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section 6

Cubism
Early twentieth-century art movement begun in Paris, characterized by fragementation of forms into abstract or geometric pattens. Page 265

Expressionism
A style of visual art and literature in Germany and Austria in the early twentieth century. The term is sometimes also applied to music, especially composers of the Second Viennese School (Schoenberg, Berg, Webern). Page 265

Atonality
Total abandonment of tonality (which is centered in a key). Atonal music moves from one level of dissonance to another, without areas of relaxation. Page 265

Serialism
Method of composition in which various musical elements (pitch, rhythm, dynamics, timbre) may be ordered in a fixed series. Page 265

Changing meter
Shifting between meters, sometimes frequently, within a single composition or movement; also shifting meter. Page 266

Polyrhythm
The simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns or meters, common in twentieth-century music and certain African musics. Page 267

Polyharmony
Two or more streams of harmony played against each other, common in twentieth-century music. Page 267

Ragtime
Late nineteenth-century piano style created by African Americans, characterized by highly syncopated melodies; also played in ensemble arrangements. Contributed to early jazz styles. Page 279

Blues
African-American form of secular folk music, related to jazz, that is based on a simple, repetitive poetic-musical structure. Page 279

Blue note
A slight drop of pitch on the third, fifth, or seventh note of the scale, common in blues and jazz. Also bent pitch. Page 279

Chorus
Fairly large group of singers who perform together, usually with several on each part. Also a choral movement of a large-scale work. In jazz, a single statement of the melodic-harmonic pattern. Page 279

Harlem Renaissance
A literary, artistic, and sociological movement in the 1920s and ’30s that highlighted Africa-American contributions to the country’s cultural heritage. Pages 284 and 285

Swing era
The mid-1930s to the mid-1940s, when swing was the most popular music in the United States. Important musicians of the era were Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Benny Goodman. Page 291

Wind band
Instrumental ensemble ranging from forty to eighty members or more, consisting of wind and percussion instruments. Also concert band. Page 295

Mariachi ensemble
Traditional Mexican ensemble popular throughout the country, consisting of trumpets, violins, guitars, and bass guitar. Page 301

Musical
Genre of twentieth-century musical theater, especially popular in the United States and Great Britain; features spoken dialogue and a dramatic plot interspersed with songs, ensemble numbers, and dancing. Page 307

Tone cluster
Highly dissonant combination of pitches sounded simultaneously. Page 315

Microtone
Musical interval smaller than a semitone (half step), prevalent in some non-Western musics and some twentieth-century music. Page 316

Flutter-tonguing
Wind instrument technique in which the player’s tongue is fluttered as though “rolling an R” while he or she blows into the instrument. Page 318

Gamelan
Musical ensemble of Java or Bali, made up of gongs, chimes, metallophones, and drums, among other instruments. Page 316

neo-Romanticism
A contemporary style of music that employs the rich harmonic language and other elements of Romantic and post-Romantic composers. Page 327

Minimalism
Contemporary musical style featuring the repetition of short melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic patterns with little variation. See also post-minimalism and spiritual minimalism. Page 335

Underscoring
A technique used in films in which the music comes from an unseen source. Page 340

Source music
A film technique in which music comes from a logical source within the film and functions as part of the story. Page 340

The Spanish painter who was drawn to the complexity of dreams
Joan Miró

Which of the following was a German Expressionist composer?
Anton Webern

Which of the following was a Spanish surrealist painter?
Joan Miró

Who was the Expressionist artist famous for the painting, The Scream?
Edvard Munch

Which is NOT a musical characteristic of Expressionism?
Select one:
a. instruments used in extreme registers
b. dissonant, hyperexpressive harmony
c. lyrical, conjunct melodic lines
lyrical, conjunct melodic lines

Which of the following characteristics is best associated with neo-Classicism?
Select one:
a. closer link between music and poetry
b. a preference for absolute forms
c. focus on program music
a preference for absolute forms

Which of these artists is famous for his Cubist-style works?
Picasso

Which of the following is an abstract Expressionist painter?
Robert Motherwell

Which of the following postmodernists wrote Beloved.
Toni Morrison

Which movement is known for combining popular and art music styles?
postmodernism

