Rocket ISU Lab Report Abstract What are rockets? How did they come to our existence? What are the main principles behind rockets? What is the history of rockets? How is the mass of the rocket related to its Fnet, Acceleration, Max Height, etc. This lab report gives a brief explanation of the physics behind this innovative man-made invention. This lab goes through the basic principles of rocketry. The lab explores how rockets became more sophisticated over the years. This report discusses about the things to keep in mind while building a small and simple rocket.
This report is the best example for a person who is nterested in the field of rocketry. Table of Contents Title Page 1 Table of Contents 2 Principles of Rocketry 3 Rocket Design Strategy .. 7 Purpose 9 Materials 9 Observations … 10 Calculations Trial …. 11 Calculations Trial #2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14 Error ….. 17 …….. 19 Bibliography……………. …. 20 Principles of Rocketry imagine their Joy. However, today, even an infant can fully live by the virtue of advances in aeronautics, man has disproved that sky is the limit.
Rockets and paceships have helped him to redefine the concept of flying. In todays world, the concept of rockets exists because of Sir Isaac Newton, a pioneer in the field of physics whose three laws of motion enabled scientists in todays date to build rockets accurately. In simple words, a rocket is a chamber enclosing a gas under pressure. A balloon is a most common example. Newton’s first law states that, objects at rest will remain at rest and objects in motion will remain in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
To begin with, when the rocket is at rest all the forces are equal. The force of gravity on the rocket equals with that of the pad that is holding on it. While in motion, the rocket unbalances the forces and as a result, it travels upward. Newton’s second law states that, force equals mass times acceleration. The mass of the rocket changes during the flight, since the engine’s energy is being used up rapidly so the rocket weighs less and accelerates. The third law states that, every action has an equal and opposite reaction. As the rocket takes off and releases the gas out, the gas pushes the rocket upwards.
The design of the rocket also plays an important role. To begin with, inertia, the tendency of an object to resist change while in motion is directly connected to the mass of the object. A heavier rocket will have more inertia, because it has more mass. This will in turn give the rocket more resistance. The rocket will be therefore able to surpass the wind. On the other hand, a lighter rocket will have less inertia since the mass of the rocket is less. As a result, rocket will have less resistance and the effect of the wind on the rocket will be great.
Another factor that is associated with the design of the rocket is the center of the mass. The center of the object is the exact point where all of the mass of the rocket is exactly balanced. Everything is made up of matter, regardless of size, mass, or shape has a center of mass. An unstable rocket tumbles around this point. Revolving and sinking takes place around one or more of three axes: roll, pitch, and yaw. Another aspect that is lined with the design of the rocket is the center of pressure. Center of pressure is the location where all the pressure forces acting on a rocket are balanced.
Center of pressure exists only when the rocket is going in the opposite direction to the wind. The center of the pressure is located near the tail and center of mass is located near the nose of the rocket. Todays rockets are an extraordinary work of human beings who have their roots in science and technology of the past. The discovery or the invention of the rocket came in existence way before Newton’s Laws were ever stated. Around 400 B. C. , in southern Italy, Archytas amazed the people of the town by flying a wooden pigeon.
The pigeon used steam as a propulsive gas and used the action-reaction principle, which was not stated as a law until 17th century. rocket as a weapon. They used bamboo tubes filled with gunpowder and tossed them in fire. Soon, they started experimenting and fgured out a way. They used the bamboo tube filled with gunpowder and attached it to an arrow and discovered that these gunpowder tubes could launch themselves Just by the power produced from the escaping gas. This is how they technology of rocket started. As the time passed by, Newton’s theories and his three laws came into existence.
His laws explained that why rockets are able to work in vacuum as well as in the outer space. Soon after that, gas laws were developed. Charles law stated that, at a onstant pressure, the volume of a fixed mass of any gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature. The concept of hot balloons comes from this principle. As the balloon is heated, the volume of the balloon also increases. Since the volume is increases, the density inside the balloon also increases. The density of the air is more than the density of air that is in the balloon.
This is the reason hot balloons were able to fly back in 17th century. During late 1800s and early 1900s, rockets were mainly used as a weapon to be used in the battles. William Congreve, a British Colonel designed various patterns for ockets to be used in warfare. His rockets were so successful that scientists around the around started experimenting on the rockets. William Hale, an English scientist soon came up with an excellent technique known as spin stabilization. This technique made the gases of the rocket to escape from the bottom, thus making it to spin in a bullet like fashion.
Modern rocketry began in 1898, when a Russian schoolteacher named Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, proposed the idea of space exploration. It was also his suggestion of using liquid propellants in the rockets in order to achieve greater range. Since, Tsiolkovsky was the first person to suggest space exploration and the fact that he came up with other ideas and theories in the work of physics, he is known as the father of modern astronautics. Soon after the concept of propellants was introduced, an American, Robert H. Goddard started conducting practical experiments.
