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Sociology Exam One Paper

Words: 3599, Pages: 12

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Socio Economic Status

Parent topic:

The scientific study of social behavior and human groups is known as
A. political science.
B. sociology.
C. psychology.
D. anthropology.
Sociology

Émile Durkheim’s study of suicide related suicide rates to
A. the extent to which people were integrated into the group life of a society.
B. personal depression.
C. climatic conditions such as oppressive heat, heavy rain, and cold winters.
D. personal stress.
The extent to which people were integrated into the group life of a society

The awareness that allows people to comprehend the link between their immediate, personal social settings and the remote, impersonal social world is called
A. the sociological imagination.
B. anthropology.
C. verstehen.
D. a theory.
The sociological imagination

Which aspect of divorce would most likely be of interest to sociologists using the sociological imagination?
A. the structural impact of divorce
B. the average amount of child support payments for dependent children
C. the number of suicides connected to divorce
D. the personal hardships of a man or woman divorcing
The structural impact of divorce

The sociological imagination is an empowering tool because
A. it allows us to look beyond a limited understanding of the world.
B. it helps us to understand why certain people may prefer hip-hop music.
C. it helps open up a different way of understanding other populations in the world.
D. all of these
All of these

The body of knowledge obtained using methods based upon systematic observation is called a (an)
A. theory.
B. ideal type.
C. verstehen.
D. science.
Science

Sociology is considered a science because sociologists
A. engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding.
B. receive government funding for research projects.
C. construct middle-range theories to explain social behavior.
D. teach at respected universities.
Engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding

Sociologists argue that, unlike scientific knowledge, common sense conclusions are
A. not published.
B. not reliable.
C. easily disseminated.
D. not politically correct.
Not reliable

An effective sociological theory may have both explanatory and predictive power.
True or False
True

In The Communist Manifesto, Marx argued that the working class must
A. overthrow the existing class system of capitalist societies.
B. ally with capitalists to build a better world.
C. try to work toward a return to feudalism.
D. ignore all aspects of class divisions.
Overthrow the existing class system of capitalist societies

Sociological studies that focus on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations are defined as:
A. interactionism.
B. dramaturgy.
C. macrosociology.
D. microsociology.
Macrosociology

Which of the following terms is used to describe a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem?
A. social science
B. scientific method
C. value neutrality
D. experiment
Scientific method

Sociologists conduct a “review of the literature” to
A. refine the problem under study.
B. clarify possible techniques to be used in collecting data.
C. eliminate or reduce the number of avoidable mistakes they make.
D. all of these
All of these

Correlations are an indication that causality is always present.
True or False
False

When a researcher collects information about a group through direct involvement and inspection, this is known as
A. a survey.
B. secondary analysis.
C. observation.
D. an experiment.
Observation

A sociologist attends meetings at all the schools and churches in his community over several years, and meets as many residents as he can for the purpose of exploring all facets of the community’s social life. He then compiles a detailed description of the community. He is conducting a (an)
A. ethnography.
B. secondary analysis.
C. quantitative study.
D. content analysis.
Ethnography

A sociologist decides to study the interaction among students in the college’s computer center. When the students realize they are under observation, they become shy and reserved in their interactions. This is an example of
A. the Hawthorne effect.
B. value neutrality.
C. replication.
D. secondary analysis.
The Hawthorne effect

Income, religion, race, gender, and marital status can all be examples of
A. scales.
B. variables.
C. operational definitions.
D. indexes.
Variables

The race of a criminal offender is associated with the frequency with which capital punishment is administered. In this example, capital punishment would be considered the
A. dependent variable.
B. hypothesis.
C. independent variable.
D. index.
Dependent Variable

The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior is known as
A. social structure.
B. culture.
C. socialization.
D. society.
Culture

23. Which of the following is an aspect of culture?
A. using American Sign Language
B. watching the Super Bowl game
C. eating in fast-food restaurants
D. all of these
All of these

A society is
A. the totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior.
B. a fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.
C. the norms, values, and beliefs of a large group of people.
D. all of these
All of these

The tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others is called
A. culture shock.
B. cultural relativism.
C. value stability.
D. ethnocentrism.
Ethnocentrism

A member of a new fundamentalist church believes that she has found the one true way to achieve salvation and members of other religions are pagans and will go directly to hell when they die. This individual is
A. culturally relative.
B. monophobic.
C. ethnocentric.
D. xenocentric.
Ethnocentric

A U.S. sociologist receives a grant to study racial and religious prejudice among the people of Southeast Asia. The sociologist makes a serious and unbiased effort to evaluate the norms, values, and customs of these groups in light of the distinctive cultures of which they are a part. This is an example of
A. ethnocentrism.
B. cultural deconstruction.
C. xenocentrism.
D. cultural relativism.
Cultural relativism

A subculture is
A. a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the larger group.
B. a large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.
C. the totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior.
D. specialized language that is used by members of a group.
a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the larger group.