Neoclassical artists and composers looked back to the Romantic era for inspiration.
false

Expressionism was the German reaction to Impressionism.
true

Impressionism as a movement was centered in France.
true

Early twentieth-century styles such as Classicism arose as a reaction to Romaticism.
true

Dadaists rejected the thought that art was something to be revered.
true

Futurists were firm proponents of the established institution.
false

Salvador Dali was a part of the Surrealism movement.
true

German Expressionists, like French Impressionists, explored outdoor natural scenic beauty.
false

German Expressionists explored the outer boundaries of the major-minor system.
true

Neoclassical composers continued the program symphony tradition.
false

The term “modernism” describes a group of stylistic movements in the early twentieth century.
true

Artists in the mid-twentieth century rebelled against the principles of modernism.
true

Frank Gehry’s design for the Walt Disney Concert Hall is a statement against postmodernism.
false

J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter books are considered postmodernist.
true

John Cage is associated with aleatoric music.
true

The term aleatoric refers to an ultrarigid, total serial music.
false

What is the basis of Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring?
scenes of pagan Russia

The ideals of which movement best describes the music of The Rite of Spring?
primitivism

In the creation of The Rite of Spring, Stravinsky worked with other artists from his native country of:
russia

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring?
Select one:
a. polytonality
b. use of chamber orchestra
c. dissonance
use of chamber orchestra

The Firebird, Petrushka, and Rite of Spring are ballets by:
Stravinsky

Where did Stravinsky live in the last years of his life?
the United States of America

Which instrument begins with the melody in the introduction to The Rite of Spring, playing in a high range?
bassoon

Stravinsky’s revitalization of rhythm in The Rite of Spring is best associated with:
primitivism

The premiere of The Rite of Spring was uneventful in Paris.
false

Stravinsky did not include authentic French folk songs in his ballet The Rite of Spring
true

Ballet was favored by aristocratic audiences prior to the nineteenth century.
true

Louix XIV of France had been vehemently opposed to dancing.??
false

The premiere success of the Ballets Russes was largely due to the leadership of Serge Diaghilev.
true

The orchestra that Stravinsky used in The Rite of Spring was remarkably small.
false

The form of the “Dance of the Youths and Maidens” from Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring is a simple minuet form.
false

Billie Holiday’s most famous song was:
Strange Fruit

Which best describes the form of the choruses in Billie’s Blues?
Each chorus is 12 bars long.

Which is NOT true of a typical blues progression?
Select one:
a. It has twelve bars or measures.
b. The number of bars for each section varies.
c. The harmonic pattern is I-IV-I-V-I
The number of bars for each section varies.

Scott Joplin’s rags were most often composed for which instrumentation?
solo piano

Which verse of Billie’s Blues has a typical blues text?
first

Billie Holiday made history when she performed with _______, since blacks and whites were not allowed to perform together on stage at that time.
Benny Goodman

Billie’s Blues consists of an introduction and _______ choruses.
six

The two instrumental solos in Billie’s Blues feature:
clarinet and trumpet

Early jazz developed from a blending of African music with art and popular traditions of the West.
true

Ragtime was originally a piano style that featured highly syncopated melodies.
true

Scott Joplin is considered the March King.
false

A blue note implies a slight drop in pitch on the 3rd, 5th, or 7th scale tone.
true

Louis Armstrong is credited with the invention of scat singing.
true

Scott Joplin is one of the first African American composers to receive wide recognition.
true

Congo Square in New Orleans historically was a place where African American music was experienced.
true

Storytelling was common in the music of black slaves in nineteenth-century America.
true

A chorus in blues usually is usually 19 bars long.
false

Louis Armstrong was a famous New Orleans pianist.
false

Billie Holiday was one of the first African American singers to sing in public with a white orchestra.
true

As a young person, William Grant Still was hired to write arrangements for:
radio and musical theater

Which of these William Grant Still works was in part inspired by the sculpture African Dancer by Richard Barthe?
Select one:
a. Suite for Violin and Piano
b. Darker America
c. Troubled Island
Suite for Violin and Piano

