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The representation of the female nude in art history exists in abundance; as does the prototype from which these nudes are styled. The focus of this essay will be the masterpieces Venus of urban, 1538, Titian Vehicle painted In the period referred to as the High Renaissance; being a study of methods systems and standardized practice of art.
Along with Grandee Odalisque, 1814, Jean-Augusta-Dominique Ingress, painted during the Neo-classical period; concerned with the Ideal, harmonious, naturalist style of art.
Titian and Ingress were considered some of the most important artists of heir time; credited with being both progressive and conservative. Noting the paintings and painters alike stand on their own as genius, their individual contributions are monumental to the respective movements. Despite their separation of close to three centuries, an important comparative link the artist share is through using old forms and new content always referencing previous standards and canon to produce original work.
Through identifying each work through their individual form content and context the two works will be contrasted. Titian is considered to eave been the greatest 16th-century Venetian painter, and the shaper of the Venetian colorist and painterly tradition. He Is one of the key figures In the history of Western art. Tolland Vehicle was born In the north of Venice, In 1477; he was trained by both Belong and Giorgio, and after Goriness’s early death In 1 510 It fell to Atlanta to complete a number of his unfinished painting (Goofed 1997).
His works were increasingly sought after ,his unexpected gift as historian as a witness and interpreter of the reality of his time, through the vehicle of his portraiture(Fearer 002), here lies the possibility to follow both the stylistic and human progress of the Titan’s influence on later artists: he was supreme in every branch of painting and revolutionized the oil technique with his free and expressive brushwork and adoption of canvas. The history of the period 1517-1642 Italy is very interesting. The Protestant Reformation happened in the beginning of 1517, and soon spread to include most of northern Europe.
The Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reformation began In the Catholic Church about the sass’s (Hill, 1980). Most art In this period was eased on the canon of the Renaissance generally, classical Ideal naturalism derived from the ancients: the private parts of the nudes were covered in the next few decades. About 1530, the year in which his wife died, a change in Titan’s manner becomes apparent. The asses are marked by relative quiet, pictorial subtlety, and colorist refinement, as exemplified by the Venus of Robin 1538-39, Fizz, Florence.
The strong, simple colors used here, and the artist’s evident pleasure in the silhouetting of dark forms against a light background, reappear throughout the work of this period. The Venus of Robin was painted for Guidebook Della Rover, the heir of Francesco Maria Della Rover, Duke of Robin. The pose of this Venus brings to mind that of Goriness’s Sleeping Venus In Dressed (It Is believed the young Titian had completed after Goriness’s death) the Intent of the painting Is quite deferent. Titan’s Venus has nothing to do with Goriness’s Idealized Image of female beauty; It Is normally interpreted as a metaphor of marital love.
There have been some suggestions that tender malign De a connection Witt ten weaning AT Gladiolus cell Rover Ana Giuliani Varian in 1534(Hill, 1980). A splendid female nude off goddess, later copied by eighteenth and nineteenth century artists, comfortably reclined covered with cushions, and holding flowers. Probably the most important aspect of the painting which should not be overlooked is the contrast of light and shade produced by the pale body of Venus on an equally pale sheet, standing out against the dark wall behind.
Architectural motifs are used to enhance the drama of the scene where trees and figures together form a centrifugal composition suited to the action. Titian asserts not spatial unity but there is an inconsistency between the foreground and he background, even though we are invited to recognize the contextual relation between the two: a bed in the foreground, bedroom furnishings in the background. The vertical wall, draped with a green curtain, separate these spaces, and their link is challenged by the difference of scale. The standing maid, for example, measures slightly less than one-third the figure of Venus. ) Titian repeats this displacement by displacing the vanishing point of his own perspective creation with Venus’ eyes, which is further honored by every other trick in Titan’s Venetian book, by the manipulation of color and light, the direction of folds in the various fabrics, and the elimination of any other glance (even the dogs) as competition for our attention.
Traditional critical responses dwell on the classical beauty of the nude Venus of Robin or they overstretch themselves in complex iconographic interpretations. Because sexuality and gender identity are bound to society, understanding Titan’s women requires understanding his time and place, the psychological, political, social and economic situation of women in sixteenth-century Venice (Goofed, 1997).
Titan’s twin Cassini are, then, purposeful signifier, the furniture equivalent of the myrtle and bouquet of roses, plants that were then, and remain, familiar bridal attributes (Tansy, 1996). Titan’s heroine lacks classical correctness, the passive demeanor expected (by modern critics, at least) of an ancient goddess. Titan’s Venus, on the contrary, is alert and powerful, a more dominating, direct Venus’. More than twenty-five years separate Goriness’s creation from Titan’s painting. He changed the archetype into two obvious ways: Venus is now indoors, and she is awake.
Outdoors, though furnished with cushions and sheets, Goriness’s Venus inhabits an romantic surroundings traditionally associated with love and lovemaking in medieval and Renaissance imagery, Asleep, Goriness’s Venus seems demure in comparison with Titan’s conscious, alert heroine, the pose was invented by Parallaxes for the Aphrodite of Knits, which was a standing figure. Titian, like Giorgio and others before them, borrowed for painting a posture or contrasts devised for sculpture, which makes the ideal of the arts an undertone of the Venus of Robin.
