Acknowledgements We would like to thank the all people who assisted us in the preparation of this report especially to our lecturer Puan Noor Aishah Mohamad Hamdan. 1. 0 INTRODUCTION According to Malaysian Investment Development Authority (MIDA), government policies that maintain a business environment with opportunities for growth and profits have made Malaysia an attractive manufacturing and export base in the region. The private sector in Malaysia has become partners with the public sector in achieving the nation’s development objectives.
Over the decades, the Government of Malaysia has effectively used the fiscal policy through tax measures and allocation of operating and development expenditures to attained a broad range of macroeconomic objectives such as growth & equity, macroeconomic stability, reform & restructuring such as tax incentives to facilitate reform and structuring of economy, sectored and regional development such as tax incentives and expenditure directed experienced difficulties in balancing its budget. Therefore in this recent year, Malaysia has becoming run deficit budgets.
The slow growth or decline of several sources of revenue has given pause for reflection on the approach to fiscal anagement. The key to fiscal flexibility is to ensure that the mandatory spending and the size the government is not too large, the fiscal deficit is not structural and public debt level not excessively high. 1. 1 Backgrounds Construction Economics Ill is aimed to provide an in-depth study of development economics including investment market and property development, preparation of feasibility studies, financing and risk and uncertainty of development works and the influence of government policies on such works. . 2 Purpose The purpose of this report is to study and understand the relationship between overnment policies and investment market, to investigate the effects of government policies to investment market and to forecast possible changes of investor’s decision in property market. It is hoped that with more discussion in this report, it will increase the level of understanding about property investment market. 1. 3 Scope The study for this report focused on the impact of the increase of the oil price in Malaysia on 2nd September 2013 towards property investment market.
The policies related to government expenditure and their effects to investment market in general will be discussed. Besides, the importance of these policies in relation to investment market and their influences on investors’ decision especially in property investment will be included. 1. 4 Methodology The data from various sources will analyse. The budget 2014 will be main sources to analyse new policy. On 2nd September 2013, Prime Minister Datuk Seri NaJib Tun Razak announced the Government’s decision to increase the price of RON95 and diesel by 20 sen to RM2. 0 and RM2 per litre, respectively, effective on 3rd September 2013, as one of its measures to rationalise subsidies. It expects to save RMI . 1 bil this year from September to December and RM3. bil per year in subsidy bills from the exercise, helping to tame the fiscal deficit. The Government has targeted to reduce budget deficit to 4% this year, 3. 5% in 2014 and 3% by 2015. This report will analyse the effect of government policy including reducing in fuel subsidy towards investment market especially property. 3. 0 FINDINGS 3. 1 INTRODUCTION OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES 3. 1. Fiscal policy Fiscal policy is the government’s steps to change the government spending and structure of taxation to influence the level of aggregate spending in the economy. Fiscal policies seeks to reach full employment level and to control inflation. There are three major ways in which fiscal policy affects aggregate demand: Business Tax Policy – Business taxes can change the profitability of businesses and the amount of business investment. Lowering business taxes will increase aggregate demand and business investment spending. Government Spending – Government can directly increase aggregate demand by increasing its spending.
Tax Policy for Individuals – Lowering taxes will increase disposable personal income and increase consumption spending. Fiscal policy should be used to increase aggregate demand when an economy is operating at below full-employment levels. If aggregate demand exceeds aggregate supply and output is at full-employment levels, fiscal policy should be used 2013 continues to focus on sustaining the growth momentum of the domestic economy in the near term and facilitating the long-terms transformation of the economy, while ensuring the sustainability of public finances.
The Federal Government fiscal deficit is expected to reduce from 4% of GDP in 2013 to 3% in 201 5 and balanced budget on 2020. To ensure the efficient use of fiscal resources, the 2013 Budget continues to focus on enhancing the productive capacity of the domestic economy. Besides, subsidies have been restructured and only low income earner will get it. Therefore, the low income group who is most affected due to rising oil prices, government will give financial assistance through BRI M. 3. 1. Monetary Policy Monetary policy is government policy carried out by the Central Bank to control money supply and interest rates to affect the level of aggregate expenditure to reach level of full employment and controlling inflation. During the inflation problem, government will transact contractionary policy. It is a macroeconomic tool use by the central bank to slow down an economy. Contractionary policies are enacted by a government to reduce the money supply and maximise the spending in a country. This is done primarily through: 1.
