This essay will sketch and explicate why inter professional collaborative pattern in societal work is of import. It will besides analyze cardinal factors that help or impede effectual inter professional collaborative pattern. It will explicate why it is of import that professionals work together and efficaciously as a squad and the effects that can happen when professionals fail to join forces successfully.
There has been a great trade of political and professional force per unit areas for the development of inter professional collaborative pattern. From the late 1990 ‘s onwards there were huge sums of official paperss to advance the importance of collaborative working within the wellness and societal attention sector. The 1998 societal services White Paper Modernising Social Services ( DoH, 1998 ) and The NHS Plan ( 2000 ) devoted full chapters to the topic. It has been argued that inter professional working has advanced farther in relation to services for older people than it has in relation to kids and households. The Green Paper Every Child Matters ( DfES 2003 ) recognised this and one of the chief elements of this paper focused that improved coaction was required so as non to reiterate the tragic events of the Victoria Climbie instance ( this instance will be discussed in farther item later in the essay ) . Government acknowledgment suggests that many societal jobs can non be efficaciously addressed by any given administration moving in isolation from others. That is, when professionals work together efficaciously they provide a better service to the complex demands of the most vulnerable people in society. Inter professional collaborative pattern involves complex interactions between a scope of different professionals and is when professionals work together as a squad to make reciprocally negotiated ends through agreed programs. It is a partnership that can be defined as a formal understanding between the different professions who agree to work together in chase of common ends. Collaborative is defined as seting that partnership into operation or into pattern. It involves the different professions working together and utilizing their ain single accomplishments alternatively of working in opposite waies to run into the demands of peculiar service users. It is suggested that when societal workers and other professions work collaboratively the service user gets a better trade. ‘Willing engagement ( Henneman et al, 1995, cited in Barrett et Al, 2005, p.19 ) and a high degree of motive ‘ ( Molyneux, 2001, cited in Barrett et Al, p.19 ) have been stated as critical facets of effectual inter professional coaction.
Social workers have certain ethical duties to society that they must follow and this comes in the signifier of The British Association of Social Work ( BASW ) Code of Ethics and the National Occupational Standards for societal workers. The Code of Ethics follow five basic values, Human Dignity and Worth, Social Justice, Service to Humanity, Integrity and Competence whilst the National Occupational Standards outline the criterions of behavior and pattern to which all societal workers should adhere to. Whilst working in coaction with other professionals, societal workers should follow these Codes and Standards to guarantee that the best possible result is achieved for the service user.
In the past inter professional collaborative pattern has been hard with many disadvantages and that this has caused jobs between the different professions involved. This has in the yesteryear led to catastrophic calamities as in the instance of Victoria Climbie. Shared answerability is of import for effectual coaction and all professionals should be accountable. Each profession should back up one another, non be seen as ego interested and that no one profession is higher than another. Some of the jobs that can happen are when there is non a logical distribution of power. ‘Unequal power distribution can be oppressive ‘ ( Payne, 2000, cited in Barrett et Al, 2005, p.23 ) and can restrict engagement for some group members. Struggles for power are rooted in professional tradition and societal difference. It is believed by some critics of societal work that ‘social workers have frequently been located in scenes where they were considered as subsidiary to other more established professional groups ‘ ( Brewer and Lait, 1980, cited in Wilson et Al, 2008, p.401 ) . Traditionally there have been troubles within the medical profession and Cooke et Al, ( 2001, cited in Barrett et Al, 2005, p.23 ) suggests that ‘general practicians felt threatened by a redistribution of power and had jobs allowing spells of their traditionally held power base ‘ . Social work in the yesteryear has been described as a semi profession and similar to nursing and instruction and non comparable to the ‘learned profession of medical specialty or jurisprudence as it does non hold the needed characteristics of those professions ‘ ( Freidson 1994 ) . Payne ( 2000 cited in Barrett et Al, 2005, p.23 ) identifies this as ‘people ‘s capacity to acquire what they want ‘ . Power in inter professional collaborative pattern should be shared and distributed and no hierarchy of power should be. If some professionals see themselves as more powerful than another they are non run intoing the demands of the service user. Being territorial and non sharing information and cognition has long been a job in inter professional collaborative pattern. Molyneux ( 2001, cited in Barrett et Al, 2005, p20 ) ‘found that professionals who were confident in their ain function were able to work flexibly across professional boundaries without experiencing covetous or threatened ‘ . ‘Professional maturity ‘ was an look used by Laidler ( 1991, cited in Barratt et Al, 2005, p.20 ) to depict professionals who were confident in their ain function to portion information and communicate efficaciously with other professionals. These professionals do non experience territorial about releasing their cognition and apprehension to farther enhance good inter professional collaborative pattern. Stapleton ( 1998, cited in Barrett et Al, 2005, p.20 ) suggests that ‘a combination of personal and professional assurance enables persons to asseverate their ain positions and dispute the point of views of others ‘ .
