A dream of ‘Utopia’, however, seems unreachable as of now, as Ideals and values among the individuals In society remain very different and due to the subjective nature of the people, which prevents It from happening. To make It happen and remain, either the ideals of all the people would have to be upheld or all the people would have to have the same ones. “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. ” This quote by Jean Jacques Rousseau depicts the situation quite accurately: An Individual Is born with free will; It Is a property of human nature that depends on the person.
It allows us to make our own decisions that have an impact on our lives; however, our choices are limited by the rules the government inflict on us, as well as by moral and social obligations. Therefore we can live freely, but we have to take in consideration the laws and rules, along with other people. The state is a set of institutions that has the authority to make rules over a given territory, such as imprisoning people and Judging their behavior and choices. The humankind needs authority to Limit us though, It Is natural: the tribes have chiefs etc.
Hobbes believes that without the state, the society would be disastrous: our lives would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”. It is believed, that without it, we would descend to the level of animals – as the civilized English schoolboys in William Gildings novel ‘Lord of the Flies’ did. Disclaiming Hobbes theory, John Locke suggested his own. He claims, that the state is not natural for the humankind: God created people that are given basic human rights and obligations, along with free will and equality.
No one has the right to Impose rules upon us without our consent. Locke was an anarchist, he had many complaints against the state, such as that the state helps mainly the rich, ruling class, instead of the ones that are in need. There are various theories of rights, the two most reorient ones being the ‘Natural Rights’, which was developed by Locke (God made these rights) and the other one that was ‘Made for humans by humans’, which was Bantam’s theory (made by majority, so more people would be satisfied). However, Bantam’s theory Is hard to generalize and decide.
The best form of governance for most of the people is democracy. There are two types of democracy: Representative, where people vote for a person to represent them, and direct. The representative democracy is more common; it involves a voting process and there are both pros and cons: It works reasonably well and is efficient. On the other side, there are many shortcomings In the democratic system. For one, It Is considered Tanat every client Is consolable equal Ana NAS equal relents, wanly does not always work.
Facing the truth, there is never going to be total equality and there are people that have more influence. Furthermore, we cannot be sure whether the citizen is aware of whom he has voted for – there are many empty promises and such made during the campaigns, but we never know beforehand what the candidate’s future plan is. We do not know their qualifications, experiences, education and to add o it, there are many cases where the competition between the candidates is so fierce that they try to bring each other down by publishing unfavorable possibly misleading information about them.
In utopia, it would be ideal if there was Justice; but Justice is a very vague term, as every country has different religions and therefore to uphold those, different laws are needed. The laws and rules are made by the ruling class, which is where the line between democracy, monarchy and dictatorship is blurred. The ruling class has the power to make and change laws to benefit themselves. The relationships pass the laws, but it should be qualified ones that should make the laws in different fields.
Maybe the ministers of each department should be directly elected instead of the parliaments. An ideal case of democracy would be the one as in ancient India, where the laws were made by the most knowledgeable people, who did not hanker for power. They made the laws and stayed out of the governance business and the monarch was not involved in making the laws and rather Judged people’s behavior. In the ideal society, freedom is one of the most important values – maybe it would be eater if there was no governance at all.
But, it is apparent that humans are not ready for the ‘no governance’ state yet, as we are still affected by our weaknesses and there are many of us that would take away the freedom from other people. We cannot enjoy total freedom – we are like children that would start fighting as soon as the door closes behind the teacher, we need the government. The distribution of wealth is another issue. It would be ideal for all the people to have the same income; but the human nature and weaknesses such as greed prevent that. People are tempted to have more and more.
Another idea of the Utopian state would be equality of men. A society, where everybody would be treated the same. But, that wouldn’t be fair. People are unique, but not equal; it is the nature’s will. Some people are more talented than the others and have contributed to a better society, therefore it would not be fair to treat them the same as other people. There are classes in the society, according to one’s talents etc. Which proves that talent is an attribute of an individual and not a group or a society. We wouldn’t treat Leonardo Dad Vinci the same as the others, for example.
Furthermore, an ideal society should have an authority, which would therefore be regarded higher than common people – equality is not quite possible. It is possibly inequality among us that causes that there cannot be absolute peace: violence, Jealousy, hatred, greed, and many more – those are some of the human weaknesses that we cannot get rid of. The basic ideas of an ideal state are in conclusion: liberty, equality, Justice and peace. Those ideas clash though, as it is apparent that there cannot be total freedom due to our nature, and therefore there needs to be a ruling class.
It would be ideal if the lulling class would De selfless Ana mace rules etc. Walkout twinkling tout now to benefit themselves, but sadly, that is not the case. Therefore Justice is biased – especially the economic laws, as the ruling class is able to change them to suit them. Peace is out of question as there will be clashes between different ideals and values. What would be possible though, given these circumstances, is equality between races and acceptance of all religions. However, to reach the ideal state, one would need to change the humankind’s nature – to make us more understanding, selfless and peaceful.