Increasing interest rates 2. Increasing reserve requirements 3. Reducing the money supply, directly or indirectly This tool is used during high-growth periods of the business cycle, but does not have an immediate effect. During deflation problem, the government will implement expansionary policies that is increase the government spending and reduce tax rate to increase aggregate spending to combat unemployment. According to Bank Negara Malaysia, monetary policy in 2013 focus on addressing potential risks to inflation and growth.
During the 2013, private investment is likely to remain firm, led by continued capital spending in the domestic-oriented sectors, the ongoing implementation of infrastructure projects, and a gradual improvement in external demand. 3. 1. 3 Other regulatory policies 3. 1. 3. 1 sales Tax In general, the sales tax rate is a tax charged to consumers based on the purchase price of certain goods and services, applied to sales of locally manufactured taxable goods as well as to taxable goods imported for domestic consumption.
It is imposed by the government at the point of sale on retail goods and services. Collected by the retailer and passed on to the state. It is based on a percentage of the selling prices of the goods and services and set by the state. All taxable goods manufactured in, or imported into, Malaysia are subject to sales tax, unless they are specifically exempted Labuan, Langkawi, Tioman, the (Inter-Country) Joint Development Area, free zones, licensed warehouses or licensed manufacturing warehouses.
The rates of sales tax are 5% and 10%. The 10% rate applies to most taxable goods. The reduced rate of 5% pplies to certain nonessential goods which include, among others, foodstuffs and building materials. Specific rates are imposed on certain petroleum products. 3. 1. 3. 2 Service Tax. Service tax is a single-stage tax applied to specified taxable services. Services that are not included in the prescribed list are not taxable. Nine major groupings of taxable services are currently included in the prescribed list.
Taxable services include, but are not limited to, telecommunication services, employment services, consultancy services, management services, legal services, accounting services, advertising ervices, engineering services, surveying services, architectural services, insurance services and car hire services. Service tax does not apply in Labuan, Langkawi, Tioman, the (Inter-Country) Joint Development Area and free zones. Service tax is imposed at a rate of 6% on the price, charge or premium for the taxable service.
Accounting, engineering, legal, architectural, surveying, management and consultancy services provided by one company to another company within the same commercial group are not subject to service tax if certain conditions are satisfied. 3. 1. 3. 3 Goods and service Tax (6ST) Malaysia plans to carry out a major indirect tax reform. It is proposed that a new Goods and Services Tax (6ST) system replace the current sales tax and service tax system. It appears that the new Malaysian GST will operate similarly to other value- added tax (VAT) and GST systems around the world.
It is proposed that the standard GST rate will be 6% and that a zero rate will apply to exports and some goods, such as basic foodstuffs. GST exempt status is expected to apply to most financial services, including Islamic financial products, life insurance and investment linked insurance, he lease, rental or sale of residential real estate, mass domestic public education services and health services. As a result, no output tax will apply and correspondingly, no entitlement to input tax will exist. The Malaysia government announced the date of implementation of the GST is on 1 April 2015. . 1. 3. 4 Real property Gams Tax (RPGT) Real Property Gains Tax (RPGT) is a tax levied by the Inland Revenue Board (IRB) on chargeable gains derived from the disposal of real property. RPGT is introduced to provide imposition, assessment and collection of tax on gain deriving from the disposal of real property. The tax is levied on the gains made from the difference between the disposal price and acquisition price. This tax is provided in the Real Property Gains Tax Act 1976 replaced the Land Speculation Tax Act 1974.
Real property being disposed is knows as chargeable asset. Chargeable asset may vary into two, the real property and Real Property Company. Real property is defined as any land in Malaysia and any option, interest or other right over that piece of land. Example land, houses such as bungalow, apartment, condominiums, etc. A real property company (RPC) is a controlled company which owns real property or shares r both whereby the defined value of real property or shares or both owned is at least 75% of the value of the companies’ total tangible assets.