Armed militia groups, such as the one that was involved in the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, are an example of a A. culture.
B. subculture.
C. counterculture.
D. subculture and counterculture.
Subculture and counterculture

A member of a rural Indian tribe in Central America who is suddenly taken to a large city, such as Mexico City, will probably experience
A. cultural relativity.
B. culture shock.
C. cultural integration.
D. cultural diffusion.
Culture shock

We refer to the gestures, objects, and words that form the basis of human communication as
A. rituals.
B. nonmaterial expression.
C. symbols.
D. nonverbal communication.
Symbols

Norms are
A. rules governing specific behavior.
B. rules deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
C. rules commonly made by a government for the welfare of a society.
D. all of these
rules deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.

Mores are
A. norms governing everyday social behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern.
B. norms that are deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
C. norms that are made by government for society, interpreted by the courts, and backed by the power of the state. D. none of these
norms that are deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.

A worker is frequently late, takes extended “coffee breaks,” and makes numerous mistakes while working on important tasks. As a result of poor performance, the worker is fired. This is an example of
A. cultural diffusion.
B. a sanction.
C. a law.
D. replication.
A sanction

Socialization is the process
A. of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life.
B. whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture.
C. whereby people normally being socialized are at the same time socializing their socializers.
D. of mentally assuming the perspective of another.
whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture.

The analysis of Isabelle and Genie is important because it emphasizes the relevance of
A. twin studies in sociology and psychology.
B. the consistency of the developmental processes.
C. social interaction in human development.
D. the sensorimotor stage of development.
Social interaction in human development

The study of identical twins reveals
A. the dominance of heredity on development.
B. the dominance of environment on development.
C. the interplay of heredity and environment.
D. none of these.
the dominance of heredity on development.

Gender roles are
A. the biologically determined patterns of behavior that are appropriate for males and females.
B. the biological characteristics of males and females such as genital organs, hormones, body hair.
C. expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.
D. universally consistent learned behaviors of males and females.
C

The relative importance of cultural and biological factors in the socialization process is referred to as the debate over A. sociobiology versus biosociology.
B. nature versus nurture.
C. manifest versus latent functions.
D. role versus status.
Nature versus nurture

Which aspect of divorce would most likely be of interest to sociologists using the sociological imagination?
A. the structural impact of divorce
B. the number of suicides connected to divorce
C. the personal hardships of a man or woman divorcing
D. the average amount of child support payments for dependent children
The structural impact of divorce

Sociologists argue that, unlike scientific knowledge, common sense conclusions are
A. easily disseminated.
B. not politically correct.
C. not published.
D. not reliable.
Not reliable

Which sociologist translated the works of Auguste Comte into English and emphasized the impact that the economy, laws, trade, and population could have on contemporary social problems?
A. Talcott Parsons
B. Émile Durkheim
C. Harriet Martineau
D. Jane Addams
Harriet Martineau

An element or a process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability is known as a
A. latent function.
B. conflict function.
C. manifest function.
D. dysfunction.
Dysfunction

Which sociological perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. all of these
Interactionist perspective

Which of the following terms is used to describe a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem?
A. scientific method
B. social science
C. experiment
D. value neutrality
Scientific Method

Sociologists conduct a “review of the literature” to
A. refine the problem under study.
B. clarify possible techniques to be used in collecting data.
C. eliminate or reduce the number of avoidable mistakes they make.
D. all of these
All of these

When a researcher collects information about a group through direct involvement and inspection, this is known as
A. secondary analysis.
B. observation.
C. an experiment.
D. a survey.
An experiment

A sociologist attends meetings at all the schools and churches in his community over several years, and meets as many residents as he can for the purpose of exploring all facets of the community’s social life. He then compiles a detailed description of the community. He is conducting a (an)
A. secondary analysis.
B. content analysis.
C. ethnography.
D. quantitative study.
Ethnography

When a sociologist actually joins a group for a period to get an accurate sense of how it operates, the approach is called
A. face-to-face interview.
B. an experiment.
C. ethnography.
D. participant observation.
Participant Observation

