THE ANALYSIS OF ORWELL’S NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR AND HUXLEY’S BRAVE NEW WORLD THROUGH THE PERPSECTIVE OF THE MODERN WORLD
1. Chapter 1: Introduction……………………………………………………………….. 4
2. Chapter 2: Reappraisal of the literature…………………………………………………… 5
3. Chapter 3: Research methodology…………………………………………………… . 7
4. Chapter 4: Discussion………………………………………………………………… 7
4.1. The novels’ historical contexts………………………………………………… . 7
4.2. The analysis of George Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-fourand Aldous Huxley’s
Brave New World……………………………………………………………… . 10
5. Chapter 5: Conclusions…………….………………………………………………… 21
6. Chapter 6: Suggestions for farther research………………………………………….. 22
7. References…………………………………………………………………………… . 23
The research provides a profound analysis of George Orwell’s novelNineteen Eighty-fourand Aldous Huxley’s workBrave New World, paying attending to the issues of province, freedom, brainwashing and apathy. Pulling a analogue between the universes presented in the novels and the modern universe, the paper makes an effort to uncover that the issues raised by Huxley and Orwell greatly correspond with the bulk of modern-day issues. The standard findings suggest thatNineteen Eighty-fourandBrave New Worldare prophetic in their presentations of political and societal systems of future societies. Such states as the United States and Germany, Russia and Ukraine demonstrate the world presented in Orwell and Huxley’s narratives, particularly in respect to mass media, doublethink, deficiency of freedom, conditioning, societal control and cloning. On the one manus, these consequences correspond with some old analyses ofNineteen Eighty-fourandBrave New World,but, on the other manus, they provide different point of views.
George Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-four( 1949 ) and Aldous Huxley’sBrave New World( 1932 ) constitute the chief literary beginnings for the analysis of modern societal and political systems, as both plants reflect the negative effects of the important control that destroys person’s individualism and freedom. Although Orwell and Huxley’s narratives belong to the genre of Utopian fiction, they reveal a deformed vision of the present universe instead than the future universe. Actually, any portraiture of utopia implicitly uncovers the being of certain societal, political and cultural jobs. While in the get downing the novels nowadays the Utopian societies, they are bit by bit transformed into the dystopian societies, as the narratives advancement. Orwell and Huxley’s Utopias are profoundly rooted in the history, implicitly or explicitly showing certain historical events or societal systems of the past. Therefore,Nineteen Eighty-fourandBrave New Worldnon merely adhere to the truth, but besides reflect the authors’ hopes for the better hereafter.
On the other manus, such Utopian novels are normally accepted equivocally, ensuing in public efforts to forbid this sort of fiction. Harmonizing to Darko Suvin ( 1970 [ page 215 ] , “The brightest hopes of humanity, we know, are apt to devolve into justifications for the Inquisition, the Stalinist purgings or the My Lai massacres” . Nevertheless, Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-fourand Huxley’sBrave New Worldmolded political thought of modern-day readers and well influenced farther coevalss of writers, such as Ray Bradbury, Stanislaw Lem, Thomas Pynchon and Anthony Burgess. The term ‘Orwellian’ , which is frequently utilised by critics, became the incarnation of “the totalitarian development of the State as depicted inNineteen Eighty-fourandAnimal Farm” ( The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1991 [ page 839 ] ) . As modern democracy fails to set up public and single freedom, Orwell and Huxley’s novels become particularly important for detecting the balance between common and private kingdoms.Nineteen Eighty-fourandBrave New Worlduncover of import moral and societal issues, keeping the thoughts of freedom and equality among all groups of people.
Therefore, the end of the research is double: 1 ) to carry on a profound analysis of the major issues of Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-fourand Huxley’sBrave New World; 2 ) to uncover the similarities and differences between the invented universes and the modern-day universe. On the footing of these ends the paper is divided into several chapters. Get downing with an debut that provides a general overview of Orwell and Huxley’s literary plants, the analysis continues with a reappraisal of the literature that evaluates the bing critical plants in respect toNineteen Eighty-fourandBrave New World.The following subdivision demonstrates the theoretical research methods utilised for the analysis, while chapter 4 investigates in deepness the issues of province, freedom, apathy and brainwashing in Orwell and Huxley’s novels, paying much attending to modernness. Chapter 5 summarises the findings of the analysis and is followed by the concluding subdivision that discusses the restrictions of the research and provides some suggestions for farther surveies of George Orwell and Aldous Huxley.
