Differential mode and relationship mode Professor Fee’s “Differential Mode”, initially developed from the biological differential. But because traditional Chinese groups have a strong sense of identity of blood, causing the groups naturally transformed into patterns of social relations between. 1. Differential Mode Professor Fee, with the perspective from the social relations of traditional Chinese social structure, and thus invented “Differential Mode”. He believes that the social structure of traditional Chinese is “like a stone thrown into the water launch waves of irises.
Every man is his introduction to the social impact of the center of the circle. By pushing the circle and the wave of the The contact took place. “the tightness of contact between people, but also with the two In this” corrugated circle “to determine the distance In the distance. That Is, between a person and Relationships of others, like the ripples of water as to themselves as the center, “introduced to a circle, the more push farther and also push more thinner. ” @ Proof. Fee the traditional Chinese “differential pattern” with the West “group pattern” were compared, and further lardier the structure of traditional China.
In his view, Western society “is often formed by a number of one group of people. Groups there is a certain limit, and who is the group where people, who are groups of people outside, not vague, we must distinguish. The people In the group a group, the relationship between the groups Is the same, if the same group or class in the respective groups, it is first required. Pattern in this group, the members are equal, so there is no similar blood the natural contact and poor, everyone is talking about the rights and obligations.
If a member or less than their rights, or not doing the minimum obligations, are likely to leave the group. “They are not human In the hot and cold, but of rights. In Western society Is the right fight, and It Is climbing In our relationship, about friendship. ” @ compared with the differential pattern, the pattern of functional groups relatively simple. For example, the Western family will be in business matters very little, the main function is to birth children. “Children in this group is supporting, they grew up and became to leave the group.
In their political, economic, religious and other groups to undertake other functions, not In the family since the beginning. ” And “family home In China law, may owe respect and affection between couples, women with three criteria Trot ten Tour vulture, parents Ana centre pay attention to responsibility obedience. ” ($) even getting married adult children had to live away from their parents do not give board and lodging is very common. Of course, this analysis is Professor Fee Oxidation, China’s society in terms of the main structure, not to say that China’s rural society there is no “group. “Similarly, in western modern society, the same pattern of differential exists, but relatively important nothing more. ” In fact, these two patterns of the basic form of social structure “, can be capable of distinguishing between the concept, in fact on the often coexist, but each side can see the winning nothing more. “The reason to conduct such a distinction and emphasis,” because this distinction can indeed help us to get a lot of social structure, a more realistic understanding of the various exemptions confusion. ” 2.
Differential pattern: from the blood into the relationship between patterns of differential Between people to rank the differential social relations are the main features of the tatter, like the stone drowned generated ripples continue to spread outward circle. So, in real life, this intimacy between people is how far and near, the formation of social relations, or the interaction between the decision to rank the relationship that is based on what? Analysis from the perspective of Professor Fee Oxidation, based originally came from the blood relationship between people, blood differential.
The difference between the sequence pattern derived from the biological nature of human kinship structures, used in the formation of social interaction between people u to the structure of social relations, is based on the blood by differential patterns of social relations. Difference from the blood into the pattern of social relations, not only is a qualitative change, but also a “quantity” (range) of the shrinking. Blood is the natural connection between people, to give each person a role can not change the blood. And, to rank the blood relationship is also very obvious, easy to distinguish.
Such as “relies instead” between his father, their identity is fixed and can not be changed. Blood relationship between the two most pro recently. In comparison, “relies instead” ND uncles (father’s brother) relationship will have to sparse point further. This affinity for the distinct blood differential pattern of social relations between people provides an excellent basis. Also, because of this traditional Chinese kinship-based groups (clans) have a high degree of identity, kinship and thus formed the basis differential pattern of traditional Chinese social structure has become the main features.
Biological significance and blood differential to push thousands of people, “may have been introduced to include the infinite people, past, present, and future of the people. ” @ and China attaches great importance to the traditional blood groups ( clan), so that even happen due to human factors, blood ties broken, so that blood differential narrowed to a range of groups including the number of people are still considerable.
In contrast, the formation of social relations between people in social interaction, and the scope of interaction, after all, is limited, therefore, the scope of social relations between people than the scope of the relationship between blood differential is much smaller . In other words, blood differential of the “corrugated ricer” Is greater than ten social relations AT ten “corrugated circle. ” Sequence of blood “corrugated circle”, the circle formed by members of the group are essentially long-term and widespread traditional Chinese clan.