Secondary analysis includes a variety of research techniques that use
A. control groups.
B. questionnaires and interviews.
C. publicly accessible information and data, or data collected by another.
D. participant observation.
Publicly accessible information and data, or data collected by another

“Value neutrality” in social science research was initially called for by
A. Émile Durkheim.
B. William Zellner.
C. Max Weber.
D. W.E.B. Du Bois.
Max Weber

Which sociological perspective would most likely suggest that education is necessary for people to earn more money and advance in society for the purpose of social stability?
A. conflict perspective
B. feminist perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. functionalist perspective
Functionalist perspective

Income, religion, race, gender, and marital status can all be examples of
A. scales.
B. operational definitions.
C. indexes.
D. variables.
Variables

Which of the following can serve as a variable in a study? A. marital status
B. ethnic background
C. age
D. all of these
All of these

The race of a criminal offender is associated with the frequency with which capital punishment is administered. In this example, capital punishment would be considered the
A. hypothesis.
B. dependent variable.
C. independent variable.
D. index.
Dependent Variable

The statement “Women who receive welfare are less likely than other women to have babies” is an example of
A. a hypothesis.
B. an operational definition.
C. causal logic.
D. a research design.
Hypothesis

Observation research is the most common form of _____________ research, which relies on what is seen in the field and in naturalistic settings more than it does on statistical data.
A. experimental
B. qualitative
C. quantitative
D. ethnographic
Ethnographic

The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior is known as
A. society.
B. culture.
C. socialization.
D. social structure.
Culture

General customs and practices that are found in every culture are called
A. cultural integration.
B. cultural universals.
C. cultural diffusion.
D. cultural relativism.
Cultural universals

Which sociological perspective would argue that the most powerful groups and institutions control wealth, property, and the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media?
A. conflict perspective
B. functionalist perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. global perspective
Conflict perspective

A subculture is
A. the totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior.
B. specialized language that is used by members of a group.
C. a large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.
D. a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the larger group.
a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the larger group.

Culture shock is
A. being unaware of the existence of other cultures.
B. the act of viewing people’s behavior from the perspective of one’s own culture.
C. a set of beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.
D. the feeling of surprise that is experienced when people witness cultural practices different from their own.
the feeling of surprise that is experienced when people witness cultural practices different from their own.

An abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture is called
A. language.
B. material culture.
C. sanctions.
D. argot.
Language

Penalties and rewards for conduct relating to a social norm are known as
A. sanctions.
B. mores.
C. folkways.
D. values.
Sanction

An example of a positive, formal sanction is a
A. frown.
B. smile.
C. salary bonus.
D. demotion.

Collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper, as well bad, undesirable, and improper, are known as
A. sanctions.
B. mores.
C. values.
D. folkways.
Value

General customs and practices that are found in every culture are called
A. cultural universals.
B. cultural relativism.
C. cultural integration.
D. cultural diffusion.
Cultural universals

C. Wright Mills advocated the use of the sociological imagination to view divorce in the United States because divorce
A. is a serious personal problem for numerous men and women.
B. is not just an individual’s personal problem but a societal concern.
C. may create emotional scars for divorcees.
D. has been a serious problem throughout history.
Is not just an individual’s personal problem but a societal concern.

Which of the following would be an example of the use of the sociological imagination?
A. a study of an individual’s sleeping patterns
B. an analysis of the content of dreams
C. a study that concentrates on the behavior of people listening to a religious service compared to those listening to a rock concert
D. an analysis of the powers of the President of the U.S. to declare war
A study that concentrates on the behavior of people listening to a religious service compared to those listening to a rock concert

Astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics study various aspects of the physical features of nature and are therefore considered
A. natural sciences.
B. social sciences.
C. typologies.
D. psychological categories.
Natural Sciences

Which of the following academic disciplines is classified as a social science?
A. biology
B. physics
C. anthropology
D. astronomy

The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions is called:
A. Basic sociology
B. Clinical sociology
C. Applied sociology
D. Macrosociology
Applied Sociology

Pure sociology is also known as:
A. Basic sociology
B. Applied sociology
C. Microsociology
D. Macrosociology

Émile Durkheim’s explanation of suicide was scientific because he
A. developed conclusions based on systematic examination of data.
B. carefully studied the personalities of hundreds of suicide victims.
C. worked in a university setting.
D. divided suicide into four distinctive categories.
Developed conclusions based on systematic examination of data.