2 Review of the literature
Due to the fact that Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-fourand Huxley’sBrave New Worldare instead complex literary plants, they evoke contradictory critical point of views. Alan Kennedy ( 1998 [ page 94 ] provinces that “Orwell’s novel is non at all a prognostication or a warning, but a challenge: a challenge to our reading ability” . Christopher Hitchens ( 2002 ) expresses the opposite position, claiming that Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-fouris a truly prophetic work that depicts an imperial universe. Neil Postman ( 1986 ) reveals the similar sentiment in respect to Huxley’sBrave New World,saying that the writer provides the true portraiture of the consumer universe with the spread of mass media and drugs. French republics Fukuyama ( 2002 ) considers that Aldous Huxley’s narrative is non merely prophetic, but it exceeds other plants of fiction, as the novel foretells the finds in familial technology long before they were really revealed. Erich Fromm ( 1990 [ page 313 ] ) points out that Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-four“is the look of a temper, and it is a warning. The temper it expresses is that of near desperation about the hereafter of adult male, and the warning is that… work forces all over the universe will lose their most human qualities” .
Alok Rai ( 1988 [ page 120 ] ) reveals that “Orwell’s bookmans have noted the continuity betweenNineteen Eighty-fourand Orwell’s earlier Hagiographas, at the degree of images every bit good as of themes” . Jenni Calder ( 1976 [ page 35 ] ) draws a analogue between the writers’ backgrounds and the universes they present, proposing that “Huxley and Orwell were both cognizant that within the society they observed, people were easy influenced. They were, in fact, conditioned all the clip, subjected all the clip to pressures” . Calder points out that Huxley’s conditioning is depicted through the societal use, and Orwell’s conditioning is reflected through the impact of media and political forces. Jerome Meckier ( 1978 ) evaluates the extent of psychological conditioning in Huxley’sBrave New World, pulling a analogue between Freud and Ford who are exposed to a instead satirical portraiture in the novel. Harmonizing to Meckier ( 1978 [ page 41 ] ) , “Where Ford wanted to run life like one of his mills, Freud treated the head as a piece of neurological machinery… Our Ford equals Our Freud because Huxley saw both work forces as canonized mechanics” . Deanna Madden ( 1992 ) analysesBrave New Worldthrough the feministic position. Madden ( 1992 [ page 289 ] ) states that “The scene of Brave New World, a future London of phallic skyscrapers, is a universe in which the male rule of scientific discipline has subjugated and about eradicated the female rule of nature” . To a certain extent, this statement is valid, as Huxley truly intensifies the portraiture of male gender, cut downing female gender. But, on the other manus, such attitude towards males and females is important for Huxley’s narrative, and Madden’s point of view may uncover her ain biass in respect toBrave New World.Some critics ( for case, Suvin, 1970 ) show their prejudices in other ways ; in peculiar, they point at the fact that such Utopias asBrave New WorldandNineteen Eighty-fourshould be banned because of their negative impact on society. However, harmonizing to Mannheim ( 1985 [ pages 262-263 ] , the prohibition of utopia “ultimately would intend the decay of human will… bring [ ing ] about a inactive province of personal businesss in which adult male himself becomes no more than a thing” . Overall, such controversial sentiments provide an chance to analyze Huxley and Orwell’s novels from different positions and uncover alterations in societal thought.
3 Research methodological analysis
The present research applies to a historical research method and a comparative attack, as both methods are important for the comparing of two literary plants and the comparing of two kingdoms – the fabricated and modern. The comparative attack draws a parallel between two different facets, bring outing similar and opposite sides within the socio-political scene ( Ragin, 1991 ) , while the historical method analyses these facets through historical, political and societal contexts. In this paper the historical method is utilised for the rating of the periods, in which Huxley and Orwell’s plants are created, and the present societal world. Therefore, the historical method non merely collects certain informations, using both primary and secondary beginnings, but besides interprets them through the positions of the past and present ( Leedy, 2001 ) . In this respect, the method expands the modern-day apprehension of Orwell and Huxley’s fictions. The comparative attack provides the footing for understanding societal and political systems in the discussed societies and reveals the relatedness of certain issues. Besides, this method demonstrates that the impressions ‘utopia’ and ‘dystopia’ are non contradictory, but instead complementary. Utopia can be transformed into dystopia and frailty versa, depending on the perceptual experience and reading of a peculiar literary work. Although Huxley and Orwell provide the portraitures of the Utopian universes, they bit by bit present the images of societies that can be identified as dystopian.
4.1. The novels’ historical contexts
George Orwell’s novelNineteen Eighty-fourwas produced after the writer’s return from the Civil War in Spain. Despite the fact that Orwell chiefly belonged to the left political wing, the war well changed his point of views, and the author became greatly defeated with the political system of the U.S.S.R. The Hitler-Stalin Pact, which put an terminal to the Spanish Revolution, was negatively accepted by Orwell who began to uncover the negative effects of the Stalinist government in his literary plants.