RPGT Rates Companies Individual (Citezen / PR) Individual (Non – Citizen) For disposals within 3 years For disposals in the 4rd years For disposal after 5th yeard For disposals after 6th year 5% Table 1 : Rate of RGPT During the tabling of the Budget 2014, the real property gain tax (RPGT) is 30% for any property held and disposed within 3 years. For properties held and disposed in the 4 years and 5 years, the property tax is 20% and 15% each, while properties held nd disposed after 6 years are not subject to any real property gain tax. The Star 2013) For non-citizens, NaJib said RPGT would imposed at 30% on the gains from properties disposed within the holding period of up to five years, and disposals in the sixth and subsequent years, RPGT is imposed at 5%. 3. 1. 3. 5 Affordable Housing KUALA LUMPUR: The Government allocated RMI . 9bil this year to build 123,000 affordable homes in strategic locations throughout the country by 1 Malaysia People’s Housing (PRI MA), Syarikat Perumahan Negara Berhad (SPNB) and the National Housing Department.
The Finance Ministry, in its Economic Report 2013/2014 released Friday, said RM500mil was allocated to PRI MA to build 50,000 homes in prime locations across the country and another RM300mil to build 30,000 homes in collaboration with private developers. A total of 320,000 people will own their own homes under the affordable housing programme, when the homes costing between RMIOO,OOO and RM400,OOO per unit are expected to be completed in 2016. PRI MA homes, which are generally 20% cheaper than the current market price, are sold through an open balloting system and are expected to be ready in three years.
For ow-income earners, the government has allocated RM320mil to SPNB to build 22,855 housing projects, to be completed in 2015. Meanwhile, the Government also allocated RM543mil to the National Housing Department to construct 20,454 unit of People’s Housing Programme (PPR) units using the Industrialised Building System sources : The star 25/10/2013 During the tabling of the Budget 2014, Prime Minister announce that RM 1. 9 billion will be fund to build 123,000 affordable homes throughout PRI MA, SPNB and Naional Housing Department.
Allocation are as follow: PRI MA – RM 500 million to build 50,000 homes in prime locations RM 300 million to build 30, 000 homes via private developers SPNB – RM320 million to build 1,855 medium-cost apartment units and 10, 000 units of public housing projects for low-income earners. National Housing Department – RM 543 million to construct 20,454 unit of People’s Housing Programme (PPR) units using the Industrialised Building System. 3. 1. 3. 6 Skim Rumah Pertamaku (SRP) My First Home Scheme was first announced in the 2011 Budget by the Malaysian Government to assist young adults who have Just Joined the workforce to own their first home.
The Scheme allows young adults to obtain 100% financing from financial nstitutions, enabling them to own their 1st home without the need to pay a 10% downpayment. In 2013 Budget, it was announced that the gross income limit was increased from RM3,OOO to RM5,OOO per month and certain qualifying criteria were abolished with effect from 1st January 2013. 3. 1. 3. 7 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) FDI can be define as a company from one country making a physical investment in building a factory in another country .. It is the establishment of an enterprise by a foreigner. Malaysia has been an encouraging economy to foreign investors.
This is because as a developing country, it is help in boosting the economy. Example of policy to encourage FDI, government take no tax up to 10 years who invest in Joint Development Area such as Iskandar Regional Development Authority. 3. 2 EXPLANATION ON CURRENT ECONOMY SCENARIO THAT LEAD TO THE REASONS 3. 2. 1 Budget Deficit Figure 1. 1 : Malaysia Government Budget Figure 1. 1 shows the percentage of budget deficit from year 2004 to 2013. It can be seen that the Government Budget deficit in 2012 is 4. 8 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Central Bank of Malaysia forecasted that budget deficit in 2013 will be 4. %. Thus, the average of budget deficit from 2004 to 2013 is 4. 6%. Figure 1. 2 : Federal Government Finance Figure 1. 2 tabulate the Federal Government Finance from 2009 to 2013. It can be seen that revenue for 2013 is RM 208,650 million and total expenditure is RM 248,643 million. So, the deficit is RM 39,993 million or 4% of GDP. Government Budget is an accounting of income receive by government and the expenditure made by government. A budget deficit occurs when the government spend more money than income. It is recommended that government should reduce deficit maximum to 3%.
