1. A budget is concerned for a definite future period. 2. A budget is a written papers. 3. A budget is a elaborate program of all the economic activities of a concern. 4. All the sections of a concern unit co-operate for the readying of a concern budget. 5. Budget is a mean to accomplish concern and it is non an terminal in itself. 6. Budget demands to be updated. corrected and controlled every clip when fortunes alterations. Therefore it is a uninterrupted procedure. 7. Budget helps in planning.
coordination and control. 8. Different types of budgets are prepared by industries harmonizing to concern demands. 9. A budget acts a concern barometer. 10. Budget is normally prepared in the visible radiation of Past Experience. 11. Budget is a changeless enterprise of the Management.
Preparation OF BUDGETS 1. Definition of aims: A budget being a program for the accomplishment of certain operational aims. it is desirable that the same are defined exactly. The aims should be written out ; the countries of control demarcated ; and points of gross and outgo to be covered by the budget stated.
This will give a clear apprehension of the program and its range to all those who must collaborate to do it a success. 2. Location of the key ( or budget ) factor: There is normally one factor ( sometimes there may be more than one ) which sets a bound to the entire activity. For case. in India today sometimes non-availability of power does non let production to increase inspite of heavy demand. Similarly. deficiency of demand may restrict production. Such a factor is known as cardinal factor.
For proper budgeting. it must be located and estimated decently. 3. Appointment of accountant: Formulation of a budget normally requires whole
clip services of a senior executive ; he must be assisted in this work by a Budget Committee. dwelling of all the caputs of section along with the Managing Director as the Chairman. The Controller is responsible for co-ordinating and development of budget programmes and fixing the manual of direction. known as Budget manual. The Budget manual is a agenda. papers or brochure which shows. in written forms the budgeting administration and processs. The manual should be good written and indexed so that a transcript thereof may be given to each departmental caput for counsel. 3
4. Budget period: The period covered by a budget is known as budget period. There is no general regulation regulating the choice of the budget period. In pattern the Budget Committee determines the length of the budget period suited for the concern. Normally. a calendar twelvemonth or a period coextensive with the fiscal twelvemonth is adopted. The budget period is so sub-divided into shorter periods—it may be months or quarters or such periods as coincide with period of trading activity. 5. Standard of activity or end product: For fixing budgets for the hereafter. past statistics can non be wholly relied upon. for the past normally represents a combination of good and bad factors. Therefore. though consequences of the yesteryear should be studied but these should merely be applied when there is a likeliness of similar conditions reiterating in the hereafter. Besides. while puting the marks for the hereafter. it must be remembered that in a progressive concern. the accomplishment of a twelvemonth must transcend those of earlier old ages. Therefore what was good in the yesteryear is merely just for the current twelvemonth. In budgeting. repairing the budget of gross revenues and of capital outgo are most of import since these budgets determine the extent of development activity. For budgeting gross revenues. one must see the tendency of economic activity of the state. reactions of salesmen. clients and employees. consequence of monetary value alterations on gross revenues. the proviso for advertizement run program capacity etc.
Meaning of Budgetary Control: The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants of England and Wales has defined the footings ‘budgetary control’ as “Budgetary control is the constitution of budgets associating to the
duties of executives of a policy and the uninterrupted comparing of the existent with the budgeted consequences. either to secure by single action the aim of the policy or to supply a footing for its alteration. ” It is the system of direction control and accounting in which all the operations are forecasted and planned in progress to the extent possible and the existent consequences compared with the forecasted and planned 1s. Budgetary Control Involves: 1. Constitution of budgets 2. Continuous comparing of actuals with budgets for accomplishment of marks 3. Revision of budgets after sing changed fortunes 4. Puting the duty for failure to accomplish the budget marks. The outstanding characteristics of Budgetary Control System are as follows: 1. Determining the aims to be achieved. over the budget period. and the policy or policies that might be adopted for the accomplishment of these terminals. 2. Determining the assortment of activities that should be undertaken for the accomplishment of the aims. 3. Pulling up a program or a strategy of operation in regard of each category of activity. in physical every bit good as pecuniary footings for the full budget period and its parts.