The insistent bass in the last movement of William Grant Still’s Suite for Violin and Piano resembles which jazz piano style?
“stride”

William Grant Still was an important voice for:
the Harlem Renaissance

Which of the following was a noted poet of the Harlem Renaissance?
Langston Hughes

Still’s Suite for Violin and Piano contains how many movements?
three

The third movement of Still’s Suite for Violin and Piano is programmatic and is meant to evoke:
Harlem “street urchins”

African-American composer William Grant Still did not write music that reflected the European art music tradition.
false

William Grant Still was a representative of the Harlem Renaissance movement.
true

William Grant Still’s Afro-American Symphony was the first symphony by an African-American composer to be performed by a major American orchestra.
true

William Grant Still wrote film and TV music as well as operas and symphonies.
true

William Grant Still’s Suite for Violin and Piano has several musical qualities found in the blues.
true

The authors in the journal The New Negro wrote of racial equality and cultural pride in the black community.
true

The third movement of Still’s Suite for Violin and Piano is devoid of syncopation.
false

In the third movement of his Suite for Violin and Piano, Still utilized blues melodic features.
true

Big band jazz is a:
post-World War I large-ensemble style with sections of brass, reeds, and rhythm instruments

Duke Ellington is associated with:
big band jazz

Summertime” is from the Gershwin stage work:
Porgy and Bess

George Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess reflects the music of:
Select one:
a. both a and b
b. folk traditions of the United States
c. European art traditions
both a and b

The opening aria in Porgy and Bess, “Summertime,” evokes:
an African-American spiritual

The tempo of the melody in Gershwin’s “Summertime” is best described as:
vivace

By the turn of the twentieth century, Los Angeles had become the artistic and cultural center of the United States
false

Jazz and ragtime were disseminated in the United States and overseas largely in part because of World War I.
true

Tin Pan Alley was a street where all the composers of ragtime lived.
false

The Wall Street crash of 1929 was the catalyst for the creation of escapist entertainments found in musical theater
true

Gershwin’s works reflect a merger of jazz elements and classical forms.
true

Gershwin is known for his songs that draw on ragtime, blues, and jazz.
true

Irving Berlin was the least successful Tin Pan Alley composer.
false

Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess does not reflect contemporaneous race relations.
false

Leonard Bernstein was inspired to incorporate jazz into his music because of Gershwin’s efforts.
true

Billy the Kid, Rodeo, and Appalachian Spring are ballets suites by:
Aaron Copland

Which is NOT a ballet by Aaron Copland?
Select one:
a. Appalachian Spring
b. Rodeo
c. Fancy Free
Fancy Free

The melody, “Simple Gifts,” heard in Appalachian Spring comes from the ________ tradition.
Shaker

Copland was removed from Eisenhower’s inaugural ceremonies for which reason?
affiliation with the Communist party

Copland often wrote music about which part of the United States?
the Southwest and Mexican border

Where did Copland receive his training in modernist composition?
Paris, France

What is the form of Copland’s Appalachian Spring, Section 7?
rondo

John Philip Sousa is most known for his operatic compositions
false

Brass bands were a means of entertainment in the military.
true

Aaron Copland used early American songs in his work Appalachian Spring.
true

Copland’s ballet Billy the Kid was composed to be a portrayal of urban life.
false

Copland did not cite American folk melodies in his music.
true

Copland collaborated with Martha Graham in his work Appalachian Spring.
true

Simple Gifts is a traditional Roman Catholic chant.
false

Copland refused to write film scores.
false

An early pioneer of Mexican nationalism was:
Diego Rivera

The rhythm of Revueltas’s Homage to Federico García Lorca is characteristic of the Mexican________.
mestizo dance music

The music of Silvestre Revueltas reflects the folk songs of his native:
mexico

The orchestration in Revueltas’s Son emulates the sound of:
Mexican mariachi groups

The man that Revueltas is honoring in Homenaje was a:
Spanish poet killed by the Fascists

From which region of Mexico does the mariachi ensemble originate?
Jalisco

A guitarrón is a:
large guitar

The mariachi ensemble originated in France.
false

Revueltas incorporated mestizo rhythms in his music.
true

Strong feelings of patriotism arose in Mexico after the Revolution in 1910.
true

Carlos Chávez refused to write nationalistic music.
false

The third movement, Son, from Homenaje a Federico García Lorca, is based on a traditional dance form.
true