The attitude of the West was similar to Orwell’s vision shortly after World War Two, but inNineteen Eighty-fourOrwell makes an effort to supply a true portraiture of the destructive Communist political orientation. As a author, Orwell deviates from any political labels, but howeverNineteen Eighty-fourremains an of import political work. This truthfulness was negatively perceived by Soviet mass media that regarded Orwell’s work as the concealed aggression on Soviet Union and Communism ( Anisimov, 1975 ) . However, George Orwell ( 1970, Vol.4 [ page 564 ] ) rejects this point of view, claiming that “Nineteen Eighty-fouris NOT intended as an onslaught on Socialism… but as a show-up of the perversions to which a centralized economic system is apt and which have already been partially realised in Communism and Fascism” . Orwell was good cognizant of the negative impact of the totalitarian government on a province ; in peculiar, the author observed the gradual decay of Great Britain under the force per unit area of two unsafe political powers – the Communist Party and Nazi dictators.
Using the position of the hereafter, Orwell discusses the issues and events, which deeply reflect the modern-day universe, despite the fact that Orwell depicts the totalitarian government of the Stalin epoch. Simultaneously,Nineteen Eighty-fourmay uncover Orwell’s anxiousness for “the turning off from democracy and blunt esteem for dictatorship, which overtook the British clerisy in approximately 1940” ( Orwell, 1970, Vol.3 [ page 94 ] . This doubtful attack seems to arouse uncertainness, which the writer expresses in the really beginning of the narrative. On the one manus, the described events may be reiterated in the hereafter and, therefore, the novel will be strongly prohibited. On the other manus, the author’s vision of the future society may be incorrect ; in this respect, his thoughts will be mindless. However, George Orwell’s uncertainness was overdone, asNineteen Eighty-fourappeared to be rather appropriate for the modern universe. As George Orwell ( 1970, Vol.4 [ page 564 ] ) acknowledges in the missive to Henderson, “I believe that something resembling it [ the totalitarian universe ] could get. I believe besides that totalitarian thoughts have taken root in the heads of intellectuals everywhere” .
Therefore, it is possible to assume that Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-fourwas meant to be prophetic, although the writer could non foretell the extent of this prognostication. George Orwell was one of those British writers who realised the dangers of the modern epoch and made everything to continue simpleness of the past, at least through literature. Deviating from his upbringing and detecting the influence of imperialism on assorted groups of people, Orwell used to measure every societal or political issue from the double position.
Contrary to Orwell’s novel, Aldous Huxley’s workBrave New Worldwas non destined to be prophetic. Huxley wrote his novel in 1932 when the issues of drugs, sex and human cloning were non even exposed. But in a unusual manner, the fabricated society inBrave New Worldgreatly resembles modern American society, and today many issues raised by the writer pealing true. However, this prognostication is non inadvertent, as Huxley lived in many European states, such as Britain, France and Italy and observed their civilization, political systems and living conditions. InBrave New Worldthe author embodies the bing moral decay, corruptness and the spread of gender. Although Huxley nowadayss future London in the novel, it is the United States that is reflected in his created community. Belonging to the upper-class society, Huxley was truly afraid of the bureaucratic system established in the USA. This bureaucratism is portrayed in Huxley’s novel through the image of Henry Ford. In the 30s old ages of the 20Thursdaycentury Ford was one of the most of import figures in the universe, and Ford’s mills were presented as illustrations of glorious productiveness. As David Gartman ( 1998 [ page 121 ] provinces, “around the bend of the century competitory capitalist economy gave manner to the monopoly or Fordist phase. This period is defined by the rise of the big, monopolistic corporation and the mass production of standardized goods” . Although the Soviet Union worshipped Ford, Huxley raises against Ford and his concern ‘empire’ . The author was good cognizant of economic jobs in the capitalist universe that were aggravated by the spread of fascism, and Huxley wasn’t deceived by Ford’s prosperity. Similar to Orwell’s novel,Brave New Worlddemonstrates the division of society on the elite, which consists of 10 Controllers, and the common people.
But different life conditions of George Orwell and Aldous Huxley influenced their presentation of the hereafter universes. While Orwell provides the dark universe with the deficiency of freedom and force, paying much attending to political issues, Huxley creates the Utopian world based on the over-use of engineering and pleasances. The undermentioned subdivision demonstrates that, to some extent, both writers were right in their portraitures of the hereafter, gaining the strength of totalitarian government and the spread of engineering.