Within the clan and “relies instead” members have social interaction constitute their own social relations as the center of the “corrugated circle. ” Two “corrugated circle” Although there are groups within the clan, but the number of the former is obviously greater than the latter. Differential patterns of community circle Differential pattern of “corrugated circle” in “, relies instead on” in the center of the ins, “relies instead” and the other people in the circle of social relations depends on their affinity with the “relies instead” the distance.
From “relies instead on” the more recent, more intimate relationship. This is the difference between the traditional sequence pattern revealed by the basic characteristics of social relations in China. Further analysis showed that this basic structure, there is still a “community circle”, it is still using the differential pattern of blood ties to further divided into “inner” and “outer ring” that the two most obvious affinities, Its purpose is to further consolidate ND strengthen the important social relations, to further clarify the criteria for social interaction.
This is everyone “individual” capacity-limited results. 1 . Difference sequence pattern exists sector loop “Corrugated circle” shape of the difference sequence pattern, “relies instead” and the circle to the other person is sparse by the pro-social relationships, from “relies instead on” more pro-closer, the more far more sparse. Well, this closeness in everyday life is how to embody it? Apart from blood relations, but also influenced by what? Based on research by Professor Fee Oxidation, Relationships of daily life is not he embodiment of a balanced, progressive state, but have different emphases.
This reflects the way of the main factors, in addition to blood, as well as the balance of rights and obligations. Social relations is an important social capital, therefore, for everyone, always hope and expand their social relations as much as possible the “corrugated circle. ” “Corrugated circle” of the expansion, which means “relies instead on” acquired rights increases, while their obligations have increased. Social relationships is to rely on frequent interaction can be obtained, and each person’s mime, energy, capacity is limited.
As Professor Fee said, “social relations, rights and obligations must be fairly balanced, this balance can be very long in time, but if one- sided, too much social relations will, unless coupled with coercive power, or will the broken. One way to prevent the break in reducing bear on social relations. “Thus, the real world, people on the one hand to expand their social relations as much as possible the” corrugated circle “and the other terms and subject to their own time, energy, ability, etc. Had to “corrugated circle” inside a small and select the corrugated circle. ” In this small “ripples circle”, because of “relies instead on” a sufficient time, energy, ability, and therefore frequent interaction with other members, emotional intimacy, the right for each other big, too heavy obligations. In this small “ripples circle”, the interaction is small, the right to obtain a small, light obligations. This small “ripples circle” in the original large “ripple ring” internal, naturally formed a dividing line, a “community circle. In order to “relies instead” as ten center to ten regally AT ten poor Dye ten pro-sequence pattern, ten “community ricer” pattern of the entire differential is further divided into “Pro” and “Shush” two parts, but also the whole pattern of differential into the “inner” and “outer. ” 2. Demarcated boundary circle For blood groups in terms of traditional China, a differential pattern of “corrugated circle” is a clan. Within the group in this clan, there is a small “inner circle” – family. Inner circle (family) relationship between the members, feelings of intimacy.
Frequent interaction between members only, and are active cooperation and mutual assistance. Each member and their families at weddings and other events, the other embers must give money to send things (gifts), to show Ghee or mast, which is to fulfill it. Of course, there are affinities between members, “fulfill their obligations” when there are gifts of the thickness. They are outside with the family (outer ring) of the members are non-family relationships, feelings in general. The interaction between members is not only less negative and may contain contradictions and conflicts.
So when the outer ring members and their families held funerals and other activities, members do not need money to send inner objects (their obligations). This preference sequence pattern “inner ring” is a traditional division of standards unique to China’s “five system. ” “Five system” rich in content, but also very complex (including blood, marriage, etc. ), here it specifically refers to “Five blood”, from “relies instead” proceed within the Five blood relatives (including spouse) (see Figure . The figure that is the traditional pattern of rural differential (clan) in the inner circle (family), the industry circle is clear: to “relies instead” as the center, extending to five generations, that the high grandparents down to the great-great-grandson and gather in law, peer extended to the family of siblings and spouses. In the (inner) within the members were “relies instead” relatives, while non-relatives outside the scope of that “Book of Rites, mass communications,” so-called “VI relatives dried carry on. For example: a family of brothers and sisters and spouses, “relies instead” relatives, because they are within the blood in the Five Dynasties. But their children and “relies instead” is a non-kinship, blood relationship as more than five generations; again from siblings and spouses and “relies instead” is kinship, and is thin four generations of blood relations, therefore, their children and “relies instead” was still within the Five Dynasties, and therefore relationship.