The third movement, Son, can be described as rondolike with its sectional form.
true

Revueltas’s Homenaje is for a chamber orchestra with piano, winds, strings, and percussion.
true

Silvestre Revueltas and Carlos Chávez were representative of a movement that drew on the popular culture of contemporary Mexico.
true

Revueltas used instrumentation as a means to evoke Mexican folk music.
true

Which is NOT a well-known song from West Side Story?
fernado

The American stage genre from which American musical theater drew inspiration was:
vaudeville

Bernstein’s union of jazz and musical theatre resulted in:
West Side Story

Who wrote the lyrics for the musical West Side Story?
Stephen Sondheim

What is the literary basis for West Side Story?
Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

The Afro-Cuban dance with a fast, syncopated beat, heard in “The Dance at the Gym,” is the:
mambo

Which famous choreographer is responsible for the electrifying dance sequences in West Side Story?
Jerome Robbins

In West Side Story, Tony is:
a former member of the Jets

What is the overall structure of the song Tonight?
A-A-B-A

What gives the dance sequences from West Side Story a Latin-American character?
a. syncopated dance rhythms
b. Latin-American percussion instruments
c. both a and b

Recent trends in musical theatre include shows based on older operas, novels, and dance ensembles with music from popular rock artists.
true

_________ was a popular Jerome Kern musical from the “golden age” of the American musical.
Show Boat

Leonard Bernstein achieved fame as the first American-born conductor of the New York Philharmonic.
true

Bernstein showed no interest in writing film music.
false

Bernstein’s West Side Story shows a real understanding of upstate New York rural life.
false

On West Side Story, Bernstein and Sondheim worked as a composer/lyricist team.
true

Sondheim’s musicals represent a new sophistication in the genre.
True

The literary basis for the musical, Wicked, was:
Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz

Which is a Broadway musical by Rodgers and Hammerstein?
South Pacific

Which is a musical by Stephen Sondheim?
Sweeney Todd

Which is a rock musical based on Puccini’s La boheme?
Rent

Into the Woods was composed by:
Stephen Sondheim

The musical Les Miserables was composed by:
Claude-Michel Schonberg

Cats was composed by:
Andrew Lloyd Webber

Which composer invented new instruments capable of microtonality?
Harry Partch

Who is considered to be the inventor of the prepared piano?
John Cage

Cage’s work Sonatas and Interludes is written for:
prepared piano

The form of Sonata V from Sonatas and Interludes is:
binary, with each section repeated

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Sonata V?
Select one:
a. gonglike timbres
b. improvisation
c. percussive effect
improvisation

The prepared piano called for in Sonatas and Interludes simulates a:
gamelan orchestra

Whose poetry did George Crumb set in his second book of madrigals?
Federico García Lorca

How many books of madrigal sets did George Crumb write?
four

What instruments accompany the voice in Crumb’s Caballito Negro?
metallic percussion and flute

The prevalent rhythm in Crumb’s Caballito Negro is meant to:
emulate the sound of a galloping horse

The harmony in Crumb’s Caballito Negro is primarily:
atonal

For which work did George Crumb win a Pulitzer prize in 1968?
Echoes of Time and the River

The “white tone” singing style in the vocal part of George Crumb’s Ancient Voices of Children is a style in which the singer:
sings without vibrato

Which composer has written several compositions on the poetry of Federico García Lorca?
George Crumb

The gamelan is a traditional orchestra from Japan.
false

The gamelan orchestra is made up largely of percussion instruments.
true

Henry Cowell is known for combining Asian instruments with traditional Western ensembles.
true

One of Henry Cowell’s innovations was the prepared piano.
false

Harry Partch was a serious proponent of microtonal music.
true

John Cage’s Sonatas and Interludes is a work for Javanese gamelan.
false

John Cage’s work 4’33” is known for it’s consonant harmonic writing.
false

John Cage’s work 4’33” challenges the differentiation between music and noise
true

George Crumb is representative of avant-garde composition in the United States
true