4.2.The analysis of George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World
In his celebrated novelNineteen Eighty-fourGeorge Orwell applies to the hereafter, in peculiar, to the period of 1984, portraying a totalitarian society Oceania, which is to the full controlled by the alleged Big Brother. Actually, Orwell portrays three universe powers: Oceania that includes the USA, Latin America and the United Kingdom, Eastasia with such states as Asia, China and the greatest portion of Latin, and eventually Eurasia. In Oceania people are deprived of free thought and freedom, being under the changeless observation of a specific regulating organic structure. Introducing the thought of Thought Crime and the official organ of the Thought Police, the governments prevent any show of free will or trust among citizens. In his essayLiterature and Dictatorship( 1941 ) Orwell ( 1970 [ page 161 ] ) expresses the similar thought, claiming that “we live in an age in which the independent person is discontinuing to be – or possibly one should state, in which the person is discontinuing to hold the semblance of being autonomous” . Harmonizing to Orwell’s point of view, dictatorship is normally identified with such states as Russia or Germany, but in world this political system may be found throughout the universe. Dictatorship threatens the really being of society, as it controls societal and single thought. Therefore, inNineteen Eighty-fourand inLiterature and DictatorshipOrwell raises the issue of brainwashing, an invented political tool, which is utilized to turn people towards a certain way. In fact, the impression of brainwashing appeared after Orwell’s publication ofNineteen Eighty-four( more exactly in 1950 in the USA ) , but as brainwashing is a widely spread phenomenon in the modern universe, this term is utilised in the analysis of Orwell’s novel.
Similar to Orwell’s universe, where Big Brother utilises brainwashing to command people’s heads, many modern-day provinces, such as the USA and Russia, use to brainwashing to accomplish certain intents. For case, brainwashing in these states normally acquires political and spiritual signifiers. As for the latter facet, assorted spiritual cults use brainwashing to alter people’s beliefs. InNineteen Eighty-fourthe author portrays merely political brainwashing, as spiritual cults were non prevailing in Orwell’s times. However, political brainwashing is even more aggravated in the modern universe than in Orwell’s novel. This is particularly obvious in the USA, where the efforts of politicians and mass media are aimed at affecting people into different signifiers of terrorist act. The Bush opinion is normally identified with the military absolutism because of assorted instances of brainwashing. Unfortunately, these sorts of brainwashing are utilised in such a hidden manner that Americans are no longer cognizant of the existent state of affairs in their state. This has a direct analogue to Orwell’s society, but there are some persons in George Orwell’s narrative, like Winston Smith from the Ministry of Truth and Julia, who make efforts to oppose the bing societal system, or, in other words, Ingsoc ( English Socialism ) . Unfortunately, Winston’s efforts are vain, as the character’s battle for freedom eventually destroys him. The bing system absorbs Winston, as Orwell ( 2000 [ page 311 ] ) provinces, “it was alright, everything was all right, the battle was finished. He had won the triumph over himself. He loved Big Brother” .
In fact, the governing Party inNineteen Eighty-fourgreatly depends on such immune persons as Winston and Julia, but these characters are treated as ‘dead’ , because they differ from the remainder of society. Harmonizing to O’Brien, another character of Orwell’s narrative, “we do non let the dead to lift up against us… we do non destruct the heretic… we convert him, we capture his inner head, we reshape him… we make the encephalon perfect before we blow it out” ( Orwell, 2000 [ page 267 ] ) . In other words, the Party both inspires and destroys the immune forces to last. Thus, Winston’s free will is suppressed, and he starts to resemble other citizens of Oceania who obey Big Brother without modesty.
As O’Brien puts it, “The misbeliever, the enemy of society, will ever be at that place, so that he can be defeated and humiliated all over again… This play I have played out with you during seven old ages will be played out over and over once more, coevals after generation” ( Orwell, 2000 [ pages 280-281 ] ) . This destructive societal control is established in modern Germany, which excellently reflects the world of Orwell’s fabricated universe. The procedure of reunion that occurred in 1989 after the autumn of the Berlin Wall resulted non merely in the serious economic prostration, but besides in the formation of the system that began to stamp down any presentation of free will in Germany. Such suppression created a considerable strife between the presented societal image and the bing world. In his workTime Must Have a StopAldous Huxley ( 1998 [ page 3 ] exactly depicts the similar societal world: “And 1000000s hungering, 1000000s frightened, and ill, and anxious… The horror was ever at that place, even when 1 happened to be experiencing good and happy – ever at that place, merely round the corner and behind about every door” .
In the novelAnimal Farm( 1945 ) , which opposes the Stalinist government in the allegorical manner, George Orwell ( 1977 ) creates the correspondent portraiture, showing the loss of freedom and hapless life conditions of animate beings after their rebellion. Overthrowing Farmer Jones, animate beings replace a barbarous leader for even the worse leader Napoleon who establishes the system of panic and brainwashing. Making the important elite, Napoleon ( the incarnation of Stalin ) divides animate beings on higher and lower. Through Squealer, the hog that conducts the propaganda, Orwell uncovers the rules of brainwashing in a totalitarian system. Squealer presents Napoleon as the ultimate maestro of all animate beings, pull offing to carry them that some animate beings are created superior to others. In this respect, Orwell draws a analogue between animate beings and human existences ; this is particularly obvious in the undermentioned transition fromAnimal Farm, “The animals outside looked from hog to adult male, and from adult male to pig, and from hog to adult male once more, but already it was impossible to state which was which” ( Orwell, 1977 [ page 119 ] ) . Simultaneously, the author reveals that any revolution consequences in the alteration of leaders, but non in the betterment of life conditions.
