Having seen the horrors of the Civil War first hand as a Union camp hospital volunteer, Walt Whitman-
kept his optimistic attitude about the American character
In response to the Civil War, Melville did not
Write a great novel about the Civil War
Because few major American writers fought in the war,
very little important poetry and fiction emerged directly from this war
A great novel of the Civil War was not written until long after the war had ended because
the form of the realistic novel had not yet been fully developed
The naturalistic novel has all the following characteristics except
larger-than-life, idealistic heroes
After the Civil War, realistic writers sought
accurately portray real life without filtering it through Romanticism
Although regional writers realistically described the speech patterns and mannerisms of a relatively small geographical area, these writers
were often unrealistic in depicting character and social environment
Naturalistic writers often showed human life as
crude and subject to the natural laws of the universe
The psychological novel of Henry James might best be described as
showing the characters’ inner lives
the writings of an ironist may typically
show the indifference of the universe
The beginning of the Civil War marked the end of the Romanticism movement.
Tom Brady was the first photographer to bring portable darkrooms to combat zones.
Whitman wrote several poems about the Civil War in which he revealed humanity’s basic evil.
A realistic novel was not written about the Civil War because this genre hadn’t been fully developed yet.
Realism started in Europe before it came to America
Avoidance of the exotic, sensational, and overly dramatic are all characteristics of romantic literature.
Kate Chopin and Samuel Clemens are known as regionalist authors.
Many times a regionalist will depend heavily on local color, setting, and dialect in order to get across his/her message.
Naturalism can be described as a sense of life as a losing battle against an uncaring universe.
During the realism era, America was becoming more industrialized and less agricultural.
Until the beginning of the twentieth century, all of the following attitudes were part of the American dream except
respect for the mysterious workings of the subconscious mind
In the period after WW1, American writers began to
grow cynical about traditional authority and values
The modernist movement challenged American writers to
find new themes, styles, and subjects
American modernists created a literature that
reflected a variety of American voices
A growing interest in psychoanalysis led writers to
try to capture characters’ thought processes
During the Jazz age many American writers and artists
lived as expatriates in France
Ernest Hemingway created major characters who
behave honorably in a world without purpose
Some American poets found inspiration in the work of European painters and began to use their imagery and symbolism. Other American poets found inspiration in
the rhythms and vocabulary of ordinary speech
According to the imagists, what aspect of a poem should carry its meaning and emotions
Poets of the Harlem Renasissance often used
discussions of the decline of American cities
There are three basic assumptions that for generations have come to be called the American Dream
According to the tenets of the American Dream, the independent, self-reliant individual will always prevail.
Believing that American birthright is one of ever-expanding opportunity is an element of Modernism
Revolting against the spiritual dabasement of the modern world is an element of modernism
In the post war period, two new scientific theories or movements, Marxism and psychoanalysis, comdined to influnce previous beliefs and values.
The devastation of WW2 and the economic crash a decade later severely damaged the inherited ideas of an Edenic land, an optimism in the future, and a faith in individualism.
The new American hero in this time period is a man of action, a warrior, and a tough competitor; he has a code of honor, courage, and endurance. He shows “grace under pressure” but most importantly he is totally disillusioned.
Symbolism is twentieth-century movement in European and American poetry that advocated the creation of hard, clear images, concisely expressed in everyday speech.
Imagism is a literary movement that originated in late-nineteeth-century France, in which writers rearranged the world of appearances in order to reveal a more truthful version of reality.
During the Jazz Age, women played a too prominent role because they won the right to vote; began to create a presence in artistic, intellectual, and social circles; and became short-skirted flappers.
With the Soviet Union’s development of space technology in the 50’s and 60’s the ideological conflict between the united states and the soviet union hardened into a long and expensive arms race
Postmodern is one of the words most commonly used to describe contemporary American culture
Contemporary fiction demonstrates a typically American ability to invigorate the new by means of the old
In the second half of the twentieth century, life for the average American may well have been most profoundly changed by the introduction of computer technology into daily life.
“and the real loss to man and art alike when that nature has nowhere to plug itself in” are words that could serve to describe the work of a great number of contemporary writers whose intellectual roots can be traced to the Transcendentalists or even to the Puritans.
The vitality of contemporary fiction lies in its cultural segregation, in its enthusiasm for blendinfiction with nonfiction, and in its extraordinary sense of play.
Some postmodern works are intensely self-conscious and may comment on themselves, criticize themselves, take themselves apart, and encourage us to put them together again.
Contemporary poets often write in the language of common speech, and they do not hesitate to surprise or even shock with their language, their attitudes, and the details of their personal lives.
The “me generation” refers to the 60’s when individual employment and material success seemed to overshadow other concerns.
Realistic and literal worlds, past worlds, and dreamlike metaphysical worlds may merge in postmodern literature.
Post modern poetry can be described as a
rebellion against impersonal poetry that emphasizes intellectual analysis
Short stories such as Donald Barthelme’s “Sentence” and novels such as Walter Abish’s Alphabetical Africa are notable for their
nontraditional forms and structures
One of the characteristics of postmodern fiction is the use of
nontraditional forms of blurring the boundaries between fiction and nonfiction
Since the 1970’s American poetry has
been characterized by diverse voices and styles
Contemporary nonfiction has become much of an art form as fiction or poetry because
it often incorporates literary elements such as suspense, symbolism, and characterization
in general, postmodern literature
comments on itself and is open to multiple interpretations
contemporary writers such as kurt vonnegut and Joseph Heller have described war as
a reflectin of the madness of modern life
u.s involvement in the Vietnam War
sharply divided the American public
new journalists such as Truman Capote and Joan Didion attracted attention by
asserting the writer’s personal presence in nonfiction pieces
According to the intro, the chief drawback of the spread of tech. is
dehumanization of the individual