In composing, Crumb uses techniques and instruments from various world musics.
true

Which musician is NOT known for performing political music in the 1950s and ’60s?
Elvis Presley

Bob Dylan’s singing voice is best described as:
nasal and raspy

Corigliano’s Mr. Tambourine Man is a song cycle set to the texts of:
Bob Dylan

Corigliano’s Mr. Tambourine Man incorporated all of the following EXCEPT:
Select one:
a. exact quotations of Dylan’s melodies
b. word painting
c. elements of jazz
exact quotations of Dylan’s melodies

Which of the following best describes the form of Corigliano’s Mr. Tambourine Man?
modified verse-chorus

Which term best describes the instrumental accompaniment to Corigliano’s Mr. Tambourine Man?
electric guitar and drum kit

Historically musicians often have referenced the work of other composers in their own works.
true

Bob Dylan’s work has not had an effect on musicians outside of folk music.
false

Dylan’s Mr. Tambourine Man was made famous by the Red Hot Chili Peppers.
false

Laws concerning copyright and unauthorized use of music have become more lenient in the last century.
false

Bob Dylan’s music was known for being irregular and surprising.
true

In his early career Dylan made a name for himself as a writer and singer of protest songs.
true

Throughout his career Bob Dylan refused the use of amplification.
false

John Corigliano won an Academy Award for his film score to The Red Violin.
true

John Corigliano does not explore avant-garde methods in composition such as microtonality in his music.
false

Which of the following is NOT true of Jennifer Higdon’s blue cathedral?
Select one:
a. It contains a melodic dialogue between the flute and clarinet.
b. It features tintinnabulation.
c. It is an abstract work.
It is an abstract work.

All of the following are neo-Romanticists EXCEPT:
Select one:
a. Robert Schumann
b. Bright Sheng
c. Jennifer Higdon
Robert Schumann

Jennifer Higdon credits the music of ______________ for her understanding of music’s communicative powers.
the Beatles

Jennifer Higdon’s blue cathedral is:
a tone poem

Which musical effect in China Dreams is NOT drawn from the composer’s native culture?
juxtaposition of brass and woodwinds

The Chinese instrument, pipa, is:
a 2-stringed fiddle

Higdon’s music is viewed as neo-Romantic because
it is firmly grounded in tonality

In blue cathedral, Higdon incorporates___________, effectively evoking an Asian soundscape.
Chinese reflex balls

Which of the following is NOT true about Bright Sheng’s China Dreams?
Select one:
a. It is a large-scale work in four movements.
b. He utilizes pentatonic scales.
c. He incorporates Chinese folk string instruments.
He incorporates Chinese folk string instruments.

Jennifer Higdon’s title blue cathedral refers to:
Higdon’s younger brother’s name

Nineteenth-century orchestral sound inspired twentieth-century “neo-Romantic” composers.
true

Bright Sheng is a Japanese-American composer.
false

Bright Sheng often blends Eastern and Western cultures in his compositions, as heard in his work, China Dreams.
true

Sheng’s China Dreams uses traditional Chinese instruments.
false

Bright Sheng began his musical studies late in his career.
false

Jennifer Higdon is a notable composer from the United States.
true

Which of the following is NOT true of minimalism?
a. It is often contemplative in tone.
b. It features unwavering tonality.
c. It emphasizes complex structures and harmonies.
It emphasizes complex structures and harmonies.

All of the following are minimalists EXCEPT:
Select one:
a. Jennifer Higdon
b. Steve Reich
c. Terry Riley
Steve Reich

Arvo Pärt is a noted advocate of:____________.
. spiritual minimalism

Arvo Pärt’s Cantate Domino is written for:
chorus and orchestra

The 90-minute masterwork In C was written by minimalist composer:
Terry Riley

Which minimalist composer is noted for his collaborations with actors and popular musicians?
Philip Glass

Arvo Pärt is associated with a style called:
spiritual minimalism.

Pärt’s music is noted for its use of , a sound that emulates ringing of bells.
tintinnabulation

The text in Pärt’s Cantate Domino is in:
latin

Which is NOT true of Pärt’s Cantate Domino?
Select one:
a. Pärt uses traditional musical notation for the score.
b. The text is in Latin.
c. The melodies are conjunct and flowing.
Pärt uses traditional musical notation for the score.