This was merely the instance with the Orange Revolution in Ukraine that occurred in 2004-2005 ; although the Revolution was aimed at replacing the corrupted leader for a just leader, the state of affairs in Ukraine has well aggravated since so. The present opinion organic structure intensifies the differentiation between the elite and the common people, reenforcing poorness and societal dissatisfaction. As a consequence, the acquired freedom appears excessively brief, while the power is wholly corrupted. Nothing has truly changed, as is truthfully shown inAnimal Farm.Furthermore, inNineteen Eighty-fourGeorge Orwell besides demonstrates that the common people, unlike the opinion elite, live in dark topographic points of poorness and societal antipathy. This is particularly true in respect to modern China, where the opinion governments enrich themselves, adhering to communist rules, but the common people undergo poorness because of this corruptness. Such portraiture can be applied non merely to Germany and China, but besides to modern-day Russia and Ukraine, the states of the former U.S.S.R. , where corruptness has acquired so expansive signifiers that it threatens the being of both states. In Russia and Ukraine, similar to Orwell’s Oceania, freedom and free will are limited, although the states adhere to the rules of democracy.
But this democracy is merely an image for European states, while in world their societal systems are really near to the totalitarian government. Mass media and concern in Russia and Ukraine are controlled by the bing authorities organic structure, which conceals the truth and normally provides people with wrong information. Long before Russia and Ukraine’s independency George Orwell explains the grounds and effects of such societal system. InNineteen Eighty-fourthe author points at the fact that any societal decay is the direct consequence of the decay within governmental governments. Making changeless efforts to set up stableness in Oceania, the opinion organic structure creates an semblance for the citizens, as stableness prevents any patterned advance or alteration, both societal and single. Although Large Brother seems to command everything and everybody in Oceania, it is ruined indoors. Orwell’s Great Leader is non merely corrupted, but it besides destroys human values and the kernel of individuality, keeping the ideals of brainwashing and subjugation.
However, as Winston claims in respect to the Party, “I know that you will neglect. There is something in the universe – I don’t cognize, some spirit, some rule – that you will ne’er overcome… The spirit of Man” ( Orwell, 2000 [ page 282 ] ) . It is this peculiar spirit that opposes different facets of the bing societal system, including Newspeak, the linguistic communication spoken in this fabricated state. Actually, the state of affairs with Newspeak is instead controversial and it greatly corresponds with the linguistic communication state of affairs in modern Ukraine. Though in Orwell’s narrative Newspeak “was the official linguistic communication of Oceania… in the twelvemonth 1984 there was non as yet anyone who used Newspeak as his sole agencies of communication” ( 2000 [ page 312 ] ) . As Ukraine acquired independency, Ukrainian became its official linguistic communication, but the bulk of population continued to talk Russian linguistic communication. Nowadays the linguistic communication job in Ukraine becomes the sticking point for many political parties that utilise it for their ain intents. Some parties support the thought of bilingualism, while other political leaders oppose it. But it is obvious that Ukrainian linguistic communication will be a exclusive official linguistic communication every bit long as it is necessary for Ukrainian governments. As Frank Winter ( 1984 [ page 87 ] ) truly claims, “Throughout [Nineteen Eighty-four] , Newspeak is identified with Ingsoc” , and Orwell’s character Winston expresses the same impression, indicating out that “Newspeak is Ingsoc and Ingsoc is Newspeak” ( Orwell, 2000 [ page 55 ] ) .
Therefore, the Party and the linguistic communication are inseparably connected with each other inNineteen Eighty-four; if Newspeak fails to replace the former linguistic communication, so the bing Party will non be recognised as the chief important organic structure in Oceania. Harmonizing to Rai ( 1988 [ page 122 ] ) , “the affair of linguistic communication – “Newspeak” – is cardinal to Orwell’s construct of the smothering dictatorship ofNineteen Eighty-four. Language is one of the cardinal instruments of political domination, the necessary and insidious agencies of the ‘totalitarian’ control of reality” . As a glorious stylist, Orwell expresses his frights of the linguistic communication simplification through the execution of Newspeak. In this respect, mass media in Orwell’s narrative bit by bit eliminates certain words from the use ; it is the purpose of the newsmans to understate the vocabulary, forestalling any spread of thought.
This sort of brainwashing exists in modern media, although in a different mode. For case, mass media in the United States or Russia pay attending to specific words to arouse people’s emotions towards such issues as terrorist act, drugs and cloning, trusting to animate unfastened actions. Newspapers and telecasting may easy divert from the truth or keep contradictory point of views, depending on fortunes. Similarly, the Ministry of Truth inNineteen Eighty-foursubstitutes the true historical portraitures for dishonest records under the force per unit area of Big Brother. Possessing a monopoly on information, the Party establishes its ain history and creates telecasting plans with force and erotica for the remainder of population. As a consequence, people inNineteen Eighty-fourare brought up on the rules of force and hatred ; the execution of ‘hate sessions’ , a specific societal ceremonial, intensifies these negative emotions and at the same time ties human existences with the opinion organic structure. As Mario Varricchio ( 1999 [ page 98 ] ) points out, the media in Orwell’s fresh “perform [ s ] a important political map by forestalling and quashing protest and, more by and large, by conditioning and suppressing oppositional forces in a manner that ominously foreshadows the present” .
