Medical Test on Kidneys

Topics: KidneyMedicine

1) The functional unit of the kidney is the a- Calyx b- Nephron c- Collecting duct d- Pyramid 2) All of the following are components of the nephron except the: a- Loop of Henle b- Renal corpuscle c- Proximal tubule d- Renal pelvis 3) Plasma proteins are not commonly found in the urine because: a- All proteins are subsequently reabsorbed b- All of the plasma proteins are too large to fit through the filtration slits c- All proteins filtered are subsequently degraded before elimination d- The negative charge of the glomerular filtration membrane repels the plasma proteins ) Just before entering the ureter, urine passes through the: a- Collecting duct b- Renal pelvis c- Urethra d- Major calyx 5) The filtration of the plasma per unit of time is known as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

GFR is directly related to the: a- Perfusion pressure in the glomerular capillaries b- Oncotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries c- Vascular resistance in the glomerular arterioles d- Hydrostatic pressure in the Bowman capsule 6) The descending segment of the loop of henle primarily allows for: a- Sodium secretion – Potassium secretion c- Hydrogen ion secretion d- Water absorption 7) Which of these hormones synthesized and secreted by the kidneys stimulates bone marrow production of red blood cells? a- Creatine b- Aldosterone c- Erythropoietin d- Renin 8) The best clinical measure of renal function is: a- Glomerular filtration rate b- Circulating ADH levels c- Volume of urine output d- Urine- specific gravity 9) Glomerular filtration rate and plasma creatine concentration are ______ related.

a- Directly b- Indirectly c- Inversely d- Not 0) A 25 yr old male has a severe kidney obstruction leading to removal o f the affected kidney, which of the following would be expected to occur? a- Atrophy of the remaining kidney b- Compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining kidney c- Dysplasia in the remaining kidney d- Renal failure 11) A 24 yr old female is diagnosed with renal calculus that is causing obstruction.

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Which of the following symptoms would she most likely experience? a- Anuria b- Hematuria c- Pyuria d- Flank pain 12) A 25 yr old female present with burning urination. She was diagnosed with UTI.

Which of the following organisms is most likely infecting her urinary tract? a- Streptococcus b- Candida albicans c- Chlamydia d- E coli 13) Mechanisms for defense against urinary pathogens in women include: a- The long length of the urethra b- Alkaline Ph of urine c- Secretion of mucus that traps bacteria d- Antimicrobial secretions from the prostate 14) 28 yr female presents with fever,, chills, and flank pain. She is diagnosed with pyelonephritis. Her infection is located in the: a- Bladder b- Renal pelvis c- Renal tubules d- Glomerulus 15) 15 yr old male was diagnosed with pharyngitis. days later he developed acute glomerulonephritis. Which most likely cause of the disease? a- Klebsiella b- HIV c- Genital herpes virus d- Group A B- hemolytic streptococcus 16) 25 yr male was diagnosed with good pasture syndrome. Which of the following mechanism would cause tissue injury? a- Viral infection of the bowman capsule b- Production of the antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane c- Antigen- antibodies complex deposition with complement activation d- Abnormal activation of clotting factors and microclotting in the glomerular 17) 52 yr female is diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome.

Which is the common symptom of this disease? a- Hematuria b- Dysuria c- Oliguria d- Proteinuria 18) 42 yr male is involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he loses a lot of blood. He is in acute renal failure cause by: a- Kidney stones b- Immune complex desposition in the glomerulus c- Inadequate renal blood flow d- Obstruction of the proximal tubule 19) 35 yr female was severely burned and is hospitalized. She is now suffering from the acute tubular necrosis. Which is the most likely diagnosis> a- Prerenal b- Intrarenal c- Extrarenal d- Postrenal 0) 56 yr male presents with flank pain and polyuria. Tests reveal that he has an enlarged prostate. Which type is renal failure most likely to occur? a- Prerenal b- Intrarenal c- Extrarenal d- Postrenal 21) 60 yr male is diagnosed with renal failure. Which of the following lab values would be most consistent with this diagnosis ? a- Elevated plasma creatinine levels b- Decreased plasma potassium levels c- Metabolic alkalosis d- Increased urea clearance 22) A 45 yr old female presents with hypertension, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and anemia. She is diagnosed with chronic renal failure.

Anemia in this patient is caused by: a- RBC being lost in the urine b- Inadequate production of erythropoietin c- Inadequate iron absorption in the gut d- RBC being injured as they pass through the glomerulus. 23) 42 yr female is diagnosed with chronic renal failure. Treatments includes restricting: a- Fats b- Complex carbohydrates c- Proteins d- Sugars 24) Bone fractures are a risk factor in chronic renal failure because: a- Calcium is lost in the urine b- Osteoblasts activity is excessive c- The kidneys fail to activate vitamin D d- Autoantibodies to calcium molecules develop.

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Medical Test on Kidneys. (2018, Nov 21). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/paper-on-test-5/

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