation anion and thus enervative as electrophoresis Why sodium bicarbonate is added? To remove excess carboxylic acid and sulfuric acid in mixture Why add brine? Brine is added to remove any water in the mixture as the by product Anhydrous sodium sulfate is added to dry the ester For IR spectrum: C] 1740. CACM-1 (C=O strong absorption shows there is an ester) 0 3500-3100 cam-1 (lack of broad O-H peak shows substance is not alcohol)
Thin Lenses Experiment