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study Guide

What is mechanical weathering ?
when physical forces break rock into smaller and smaller pieces without changing the rocks mineral composition
What is frost wedging ?
when water freezes and expands it enlarges the cracks after many freeze thaw cycles the rocks break into pieces
when water freezes its volume __
increases
Which of the following is NOT associated with mechanical weathering ?
reactions with oxygen
What is chemical weathering ?
Is the transformation of rock into one or more new compounds
Which of the following is the result of chemical weathering?
a rock that has been changed into one or more new compounds
The atmospheric gas that forms a mild acid when dissolved in water is ?
carbon dioxide
What would cause the inscription on a marble gravestone to become harder and harder to read over time ?
chemical weathering
What climate does chemical weather favor the most ?
warm and wet
What are major components of soil ?
mineral matter,organic matter,water,and air
A soils texture is determined by ?
You use categories of clay,silt,and sand in the soil
The main source of organic matter in soil is ?
Plants
A soil associated with the hot and wet tropics is ?
laterite
Pedalfer soils contain high amounts of ?
iron oxide and aluminum-rich clays
The process responsible for moving material down slope under the influence of gravity is ?
mass movement
What is the force behind mass movement ?
gravity
A mass movement that involves the sudden movement of a block of material along a flat inclined surface is called a ?
rockslides
Which of these factors affects the rate of weathering ?
climate,chemical composition,of the exposed rock,surface area of the exposed rock
Use figure 5-1 to determine what soil is called if it has 20% clay,60% silt,and 20% sand ?
silty loan
What are proportions of clay,silt,and sand shown at point B in figure 5-1 ?
Clay 20%,silt 40%,sand 40%
What are proportions of clay,silt,and sand shown at point A in figure 5-1 ?
clay 60%,silt 20%,sand 20%
What are proportions of clay,silt,and sand shown at point C in figure 5-1 ?
clay 10%,silt 20%,sand 70%
Why can the removal of vegetation trigger mass movements ?
the pant roots bind the soil and regolith roots
In the process of _______,water freezes and expands,enlarging cracks in rocks
frost wedging
A large pile of debris that forms at the base of a slope is called ?
Talus
What is the most important agent of chemical weathering ?
water
What is regolith ?
Layer of rock and mineral fragments which covers nearly all of the Earths land surface
The force that drives mass movements is ?
gravity
What is the content in the soil type Pedocal ?
Abundant calcite or calcium carbonate and are typically light grey-brown
What is the location and content of the soil type Latrite ?
Found in hot wet tropical areas.Iron oxides and aluminum oxides are present
One of the most dramatic triggers of sudden mass movements is an ?
earthquakes
_____the slowest type of mass movements involves the lifting and contracting of soil particles over time ?
Creep
What are the three factors that affect the rate of weathering ?
Mechanical weathering,rock characteristics,and climate
How are soils classified based on texture ?
You use percentages of clay,silt,and sand
Explain the three processes that break rocks into smaller pieces during mechanical weathering ?
Frost wedging,unloading.and biological activity

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