High percentage of deficit in many years will cause interest rate increase as well as total debt and as a result economies will slowdown. So that, to decrease budget deficit the government should increase income or decrease expenditure or both. However, in this situation, the government choose to decrease expenditure for example by cutting fuel subsidies as much as 20 cents per litre. As Prime Minister Datuk Seri NaJib Razak said: “It’s a process of fiscal consolidation. The market will feel more confident if we can bring down our fiscal deficit. ” (BBC 2013) The government has allocated RM24. billion this year for fuel subsidies and the Prime Minister has said the country would save RMI . 1 billion with the cutting fuel subsidy. Before that, the government has requested for an extra RM 14. 1 billion to cover unplanned overspending for year 2013. ( L. Kong 2013) It can be concluded that the most factor of increase in fuel price is government policy to reduce deficit. Figure 2 : Malaysia Government Debt To GDP Figure 2 shows the percentage of Malaysia Government Debt to GDP from year 2004 to 2013. Malaysia recorded a Government Debt to GDP of 53. 10 percent of the countrys GDP in 2013.
It can be seen that the percentage is rose more than 50% since 2010 and remain until 2013. Basically, Government debt is the money owed by the central government to its creditors. Similar with citizen expense, increase in government debt will cause more budget deficit and lead to slowdown of economy if continued. Generally, investors use Government debt as a percent of GDP to measure a country ability to make future payments on its debt, thus affecting the country borrowing costs and government bond yields. If this situation continued, it gives negative view towards Malaysia economy and foreign investor will not invest here.
According to an economy analysts credited by the London Times for predicting the global financial crisis, Colombo, said that “After Sri Lanka, Malaysia now has the 2nd ighest public debt-to-GDP ratio among 13 emerging Asian countries”, he also noted that Malaysia’s high government and household debt is contributing to the credit bubble. So that, to overcome this matter Government reduce fuel subsidy to attract back foreign investor to invest in our country. ( Sinar Harlan 2013 ) It can be concluded that the Malaysia Government Debt to GDP continue alarming is influence government policy to reduce fuel subsidy. . 2. 3 Defending Ringgit Figure 3: The value of ringgit from 30 Nov, 2012 to 25 Oct, 2013. Figure 3 show the trend of USDMYR spot exchange rate from 30 November 2012 to 25 October 2013. On 25 October 2013, the USD exchange rate for the MYR stands at 3. 14. According to Bank Negara Malaysia governor Tan Sri Dr Zeti Akhtar Aziz, as a result in unstable international financial market, the Ringgit has fallen about 4 percent this year. She also reported to the Bloomberg that Bank Negara will only intervene to ‘maintain important market conditions’ and not to defend the currency at any particular level.
It seem that, this statement seen to convince the foreign investor and strengthened the export market. ( Business Time 2013 ) As a result, after a week cutting fuel subsidy, the Ringgit advanced 0. 29 percent to 3. 2645. This is strongest value after hitting 3. 2590 on 13 August. Besides, Ringgit reported may gain over time if the nation’s fundamentals remain strong and predicted faster economic expansion attempt by the government to increase investor confidence and persuade them to leave their money in the country.
In conclusion, cutting fuel subsidy is contributed toward Ringgit stability. 3. 2. 4 Inflation rate is under control Figure 4: Malaysia Inflation Rate from November 2011 – September 2013 Figure 4 show the Malaysia Inflation Rate from November 2011 – September 2013. The inflation rate in early 2013 is around 1 percent to 2 percent. Effect of price increase in food and non-alcoholic beverages, rate of inflation slightly increased to 2 percent and slightly decelerated to 1. 9 percent in August, as food price slowed.
After the government cut fuel subsidy on the September 2013, the inflation rate accelerated to 2. 6 percent, its highest rate since January 2012. According to Joana Taborda an economy analyst, the main contributor of inflation rate in September are increase in price of transport ( up by 4. 6 percent, from 0. 6 percent in August), food price (up by 3. 9 percent, from 3. 6 percent in August), and cost of alcohol and tobacco (rose 4. 5 percent). She reported, cost of housing, water, electricity and other fuels remained unchanged at 1. 8 percent.
It can be seen cut in fuel subsidy had affected price of transport and food, while alcohol and tobacco affected by increase in that rate of that categories. Besides that, Prime Minister Datuk Seri NaJib Razak announce in Budget 2013 tabling, inflation rate in October is around 2 percent to 3 percent. In conclusion, government cut down fuel subsidy in right time. Although price of fuel increase, the inflation rate is under control and not slowing down economy. 3. 3 EXPLANATION ON RELATIONSHIP OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND INVESTMENT MARKET