Presents, mass media in the United States invariably presents the images of force, negatively act uponing both kids and grownups. On the one manus, such images change people’s heads and coerce them to populate in the illusive universe, as in Orwell’s novel. On the other manus, kids who are brought up on such images suffer from assorted behavioral and psychological upsets that destroy the natural procedure of their development. Today’s world is even more awful than the world portrayed inNineteen Eighty-four; force in the media generates the spread of terrorist act, which, in its bend, acquires a baleful power because of the media. The events of September 11 were utilised by the media to animate people’s hatred and, at the same clip, to warrant farther actions of American authorities against the terrorists. Actually, Bush and his protagonists treat the terrorist onslaughts of September 11 in such controversial ways that it is clear that the US regulating organic structure maintains the rules of doublethink even more than the Party in Orwell’s narrative.
In Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-fourOcenia is in the changeless battle, but this province of war is disguised with the aid of propaganda and false information. Harmonizing to Barnes ( 1980 [ page 142 ] ) , people in Oceania “are efficaciously prevented from larning that the wars are really phoney. To convey about this indispensable misrepresentation of the people requires a enormous development of propaganda, thought-policing, regimentation and mental terrorism” . The USA utilises the similar methods, supplying secret fiscal support for assorted unsafe groups and elect, but making the image of a democratic province that makes everything to get by with the spread of terrorist act. Tariq Ali ( 2002 ) claims that the United States justifies all actions for the protection of democracy in the state, such as American ‘war on terror’ in respect to Iraq and Afghanistan, but this thought of doublethink is really similar to Orwell’s vocalization ‘war is peace’ .
In his novelComing Up for Air( 1939 ) Orwell ( 1977 [ page 149 ] ) reveals non the incubus of war, but the negative effects of war, claiming that “it isn’t the war that affairs, it’s the after-war. The universe we’re traveling down into, the sort of hate-world, slogan-world” . American mass media exaggerates or simplifies the state of affairs with terrorist act, while the state continues to destruct friendly dealingss with other provinces ( North Korea, Syria and Iran ) and set up new dealingss. The battle against al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden was transformed into wars against Afghanistan and Iraq. As a consequence, Orwell’s vision becomes a world ; as the author provinces inComing Up for Air, “…and the crowds of a million people all heartening for the Leader boulder clay they deafen themselves into believing that they truly worship him, and all the clip, underneath, they hate him so that they want to puke” ( Orwell, 1977 [ page 149 ] ) . Therefore, similar toAnimal Farm, Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-fourandComing Up for Airreveal that power is ever corrupted and that any societal system, be it fascism, communism, dictatorship or animalism, is a mere psychotic belief. As Orwell ( 1977 [ page 149 ] ) truly claims inComing Up for Air, “Hitler’s black and Stalin’s white. But it might every bit good be the other manner about, because in the small chap’s mind both Hitler and Stalin are the same. Both average wrenchs and smashed faces” .
InBrave New WorldAldous Huxley besides creates the Utopian universe, where people are deprived of the world. In this respect, Huxley portrays a dystopian society, which is governed by the Controllers and haoma, a specific drug that dispossesses persons of their historical yesteryear, civilization, freedom and thought. Although haoma is implemented to assist people with their emphasiss, it appears to be a psychotic belief, as haoma destroys their lives and their personalities. Huxley’s supporters are someplace between positive and negative emotions, experiencing unusual apathy and the loss of sensitiveness, as they are produced for societal demands, but non for single being. These people do non uncover any involvement or the wish for creativeness ; missing the past and history, the characters can non command their present life or organize their hereafter. Many of them are created as twins and are farther exposed to the method of psychological conditioning that wholly erases their individualism, coercing the characters to keep the illusory ideals. However, Huxley demonstrates that these people do non gain their interior devastation, as they lack the ability to believe, and the Controllers see them as “nice tame animals” ( Huxley, 1998 [ page 236 ] ) .