The text for Cantate Domino comes from
the Book of Psalms

Which of the following is NOT true of the vocal style heard in Cantate Domino?
Select one:
a. The harmony is consonant throughout.
b. There is contrary motion between voices.
c. The voices are often paired.
The harmony is consonant throughout.

The composer Arvo Pärt abandoned serialism for a style he developed called:
tintinnabulation

Minimalist music is based on the repetition of melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic patterns.
true

Minimalism embraces the intellectual style of Schoenberg and Webern.
false

Pärt’s music is spiritually motivated.
true

Pärt’s Cantate Domino is an example of a style called spiritual minimalism.
true

The ancient tone of Pärt’s Cantate Domino is created by largely open hollow intervals of thirds and sixths.
false

Minimalists only explored musical ideas from sacred music.
false

All of the following are operas by John Adams EXCEPT:
Select one:
a. Nixon in China
b. Einstein on the Beach
c. The Death of Klinghoffer
Einstein on the Beach

In Doctor Atomic, John Adams drew on texts from the scientists involved in the Manhattan Project, government documents, poetry from John Donne, Baudelaire, and:
sacred Hindu scripture

John Adams’s Doctor Atomic focuses on the conscience of:
physicist Robert Oppenheimer

In Doctor Atomic, the action takes place:
in the Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico

The rhythm in the Act II, scene 3 chorus “At the sight of this” from Doctor Atomic can best be described as:
syncopated

Which of John Adams’s operas have been considered controversial:
Doctor Atomic
b. The Death of Klinghoffer
c. both a and b

In the Act II , Scene 3 chorus “At the sight of this” from Doctor Atomic, the nuclear weapon is compared to:
krishna

Composer John Adams was influenced by rock albums such as Abbey Road and Dark Side of the Moon.
true

John Adams’s Doctor Atomic is based on a comic book hero.
false

Composers of historical operas strive for documentary-style accuracy.
false

John Adams’s Doctor Atomic is the result of collaboration with a playwright/director.
true

John Adams is considered a serialist composer.
false

John Adams fuses elements of minimalism, Neo-Romanticism, and rock music in his compositions.
true

John Adams won a Pulitzer Prize for a work that sets the names of the victims of 9/11.
true

Some of the libretto in Doctor Atomic by John Adams comes from declassified government documents.
true

The most important function of music in film is to:
set the mood

When the mood of the music contradicts what is being shown on the screen, it is called:
running counter to the action

Which of the following movies includes a famously gruesome musical/visual contradiction scene?
The Godfather

Besides setting the mood, film music can also:
a. help establish the characters
b. create a sense of time and place
c. both of the above

The movie __________ is an example of a soundtrack that uses only source music.
Rear Window

Many modern film composers have incorporated _________ in their music, a technique found in concert works by Wagner.
the leitmotif

Which current composer is credited as reviving the grand symphonic film score?
John Williams

In addition to film scores, John Williams has written music for the Olympics and:
Barack Obama’s inauguration

For which classic television series did John Williams write theme music?
Gilligan’s Island

Which is NOT a film score by John Williams?
. The Lord of the Rings

What is the overall form of the Raiders March?
ternary

In the Raiders March, to whom does the first theme relate?
the hero, Indiana Jones

Which best describes the character of the opening theme of Raiders March
strong and disjunct

The composer of the soundtrack for the end of E.T. uses music to establish a sorrowful mood.
true

Source music refers to music that functions as part of the drama itself, such as a character turning on a radio.
true

In the movie Jaws, the shark is represented by a 2-note oscillating motive.
true

Film music is not used to set the emotions of a scene.
false

Running counter to the action is a technique to supply irony in film music.
true

Film music can be used to create a sense of place and time.
true

The vocal music in the 2009 film Avatar is sung in Nahuatl, an Amerindian language.
false

Underscoring in film music refers to music being made on the screen by the characters.
false

Film composers such as John Williams often incorporate the leitmotif idea.
true

James Horner is known for his score for Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone.
false

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