?This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies which the researchers found relevant to their study. Review of related literature and studies gives an overview of the past learning connected to the current field of study. Giving a summarization on previous studies that have a relative connection with student’s efficacy in living independently and level of parental dependence. Related Literature Self-efficacy is the belief in oneself that succeeding in any task possible (Bandura, 1994; Akhtar, 2008). Self-efficacy theory, also convey that these efficacy beliefs play a crucial role in psychological adjustments and problems, in physical health, also in professional and self-guided behavioral changes (Maddux, 2005). Bandura (1986,1994) stated that self-efficacy came from four sources the mastery experiences which means successes creates a strong belief in one’s capabilities and abilities while failures weaken those beliefs; the second one is the vicarious experiences made by social models, an observation on people seen as a role model. The given efforts by the role models produces a strong belief to the observers that they are also capable of achieving success when they found similarities of belief in these idols this finding is supported by Schunk (1989) saying others that have similarity to you offer the best basis for comparison; another is verbal persuasion or also known as social persuasion, it is a way of strengthening a person’s belief that he is capable to succeed especially when people who 14 give word of encouragements like ‘you can do it’ came from people who have a big impact on that person like teachers, parent, and friends, words alone make a big influence on a person’s life; lastly is a person’s emotional and physiological states, this is a way of modifying self-beliefs of efficacy by reducing a person’s stress reactions and turning negativity into positive emotions because it is believed t…
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