This is besides a sort of brainwashing ; the Controllers, similar to Orwell’s Big Brother, make people believe in Utopia, using to drugs and conditioning. But unlike Orwell’s narrative, brainwashing is utilised from birth when babes are conditioned to appreciate certain values. From the really first kids are distributed among five societal castes, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Epsilon, and they can non alter their societal position. Actually, they do non desire any alterations, as they are conditioned to experience felicity. Harmonizing to the Controllers’ vision, “You’ve got to take between felicity and what people used to name high art. Actual felicity ever looks pretty seamy in comparing with the overcompensation for misery” ( Huxley, 1998 [ page 221 ] ) . But this point of view is false, because felicity can non be identified with the absence of hurting ; it is the Savage who realises that a individual achieves felicity if he/she has freedom and individualism. Therefore, Huxley presents the scientific and unreal universe, where common people are reduced to nil, as elect governments have all the power in their custodies.
In the essayScience, Liberty and Peace( 1946 ) Huxley points at the fact that the concentration of power in the custodies of some persons who are responsible for scientific development consequences in the formation of societal disparity. This thought is clearly expressed inBrave New World, where every character is someone’s ownership and he/she has neither the ability nor the want to get freedom. Familiarity or solitariness are the misdemeanors of the bing system ; as Fanny Crowne explains, “After all, every one belongs to every one else” ( Huxley, 1998 [ page 43 ] ) . The supporters in Huxley’sBrave New Worldwork and loosen up together, as the Controllers are afraid that solitariness may destruct the psychological conditioning and force people to believe. This is particularly obvious in the conversation between Bernard Marx and one of the Controllers, in which the latter provinces, “I’m non at all pleased with the studies I received of your behavior outside working hours… If I hear once more of any oversight from a proper criterion of childish decorousness, I shall inquire for your transference to Iceland” ( ( Huxley, 1998 [ page 98 ] ) .
In fact, today’s mass media, particularly in the United States, greatly corresponds with haoma and conditioning in Huxley’s narrative. As engineering began to progress, telecasting and computing machines started to command the person’s head, similar to Huxley’s haoma. InBrave New Worldthe Controllers besides utilise the alleged sleep-learning, with the aid of which children’s thought is changed during slumber. As for grownups, haoma and conditioning are aggravated by the publication of specific plants that maintain people in the illusive universe. The Controllers inBrave New World,particularly Mustapha Mond, make everything to forbid the spread of true publications, like the work of Bernard Marx, as they are afraid that such plants will destruct the procedure of conditioning. In modern America the function of the Controller is performed by media, as kid and grownup population is socially conditioned by assorted Television plans and the Internet, which demonstrate assorted illustrations of terrorist act, sexual perversion and drug dependence. Besides, similar to soma, the USA has become obsessed with such anti-depressant drug as Prozac, which creates an semblance of felicity and calm, but the negative effects of these anti-depressants are concealed by the media.
The major purpose of Huxley’s society is ingestion ; this thought is infused in the protagonists’ minds through the specific instructions that are invariably reiterated. The instructions are as follows: “Old apparels are beastly, we ever throw off old apparels. Ending is better than mending, stoping is better than mending, stoping is better…” ( Huxley, 1998 [ page 49 ] ) . Religion in Huxley’s universe is besides based on the rules of ingestion ; in peculiar, it replaces Christ for Ford and the cross for T, one of Ford’s auto theoretical accounts. In these portraitures Aldous Huxley embodies his ain frights of people’s mercenary being, of their compulsion with external facets and their disregard of inner universes, of spiritualty. Picturing this Utopian society, the author implicitly demonstrates that this Utopia may go a world, because in the universe that is excessively preoccupied with philistinism and pleasures people bury their true predestination.
In the United States and Russia the spread of ingestion developed the job of workaholism ; material values became so of import for the bulk of American and Russian population that they bit by bit replaced household life with concern life. The function of household in Huxley’s fabricated society is besides eliminated, but the grounds are different. Making an effort to get by with the job of overpopulation, the Controllers in Huxley’sBrave New Worldprohibit matrimonies and childbearing. Alternatively, kids are produced with the aid of familial technology and are brought up in the conditioning Centres. Such vision demonstrates Huxley’s concern for unmanageable sexual dealingss that normally result in the increased birth rate or abortions. Use of haoma aggravates the devastation of familial dealingss, as people inBrave New Worldrely on the drug instead than on close people. The modern universe besides confronts with the issues of human cloning, abortions and drugs, raising hot arguments among assorted groups of people. As for cloning, Cambell and Wilmut’s successful cloning of Dolly, an grownup sheep, was followed by the first human cloning performed by British scientists from Newcastle University. Actually, these bookmans hope to use the root cells from the ringer for the intervention of such serious unwellnesss as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and palsy.
However, public and media’s attitude to cloning is instead equivocal, and Huxley’sBrave New Worldclearly demonstrates the grounds of people’s anxiousnesss, as human cloning disrupts the natural procedures and destroys familial dealingss. Lee Silver ( 1998 ) , the American professor, considers that Huxley’s universe is nearing and that cloning may supply splendid chances for all human existences. Harmonizing to Silver, in close hereafter it will be possible for rich people to clone their kids, bring forthing a separate category of persons. During his governing President Bill Clinton opposed carnal and human cloning, doing efforts to forbid researches on cloning, but today’s President George Bush seems to back up the issue of cloning. Meanwhile, scientists continue to carry on experiments in private and secret research labs without any societal or governmental control. Under such conditions, the effects of these experiments may be truly destructive. Controversies in respect to such important issues are unacceptable, because they do non work out the state of affairs, but aggravate it.