He started working with the solid- propellant rockets. Sooner he was convinced that liquid-propellant rockets were better than the solid-propellant rockets. But at time constructing liquid-propellant rockets was much harder, since, fuel and oxygen tanks, various gas chambers and urbines were needed. After so many difficulties and hardships, Goddard was finally able to built a liquid-propellant rocket and achieved a height of 12. 5 meters. His rocket was a pioneer in the rocketry field. Due to his magnificent contributions in the field of rocketry, he is known as the father of modern rocketry.
Later on, during the time of Cold war between the two superpower nations, Unites States and Soviet Union, they entered the space fght. Soviet Union was able to put a stop on America by launching the first satellite in the world called “Sputnik” on October 4th, 1957. After a few months, on January 31st 1958, United States launched their own satellite called Explorer l. Around that time, America organized their space program by creating NASA. It became a space agency with the intensions of exploring space for the betterment of humans. ountries. Space exploration became more advanced and rapidly increased after 1980. In 1981, Robert Crippen and John Young rotated around the Earth 36 times in a total of 54 hours. In 1983, Pioneer 10 (USA) crossed the orbit of the outermost planet, Neptune. In 1985, first satellite landed on the surface of a comet. To conclude with, in odays date, rockets are complicated structure that can go far and beyond human imaginations. The technology to build a rocket always existed, it was Just a matter of time when Archytas came up with idea.
In todays date, rockets have reached a height of accuracy and this is because of Sir Isaac Newton. His laws and theories have helped the engineers to build marvelous rockets that can not only go outside the earth’s atmosphere but can also reach even the farthest planets that exist. Rocket Design Strategy While designing a rocket four main things are kept in mind, the nose cone, the fins, a arachute, and mass of the rocket. These four things are the building blocks of a rocket. Therefore, to achieve the maximum height possible, these things are the first ones that are kept in consideration.
Nose cones can be engineered in three different shapes. They are either: parabolic, ogive or conical. They all one thing in common, they all have pointed peaks. The reason they have pointed nose is the basic physics fundamentals of aerodynamics. Parabolic shape nose cones are the best to use. The parabolic shape cone is pointy at the top and gets wider like triangle. When air ushes the rocket down, the cone shape affects the rocket the most. Since, parabolic shape advantages the rocket because all the air that strikes the rocket is slanted through the pointy peak and that pyramid shape.
If the nose cone is flat it will conduct huge amount of drag or air resistance. Drag means the force of friction that is pulling the rocket downwards. To avoid this frictional force, the thrust of the engine should be more than the drag that is acting on the rocket. Nose cones are not the only thing that is important while constructing a rocket. The length of the rocket lso plays a huge role. If the length of the rocket is too long then the cones will be useless. On the other hand, if the length of the rocket is too small that will also not benefit the rocket.
The length of the rocket should be ideal and circumstances should be taken in consideration. The reason behind the structure of the nose cone is cylindrical in shape is because that way the friction that is caused on the rocket by the wind will be reduced. Another part that helps the rocket to stay stable is the fins. Without the fins rocket will not go upwards properly and will not be able to fly. Fins are designed in order to itself up while still in motion. This theory can be proved by Newton’s third law of motion, which states that, every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
In this case, the drag and gravity are pulling the rocket downwards and the fins are pushing it upwards. Several fins follow the same design structure. They are wider at the top and pointier at the bottom. The reason they are more sharp at the bottom is so that they can cut through the air while they are still in the motion. There are mainly four fin shapes: square, trapezoid, triangle, and epsilon. Triangular or and epsilon fin would be ideal for a rocket since it create less drag. Furthermore, a parachute is needed to land the rocket safely.
However, adding a parachute to the rocket adds more mass, which will eventually affect the rocket to reach the maximum height possible. Therefore, keeping the rocket light weighted in the beginning and keeping in consideration about the mass at all times does not affects the rocket later on . The reason mass is kept into consideration is because as the mass of the rocket increases the gravitational force acting on it also increases, Fg = mg. In addition to that, another thing to keep in consideration while building a rocket is that it should survive the harshest and most extreme conditions possible.
Keeping the rocket fireproof, by adding a piece of tissue between the parachute and the engine would stop the heat from the engine to reach to the parachute when the rocket is still in motion. To conclude with, rockets are really hard to engineer as each concept is kept in mind while constructing them. Every little thing attached to a rocket affects it directly or indirectly. When rockets are in space, anything can go wrong, so the engineers lways have a backup safety plan for the astronaut’s safety.
A rocket engineer is one of the hardest professions, since so many factors are kept in consideration and much thinking is required. Purpose This lab had various purposes. However, the main reason we did this lab was to achieve the maximum height possible with limited material provided. Another purpose of this investigation was to apply our knowledge regarding Newton’s three laws of motion since the amount of air resistance was present. An additional purpose would be to determine the relationship between the mass of the rocket to ts: Acceleration, Ek, Eg, Fg, Fnet, etc.