Circle cultural existence sector Differential Mode and industry circles began in differential blood, blood groups used in social relations, a thousand years, the main features of Chinese social structure. Also, because they are long-term presence in the traditional Chinese and eventually evolved into a concept of culture, and extensive penetration into the various non- blood of social groups, “to be blood” is one of the outstanding performance.
It is this ultra penetration, making the differential pattern and industry circles from the blood can be based on a wide range of groups exist in unrelated, there is in non- traditional Chinese social structure. 1 . Community circle: from the blood groups blood groups to non-understanding of traditional essence order structure AT ten Downward Ana Walton ten circle, not only helps to know and understand China’s past, but the study of China’s future social structure and relationships more meaningful.
This is because: in China by the “traditional” to “modern” in the transition process, in the differential blood-based tatter of gradual decline, we are very clear to see: the traditional Chinese blood differential, blood concept has been ingrained in people’s minds, so that no blood ties, people are also invariably “mock” out of blood contact, and accordingly the formation of social relations, distinguish between near and far. Between the father and son get along with mentoring, college roommate called each other by date of birth brother or sister, etc. That is, this “simulation” of the concrete embodiment. Using this “to be blood” method, “from own home, from home to the country, from the country to the world, is a pathway. This shows that blood levels of the differential pattern in China has risen to the level of the difference between the concept of sequence pattern, forming a generally recognized by people of culture. That is, the blood group-based differential pattern has evolved into a concept of culture, and the widespread nature of non-blood groups, especially those among the large number of informal groups.
The concept of culture has been relatively independent, not only will not end with the weakening of traditional kinship groups, which dilute the contrary, in the future for a long period of time, it also its vitality and intention to maintain the social structure in China The differential pattern. 2. Demarcation of the cultural circle By “cultural circle” is relative to the blood in the differential in terms of the boundary circle is defined as the difference between the nature of non-blood groups in the sector sequence pattern circle.
Order it in bad blood circle sector is significantly different: the boundary of blood in the differential blood circle in full compliance with the degree of kinship, position clear, that is “relative” (family members) and non- family (clan members) of the boundary; The location of the cultural circle is very legible and not bound by blood relationship, completely based on how much personal time, energy, strength and capacity size. For example, traditional social structure in the “neighborhood” is the status of each one do his own center, draw a circle around. A happy event to your wine, have a baby to send red eggs, a funeral undertakers to help out, a coffin?? ” Neighborhood “size range by a central forces have determined the thickness. Influential people throughout the neighborhood can Village, a poor family neighborhood Just next to the two or three. Here called the” ricer “,” range that is, cultural circles, is” to be blood, “Order Structure of the boundary circle. Left the blood relationship between the natural, cultural circles rely mainly on the interests, feelings, beliefs and so maintained.
First, the community blood differential ring compared to the interest of maintaining the strength of a larger, overall, should be more than emotion. In other words, “to be blood” groups and individuals in the industry circle to maximize the rights and obligations of mostly minimization principle. Secondly, it should be and blood differential, as the power till comes from maintaining emotional, especially those between the original edge of the background with industry between groups, such as students circle, circle comrades, colleagues rings.
Finally, with the accelerating process of cultural diversity, people AT Talent Dye ten same group Torment gradually Increased, ten Deterrence between the sequence of its internal ring pattern and less influenced by industry interests and the emotional impact, more by maintaining the level of faith. Cultural circle, determine the “inner person” and “outer man” and the main criteria or the standard differential blood, Just as watching a “personal” and their families in life (birth), the old (old birthday ), disease, death, marriage (wedding), and building, promotion and other “big” activities interact with other people.
If you encounter such an event, always give money to send things to each other, it is the “inner man”, or is the “outer ring of people. ” Especially in the many informal groups, such a standard is most clear. 3. Inner ring: difference sequence pattern of the most influential factors In addition to the whole “Do not closeness” function, the differential mode of existence of “community circle” also shows that: “inner ring” is a differential pattern in the core part of the pattern on the differential impact of the giant.
And, in many formal social groups, the “inner ring” is often invisible to form small groups of one, small group, about the impact of even the normal operation of formal organizations. Differential pattern of circles and the location of the boundary determined by the boundary circle carved out of the inner and outer rings, are on the society and its development in terms of the general situation. When the differential pattern of abnormal external environment changes, even the blood differential will change the boundary circle.