The discipline of sociology was given its name by the French theorist
A. Émile Durkheim.
B. Auguste Comte.
C. Harriet Martineau.
D. Marcel Marceau.
Auguste Comte

Which early sociologist applied the concept of evolution to societies in order to explain how they change or evolve over time?
A. Émile Durkheim
B. Charles Darwin
C. Harriet Martineau
D. Herbert Spencer
Herbert Spencer

In Karl Marx’s analysis, society was fundamentally divided between
A. men and women who clash in pursuit of their own interests.
B. classes that clash in pursuit of their own class interests.
C. Blacks and Whites who clash in pursuit of their own racial interests.
D. the religious and the nonreligious who clash in pursuit of their own interests.
classes that clash in pursuit of their own class interests

Which of the following sociologists advocated basic research on the lives of Blacks?
A. Robert Merton
B. Jane Addams
C. W.E.B. Du Bois
D. C. Wright Mills
W.E.B. Du Bois

In 1909, W.E.B. Du Bois helped found which of these organizations?
A. Black Panther Party
B. Nation of Islam
C. NAACP
D. Black National Congress
NAACP

Sociological studies that focus on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations are defined as
A. microsociology.
B. interactionism.
C. macrosociology.
D. dramaturgy.
Macrosociology.

A sociologist who studies the impact of the women’s movement on the divorce rate would probably be following which of the following perspectives?
A. Functionalism
B. Interactionism
C. Conflict
D. All of these
Conflict

_______________ stresses the study of small groups and often uses experimental study in laboratories.
A. Microsociology
B. Macrosociology
C. Middle-range sociology
D. Conflict theory
Microsociology

A study of divorce rates among the populations of Canada, England, the U.S., and France is an example of
A. alienation.
B. anomie.
C. microsociology.
D. macrosociology.
Macrosociology.

Which sociological perspective would suggest that if an aspect of social life does not contribute to a society’s stability, then it does not serve a useful function?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. all of these
Functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to argue that the existence of big-city political machines suggests that these political organizations satisfy certain basic social needs?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. global perspective
Functionalist perspective

According to the functionalist perspective, an aspect of social life is passed on from one generation to the next if it A. can be used by one group to subjugate another group.
B. enhances impression management.
C. promotes value consensus among members of a society.
D. is dysfunctional.
Promotes value consensus among members of a society

Which of the following could be a manifest function of colleges?
A. They are a place to meet future husbands or wives.
B. They sometimes fail to teach students how to read or write effectively.
C. They help to maintain the economic status quo in the U.S.
D. They prepare students for post-college careers.
They prepare students for post-college careers.

Children who experience divorce in their family are more likely to experience divorce themselves when they are adults. This is an example of a
A. dysfunction of families.
B. latent function of families.
C. manifest function of families.
D. proactive function of families.
dysfunction of families

Which sociological perspective sees the social world as being in continual struggle?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. global perspective
conflict perspective

Contemporary conflict theorists are concerned with the conflict between
A. women and men.
B. cities and suburbs.
C. Blacks and Whites.
D. all of these
All of these

Which sociological approach focuses on the macrolevel and would tend to view inequality in gender as central to behavior and organization?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. feminist perspective
feminist perspective

Which sociological perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. all of these
interactionist perspective

Which sociological perspective holds the view that people create their social worlds through interaction and manipulation of symbols?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. global
interactionist

Which sociological perspective is most concerned with macrolevel analysis?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. both functionalist and conflict perspectives
both functionalist and conflict perspectives

Which sociological perspective would most likely argue that the social order is based on coercion and exploitation? A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. global perspective
conflict perspective

An American traveling abroad observes locals eating chocolate covered crickets. While she does not partake herself, she does not judge the practice. She is exhibiting:
A. xenocentricism.
B. ethnocentricism.
C. culturally relativisim.
D. monophobicism.
culturally relativisim.

Discovery is
A. the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not previously exist.
B. the process of introducing new elements into a culture.
C. the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.
D. the process by which cultural items spread to different groups.
the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.

Invention is
A. the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not previously exist.
B. the process of introducing new elements into a culture.
C. the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.
D. the process by which a cultural item is spread from group to group or society to society.
The combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not previously exist.

Which sociologist translated the works of Auguste Comte into English and emphasized the impact that the economy, laws, trade, and population could have on contemporary social problems?
A. Émile Durkheim
B. Jane Addams
C. Harriet Martineau
D. Talcott Parsons
Harriet Martineau

About the author

This academic paper is crafted by Mia. She is a nursing student studying at the University of New Hampshire. All the content of this sample reflects her knowledge and personal opinion on Sociology Exam One and can be used only as a source of ideas for writing.

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