Open and honest communicating is a critical and likely one of the most of import facets of inter professional collaborative pattern. It requires professionals to take into history each other ‘s positions, be respectful, dignified and to listen to each other without being extremely critical of one another. Constructive unfavorable judgment demands to be undertaken aboard constructive suggestions and encouragement and should take topographic point at a clip when other professionals are receptive. Active hearing is an of import accomplishment. To be able to recognize and react to what is being communicated is a cardinal accomplishment. Professionals working collaboratively should show this verbally and nonverbally to each other. This is greatly helped if all concerned put aside the typical stereotyping of each other ‘s professions in order to hear and listen to what the talker is stating. Keeping good oculus contact and holding good organic structure linguistic communication is merely every bit of import. ‘It is estimated that about two-thirds of communicating is non-verbal, i.e. something is communicated through ‘body linguistic communication ‘ – by a organic structure motion, a position, an inflexion in the voice ‘ ( Birdwhistell, 1970, cited in Wilson, 2008, p.297 ) . A dislocation in communicating and the deficiency of sharing of information between the professions in the yesteryear have been major weaknesss in inter professional collaborative pattern for illustration in high profile kid protection enquiries and this has led to tragic effects. Effective systems of communicating and cognizing what information should be shared are indispensable non merely between the professions but besides between the service users.
Trust, common regard and support are cardinal characteristics to bury professional collaborative pattern. Trust was highlighted by many professionals as one of the most of import factors in successful coaction. When trust is absent professionals may experience uncomfortable and insecure in their function and this in bend can take to defensive behavior to antagonize their insecurities. Stapleton ( 1998, cited in Barratt et Al, 2005, p.22 ) suggests that ‘trust develops through repeated positive inter professional experience and develops bit by bit over a period of clip ‘ . Trust can non be gained overnight so it is of import for professionals working collaboratively to give one another clip for trust to develop. When professionals feel valued, they feel respected. This can be achieved by actively listening to each other and holding an penetration into one another ‘s professions.
Conflict between the professions can hold a immense impact on the different professionals and service users. Loxley ( 1997, cited in Barrett et Al, 2005, p.24 ) suggests that struggle is ‘interwoven with collaborative pattern ‘ . To antagonize some of the jobs associated with struggle it may be good to all concerned to organize land regulations. These land regulations could travel some manner to forestall and assist the direction of struggle and could include ; unfastened treatment and the duty to be able to give each other honorable feedback. Most significantly these land regulations need to profit all parties involved.
A great trade of accent is placed on societal workers to critically reflect their pattern. It literally means that societal workers reflect on their pattern before, during and after, believing through undertakings carefully. Other professionals may non make this in line with societal workers beliefs of critical contemplation or in the same manner or see that contemplation on their ain pattern is an of import facet of successful inter professional collaborative pattern.
To exemplify the above points a pattern illustration will now be explained. The enquiry into the decease of 10 twelvemonth old Victoria Climbie highlights the black effects when communicating in inter professional collaborative pattern fails. This child decease instance was fraught with communicating dislocations across the scope of professionals associated with the instance. In Lord Laming ‘s study ( 2003 ) he draws attending to and illustrates deficiency of communicating as one of the cardinal issues. Victoria Climbie was failed by a system that was put into topographic point to protect her. Professionals failed in this protection by non pass oning with each other or with Victoria herself. One of the unfavorable judgments in the Laming Report ( 2003 ) was that none of the professionals involved in the instance spoke to Victoria about her life or how she was experiencing and suggests that even basic service user engagement was absent. There was an chance which is highlighted in his study that a societal worker missed an chance to pass on with Victoria by make up one’s minding non to see or talk to her while she was in infirmary. It could be argued that if basic degrees of communicating with Victoria herself had been implemented, so more could hold been achieved to protect her. It was non merely a deficiency of communicating with Victoria herself but a deficiency of communicating between the professions that were investigated in the Laming Report ( 2003 ) . Communication is every bit of import between the service user and the different professional organic structures. Professionals are less effectual on their clients ‘ behalf if they can non pass on exactly and persuasively ‘ . ( Clark, 2000, cited in Trevithick, 2009, p.117 ) . For successful inter professional collaborative pattern to work a combination of personal and professional accomplishments are required, together with competent communications accomplishments to enable the different professions to dispute the positions of others. Recommendation 37 of the Laming Report ( 2003 ) states ‘The preparation of societal workers must fit them with the assurance to oppugn the sentiment of professionals in other bureaus when carry oning their ain appraisal of the demands of the kid ‘ . On at least one juncture, this did non go on when a societal worker did non dispute a medical statement which turned out to be professionally wrong which in bend led to the tragic eventual decease of Victoria. Had the societal worker challenged the medical sentiment in this case so it could be argued that more efficient communicating and less confusion in the instance may hold saved Victoria. Alan Milburn ( Hansard 28 January 2003, column 740, cited in Wilson et Al, 2008, p.474 ) , the so Secretary of State commented when presenting the Children Bill in the Commons that ‘Victoria demands services that worked together ‘ and that ‘down the old ages inquiry after enquiry has called for better communicating and better co-ordination ‘ . Communication lies at the bosom of high quality and successful inter professional pattern and Victoria is merely one instance of when there is a deficiency of communicating between the professionals and the annihilating effects that can originate.
In decision, successful inter professional collaborative pattern has many elements and all these different elements require that the different professions follow them. Although inter professional working pattern has been around for many old ages and is non new, it still needs to be continued, developed and incorporated into the day-to-day work of all professions. When wellness and societal attention professionals from different subjects genuinely understand each other ‘s functions, duties and challenges, the potency of inter professional collaborative pattern could be to the full realised and many of the barriers alleviated, giving a more successful result to the service user.