Another reason this lab was conducted was to observe, how things are affected on this planet while they are still in motion and are above earth’s surface. The overall purpose of this lab was to combine all the knowledge from the previous units and to build a rocket that could reach maximum height possible. Materials Material needed to construct rocket: 1 Main Body Tube 1 Balsa Wood 1 Engine Tube 2 Engine Center Rings 1 Engine Thrust Ring 1 Parachute sheet 6 Parachute Reinforcement Rings 1 Shock Cord 1 Launch Lug 1 Metal Engine Hook
Super Glue/ Carpenter’s glue Ruler Scissors Sandpaper Decoration Utensils Shock Cord Mount For launching the rocket: Launch Pad Igniters B 6-4 Engine Recovery Wadding (1-4) Observations: Trial Mass (full) Mass (empty) Mass (average) Angles of Inclination Time Average Height of Inclinometer Readers Rocket Mass + Full Engine Mass; 0. 0499kg + 0. 01748kg = 0. 06738kg Rocket Mass + Empty Engine Mass; 0. 0499kg + 0. 009747kg = 0. 059647kg Massl + Mass2/2; 0. 06738 + 0. 059647 / 2 -0. 0635135kg The angles were: 590 & 540 The time was: 3. 06 seconds 1. 75 1. 73m 12=1. 74 rn
Rocket Mass + Full Engine Mass; 0. 0499kg + 0. 01748kg = 0. 06738kg Rocket Mass + The angles were: 560 & 600 The time was: 3. 59 seconds Calculations 1. Maximum Height Using Trig Ratios: For left triangle, tan 59 = P 50 P-83. 21 m Therefore, the height of the left triangle = 83. 21 +1. 75 = 84. 96 m For right Triangle, Tan 54 = p P = 68. 82 m Therefore, the height of the right triangle = 68. 82 + 1. 73 = 70. 55 m Using the formula provided: H = c sin Asin B sin C H = (Sin 59) (stn54) 67 75. 34 m Therefore, the height of the triangle Average of all three heights: 83. 21 +68. 82 + 77. 3 = 76. 37 m 2. Fg (Force of Gravity) = 75. 34 + 1. 74 = 77. 08m Mass of 1 full engine: 17. 48g = 0. 01748kg Mass of 1 empty engine: 9. 747g = 0. 009747kg Mass of rocket: 49. 9g = 0. 0499kg Fg(full engine) = mg = (0. 04999 + 0. 01748) (9. 8) = 0. 660324 N Fg(empty engine) = mg = 0. 5845406 N Fg(average) – 2 Fg(full engine) + Fg(empty engine) Fqaverage) = 0. 660324 +0. 5845406 Fqaverage) = 0. 6224323 N 3. Force of thrust of engine: The thrust of the engine is 6 N, according to Estes: (graph shown): 4. Acceleration: Ad = At + h aav (At)2 (3. 061) + h (aav) (3. 061)2 152. 74 = 9. 9721 aav Fnet (Resultant Force): Mup = 0. 0499kg + 0. 01748kg Mdown = 0. 0499kg + 0. 009747kg Mdown = 0. 059647kg Mass(average) = 0. 06738 + 0. 059647 Mass(average) = 0. 0635135kg Fnet = ma Fnet= 1. 036 N 6. Force of Friction: Fnet = (Fg + Ff) 1. 036 = 6 – (0. 6224323+ Ff) 1. 036 = 6 – 0. 6224323- Ff Ff=6 – 0. 6224323- 1. 036 4. 3415677 N 7. Gravitational Potential Energy: Eg = mgh 76. 37 = (0) 76. 37 = h aav (9. 369721) aav= 16. 31 mm 5. Mup = 0. 06738kg Fnet = (0. 0635135) (16. 31) Eg = (0. 0635135) (9. 8) (76. 37) 8. Kinetic Energy: Vf2 = + 2aav Ad Vf2 = + 2(16. 31) (76. 37)
Vf2 = 2491. 1894 Vf=49. 91 rms h mv2 Ek = h (0. 0635135) (49. 91)2 Ek=79. 112J 9. Maximum Velocity: h rnv2 mgh = h mv2 vmax = vmax = 27. 36 m/s tan 56 = p P=74. 13rn = 74. 13+ 1. 75 = 75. 88 m tan 60 = p P = 86. 60 m = 86. 60+ 1. 73 = 88. 33 m sin 64 79. 88 m = 79. 88+ 1. 74 = 81 . 62 75. 88+ 88. 33 + 81 . 62 = 81. 94 m = (0. 0499 + 0. 009747) (9. 8) Fg(average) = Fg(full engine) + Fg(empty engine) Fg(average) = 0. 660324 +0. 5845406 (3. 5913) + h (aav) (3. 5913)2 163. 88 = 12. 89743aav 5. Fnet (Resultant Force): 81. 94 = (0) 81. 94 = h aav (12. 89743) aav = 12. 7064 mm = 0. 06738kg Mup