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Project report Paper

It is designed for use in bells, telephones, toys etc. It has an inbuilt tone and a beat generator. The tone generator is a programmed avider which produces certain frequencies. These frequencies are a factor of the oscillator frequency. The beat generator is also a programmed divider which contains 15 available beats. Four beats of these can be selected. . UM 66TH 1. 1. 3 LEMMA The LEMMA (aka JUICER) is an integrated circuit consisting of a low voltage audio power amplifier. It is suitable for battery-powered devices such as radios, guitar amplifiers, and hobbyist projects.

The ICC consists of an 8 pin dual in-line package Pin configurations of LEMMA 1. 1. 4 PC Boards You’ve designed your circuit, perhaps even bread boarded a working prototype, and owe it’s time to turn it into a nice Printed Circuit Board (PC) design. For some designers, the PC design will be a natural and easy extension of the design process. But for many others the process of designing and laying out a PC can be a very daunting task. There are even very experienced circuit designers who know very little about PC design, and as such leave it up to the “expert” specialist PC designers.

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Many companies even have their own dedicated PC design departments. This is not surprising, considering that it often takes a great deal of knowledge and talent to session hundreds of components and thousands of tracks into an intricate (some say artistic) design that meets a whole host of physical and electrical requirements. Proper PC design is very often an integral part of a design. In many designs (high speed digital, low level analog and RFC to name a few) the PC layout may make or break the operation and electrical performance of the design.

It must be remembered that PC traces have resistance, inductance, and capacitance, Just like your circuit does. Before you even begin to lay out your PC, you MUST have a complete and accurate schematic diagram. Many people Jump straight into the PC design with nothing more than the circuit in their head, or the schematic drawn on loose post-it notes with no pin numbers and no order. This Just isn’t good enough, if you don’t have an accurate schematic then your PC will most likely end up a mess, and take you twice as long as it should.

A PC design is a manufactured version of your schematic, so it is natural for the PC design to be influenced by the original schematic. If your schematic is neat, logical and clearly laid out, then it really does make your PC design Job a lot easier. Good practice will have signals flowing from inputs at the left to outputs on the right. With electrically important sections drawn correctly, the way the designer would like them to be laid out on the PC. Like putting bypass capacitors next to the component they are meant for. Little notes on the schematic that aid in the layout are very useful.

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