On the other manus, inBrave New WorldHuxley besides reveals the negative effects of stableness ; as the Controllers acknowledge, “The world’s stable now… [ but people ] are so conditioned that they practically can’t aid behaving as they ought to act. That’s the monetary value we pay for stability” ( Huxley, 1998 [ page 221 ] ) . Huxley’s attitude to stability corresponds with Orwell’s vision, but unlike Orwell’s universe, where the regulating organic structure suppresses all persons, Huxley’s universe preserves some people, the barbarians, who live in specific reserves and who lead a natural being. Although these people lack any engineering, they set up close dealingss and maintain their cultural values. In his last workIsland( 1962 ) Aldous Huxley besides portrays the Utopian universe on the island Pala, but Palanese society well differs from the society portrayed inBrave New World.InIslandthe author maintains the thought of limited industrialization ; though engineering is utilised in Pala for the medical intents, it is restricted in other countries, such as hydroelectricity and armed forces. In this respect, Huxley ( 1968 ) expresses his want for the society, which, on the one manus, is increasingly developed, and, on the other manus, is crude.
While inBrave New Worldhaoma is utilised for conciliation, inIslanddrugs serve for increasing people’s cognition and self hunt. InBrave New Worldthe issue of gender is presented through the conservative position ; this is particularly obvious on the illustration of Savage John who kills himself when he looses virginity. InIslandgender is analysed in a more freely mode ; in Pala sexual dealingss are important for the inner development. InIslandthe societal system corresponds with Plato’s vision of society that has no military, that is why, Pala is alienated from the universe. But this Utopian universe besides has some negative sides ; despite the fact that Pala reflects the combination of Western and Eastern philosophical schools, Huxley clearly demonstrates that world is something more than any doctrine. Palanese society is so haunted with its values and manner of life that it to the full rejects other societies and reveals its implacability towards other faiths.
The conducted research has addressed the issues of province, freedom, apathy and brainwashing in George Orwell’s novelNineteen Eighty-fourand Aldous Huxley’s novelBrave New World.Using to the historical and comparative methods, the paper evaluates the symbolical portraitures of totalitarian systems that are presented through the satirical vision. The findings of the analysis reveal that both literary plants are prophetic in their portraitures of the hereafter societies. Although Huxley and Orwell create different narratives with different historical contexts, their visions of the province parallel the modern societal and political systems in such states as Germany, United States, China, Russia and Ukraine. Huxley’s portraiture of cloned persons corresponds with the recent successful efforts of scientists to clone animate beings and human existences. Besides, the writer’s description of haoma, the narcotic drug, reflects the world of the modern universe, where mass media controls people’s heads in the similar manner. The paper suggests that American and Russian mass media, particularly telecasting and Internet, is the chief tool of societal conditioning. Orwell’s portraiture of head control parallels the job of brainwashing that is particularly aggravated in the United States.
Using to brainwashing, the Bush authorities creates a political system that well resembles the Nazi government and involves Americans into terrorist act. Overall, Aldous Huxley and George Orwell represent dystopian societies, which prohibit any show of freedom, believing, free will and powerful emotions, using such signifiers of influence as brainwashing or drugs to set up the full control over citizens. The dystopian societies in these narratives reveal the possible menace, functioning as a cautiousness against any sorts of the absolute societal control, as was merely the instance with German fascism and Russian totalitarian government in the 20Thursdaycentury. But while Huxley’sBrave New Worlddeficiencies any terrorist disposition, showing the society that is non engaged in any sorts of resistance due to the consequence of haoma and conditioning, Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-fournowadayss a more aggressive universe with resistance, hurting and poorness. The battle is the changeless phenomenon of Orwell’s universe, negatively act uponing economical, societal, cultural and political life of this dystopian society.
6 Suggestions for farther research
Although the research has provided a elaborate analysis of Huxley’sBrave New Worldand Orwell’sNineteen Eighty-Four,pulling a analogue between the modern universe and the universes presented in the novels, the paper has some restrictions. First, the analysis is reduced merely to two writers of the 20Thursdaycenturies who depict the Utopian societies, while farther researches may be aimed at measuring other literary pieces of Utopian and dystopian fiction of the 19Thursday– 20Thursdaycenturies, such asSolarisby Stanislaw Lem and Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. Second, the major emphasis in the research is made onBrave New WorldandNineteen Eighty-four; other plants of Huxley and Orwell are discussed briefly. Therefore, it will be important to broaden the analysis, including all major plants and essays written by the mentioned writers.
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