Despite these changes, the protocols and mechanisms used in handing the mental situation have been rather constant. In many cases the cause of mental problems which include personality, development and psychotic disorders can never be pointed to one particular factor. Many theories that have been proposed to explain the nature of mental disorders: One of the theories that is predominant in the Middle East and Africa explains psychiatric disorders as a mixture of divine and magical considerations, some even belief that it is a result of witch hunt (Meleis, 2006).
Industrialization and population growth are the two main factors that have been cited as being behind the increase in number of madhouses. The twentieth century saw the recognition of psychiatric disorders as a medical problem when World Health Organization in its definition of health included mental disorders as a medical condition that is considered a disease. American Psychologists Association (APA) and World Health Organization (WHO) have come out as two organizations that are very instrumental in dealing with the management of psychiatrists problems (Meleis, 2006).
The two bodies have even merged their policies so as to come up with a more robust document that discusses all aspects of the management of psychiatric disorders. State of fear and anxiety are the main cause of psychiatric problems and include phobias and anxiety disorders. Furthermore, abnormal mood state referred to as mania are also very common though may people fail to recognize them as psychiatric problems (Acharya, 2004).
Rosemary Kennedy Rosemary Kennedy who was born on September 13th 1918 was the first daughter to Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy and Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Sr. and also their third child. She was born just a year after her brother who later became the United States president; President John F. Kennedy was born. At the age of 23, a lobotomy was performed on Rosemary Kennedy and it left her incapacitated permanently (Kotowicz, 2005).
In her early childhood years, she was described as being a very shy child and Intelligence Quotient tests indicated that she had a slight case of mental retardation, though this notion has been a question which has been put under much controversy (Kotowicz, 2005). At the age of 23, Rosemary’s father was informed of a new procedure that the doctors thought was capable of assisting in calming her mood swings. This procedure was known as lobotomy and this was the year 1941.
At that particular time, the number of lobotomies that had already been performed was relatively few (Kotowicz, 2005). The result that was hoped for did not occur and instead, Rosemary was left with a condition of incontinence in the urinary functions and a mentality that is infantile. She could be found staring at walls blankly for hours and her speech was unintelligible and incoherent.
This devastated Rose even more and it was termed as a tragedy in the Kennedy family (Kotowicz, 2005). It was later in the year 1949 that Rosemary was taken to the St. Coletta’s Institute for Backward Children (Kotowicz, 2005). The severity of her condition caused her to be further detached from her family, though one her sisters managed to be able to visit her on a regular basis. Her condition was declared publicly as being mentally handicapped, with only a few doctors knowing the truth behind her condition (Acharya, 2004). It has been argued by various researchers that Rosemary was probably the first person in America to receive this procedure – prefrontal lobotomy.
Watts was of the opinion that Rosemary was not mentally retarded, but was in fact depressed and talked in a manner that made her voice shaky and sounded agitated, and this tended to confuse her family into thinking that she was mentally retarded (Kotowicz, 2005). The procedure was carried out on Rosemary despite that fact that the procedure was meant to be carried out in cases of psychiatric illness only. During the days of Dr. Watts, performing a prefrontal lobotomy on a patient even if the patient was mentally retarded was considered to be a case of medical malpractice (Acharya, 2004).