Titian departed from the honored prototype in two significant ways. The first is straightforward: Venus does not cover her breast with her right arm but instead props herself up on pillows while clutching a bouquet of roses. The second variation, however, is challenging unlike the ancient Venus, she does not merely conceal, she caresses herself The Venus of Robin adds boldness to independence, and self- aware, she reclines in a well-furnished, modern (sixteenth-century) bedroom and addresses her sexual power directly to the beholder, may explain why Titian created Nils only messmates Interior Tort ten Venus AT Ordure.
Although teen are OTOH obviously nudes, Ingress’ nude refers back to a figurative setting of exotic lands. Ingress’ nude slyly turns her head in profile but does not stare at us sullenly the way. Ingress’ nude could be beckoning the viewer seductively, refers to Titan’s Venus of ‘Robin, but her much more upright stance is modestly staring at us. A comparison of this cool yet voluptuous work with Ingress La Grandee Odalisque later shows the wide range of sexuality which an outline style can express. Ingress, Jean-Augusta- Dominique 1780-1867.
French painter, parliamentarian, A leading Neo-classicist, he was a student of Jacques Louis David. He was considered painter and icon of cultural conservatism in 19th-century France. He studied and worked in Rome about 1807-20, his portraits are meticulously detailed and highly polished. A master draughtsman, he considered drawing ‘the probity of art’, and marked by clarity of line and a cool formality in fierce opposition to the Romanticism of. His major works, exercised a profound influence on 19th-century French Academic art (Ackerman, 1995).
In politics it was an age of upheaval, particularly with destructive and total warfare before 1715. It was also a time of expanding capitalism that saw rapidly expanding international read and a growing population. The increasing importance, wealth and self-esteem of the European middle classes, who became increasingly associated with the arts in this period Ingress became the leader of the French tradition of Neoclassical painting after the death of Jacques-Louis David. Ingress’s cool, meticulously drawn works were the opposite of the contemporary Romantic school.
Romanticism can be seen as a rejection of the precepts of order, calm, harmony, balance, idealization, and rationality that typified Classicism in general and late 18th-century Neoclassicism in particular. The strict classicists looked upon Ingress as a rebel, the leaders of the Romantic Movement for which Ingress, throughout his long life, always expressed the deepest hatred, alone seem to have been reasonable of his qualities, and found him celebrated throughout France.
Whilst he taught with repressive authority and admirable wisdom, it was with angry disgust and resentment that he found his work received with the same doubt and indifference, if not the same hostility His technique as a painter was academically unimpeachable he said paint should be as smooth ‘as the skin of an onion’ but he was often attacked for the expressive situations of his draftsmanship; Unfortunately the influence of Ingress was mainly seen in those shortcomings and weaknesses which have come to be regarded as the hallmark of inferior academic work. ( Pooch, 2002).
Ingress is a puzzling artist and his career is full of contradictions The central contradiction of his career is that although he was held up as the guardian of Classical rules and precepts, it is his personal obsessions and mannerisms that make him such a great artist. The Grandee Odalisque 1814 was commissioned by Napoleon’s sister, Queen Caroline of Naples. Ingress was known as an artist who rendered a wide variety of themes, from historical scenes to portraits. As one of the great Neo- Classicists artists he was interested in art history and in exotic cultures.
Ingress was fascinated by the sensuality and exoticism of a near eastern harem. An Odalisque is a female slave of the harem, in Turkish she is literally a ‘maid of the chamber’. He often used ancient classical sculptures as source materials for his figures, accentuating the contours… As Baudelaire remarked, his finest works ‘are the product of a deeply sensuous nature’. He stressed ten Importance AT Ellen as Trot Greek art Ana works DAY Raphael (Ackerman, 1995). The Odalisque is a study in opposites: The Oriental languor of her reclining pose is in opposition to her actual position.
She appears relaxed but the position would be difficult to maintain comfortably. Her soft, warm skin tones are contrasted with the opulent silk patterns in cool colors. She is looking toward the viewer yet she is turned away. The critics disapproved of the figure; they complained that she seemed to have extra vertebrae in her back and that her arm had no detailed elbow. The figure is not quite correct and yet this abstraction gives the Odalisque a fluid quality that would otherwise not be possible.
Ingress put great attention to the textures and an almost photographic realism to the fur, velvet and satin. The Contrast between the two paintings is plain; the reclining nude Venus is shown frontally in a languid posture; the seated nude Odalisque is seen from behind & directs her gaze at least in part, toward the viewer. Commitment to ideal form and careful compositional structure is also another important comparison of the two paintings and painters. Both relied heavily on the canon of ideal beauty each played with and challenged the rules of the day.
Masterfully they combined the ideal with the exotic, while setting their nudes in identifiable settings of their era. Color plays an important role in both paintings almost setting the stage, creating an almost theatrical scene; both were painted using oils on canvas. The origins of both works closely linked to the traditional; this in itself is not unusual for painters of their time but Titian and Ingress shaped these traditions in a ways that typifies their nude ladies s unique original and exemplary works that still today define the reclining nude.