4. Puting out a system of comparing of existent public presentation by each individual. subdivision or section with the relevant budget and finding of causes for the disagreements. if any. 5. Guaranting that disciplinary action will be taken where the program is non being achieved and. if that be non possible. for the alteration of the program. In brief. it is a system to help direction in the allotment of duty and authorization. to supply it with assistance for doing. gauging and be aftering for the hereafter and to ease the analysis of the fluctuation between estimated and existent public presentation. In order that budgetary control may work efficaciously. it is necessary that the concern should develop proper footing of measuring or criterions with which to measure the efficiency of operations. i. e. . it should hold in operation a system of standard costing. Besides this. the organisation of the concern should be so incorporate that all lines of authorization and duty are laid. allocated and defined. This is indispensable since the system of budgetary control postulates separation of maps and division of duties and therefore requires that the organisation shall be planned in such a mode
that everyone. from the Managing Director down to the Shop Foreman. will hold his responsibilities decently defined. Aims of Budgetary Control System: 1. Portraying with preciseness the overall purposes of the concern and finding marks of public presentation for each subdivision or section of the concern. 2. Puting down the duties of each of the executives and other forces so that everyone knows what is expected of him and how he will be judged. Budgetary control is 6
one of the few ways in which an nonsubjective appraisal of executives or section is possible. 3. Supplying a footing for the comparing of existent public presentation with the preset marks and probe of divergence. if any. of existent public presentation and disbursals from the budgeted figures. This of course helps in following disciplinary steps. 4. Guaranting the best usage of all available resources to maximise net income or production. capable to the confining factors. Since budgets can non be decently drawn up without sing all facets normally there is good co-ordination when a system of budgetary control operates. 5. Co-coordinating the assorted activities of the concern. and centralising control and yet enabling direction to deconcentrate duty and delegate authorization in the overall involvement of the concern. 6. Engendering a spirit of careful premeditation. appraisal of what is possible and an effort at it. It leads to dynamism without foolhardiness. Of class. much depends on the aims of the house and the energy of its direction. 7. Supplying a footing for alteration of current and future policies. 8. Pulling up long scope programs with a just step of truth. 9. Supplying a yardstick against which existent consequences can be compared. Working of a budgetary control system: The duty for successfully presenting and implementing a Budgetary Control System rests with the Budget Committee moving through the Budget Officer. The Budget Committee would be composed of all functional caputs and a member from the Board to 7
preside over and steer the deliberations. The chief duties of the Budget Officer are: 1. To help in the readying of the assorted budgets by organizing the work of the histories section which is usually responsible to roll up the budgets—with the relevant functional sections
like Gross saless. Production. Plant care etc. ; 2. To send on the budget to the persons who are responsible to adhere to them. and to steer them in get the better ofing any practical troubles in its working ; 3. To fix the periodical budget studies for circulation to the persons concerned ; 4. To follow-up action to be taken on the budget studies ; 5. To fix an overall budget working study for treatment at the Budget Committee meetings and to guarantee followup on the lines of action suggested by the Committee ; 6. To fix periodical studies for the Board meeting. Comparing the budgeted Net income and Loss Account and the Balance Sheet with the existent consequences attained. It is necessary that every budget should be exhaustively discussed with the functional caput before it is finalized. It is the responsibility of the Budget Officer to see that the periodical budget studies are supplied to the receivers at frequent intervals every bit far as possible. The efficiency of the Budget Officer. and through him of the Budget Committee. will be judged more by the smooth working of the system and the understanding between the existent figures and the budgeted figures. Budgets are chiefly an inducement and a challenge for better public presentation ; it is up to the
Budget Officer to see that attending of the different functional caputs is drawn to it to confront the challenge in a successful mode.
Advantages of Budgetary Control System: 1. The usage of budgetary control system enables the direction of a concern concern to carry on its concern activities in the efficient mode. 2. It is a powerful instrument used by concern houses for the control of their outgo. It in fact provides a yardstick for mensurating and measuring the public presentation of persons and their sections. 3. It reveals the divergences to direction. from the budgeted figures after doing a comparing with existent figures. 4. Effective use of assorted resources like—men. stuff. machinery and money is made possible. as the production is planned after taking them into history. 5. It helps in the reappraisal of current tendencies and framing of future policies. 6. It creates suited conditions for the execution of standard bing system in a concern organisation. 7. It inculcates the feeling of cost
consciousness among workers. 8. It helps the principal of direction by exclusion to use. 9. Management which has developed a good ordered budget programs and which operate consequently. have greater favor from recognition bureaus.
Restrictions of Budgetary Control System: 1. Based on Estimates: Budgets may or may non be true. as they are based on estimations. 2. Time factor: Budgets can non be executed automatically. Accuracy in budgeting comes through experience. Management must non anticipate excessively much during the development period. 3. Cooperation Required: Staff co-operation is normally non available during budgetary control exercising. The success of the budgetary control depends upon willing co-operation and teamwork. 4. Expensive: Its execution is rather expensive. No budgetary programme can be successful unless equal agreements are made for supervising and disposal. 5. Not a replacement for direction: Budget is merely a managerial tool. It can non replace direction. 6. Rigid papers: Budgets are considered as stiff papers. But in world. firm’s personal businesss continuously change under inflationary force per unit area and altering authorities policies.
ZERO BASE BUDGETS The technique of zero base budgeting suggests that an administration should non merely do determinations about the proposed new programmes. but should besides reexamine the rightness of the bing programmes from clip to clip. Such a reappraisal should peculiarly be done of such duty Centres where there is comparatively high proportion of discretional costs. Costss of this type depend on the discretion or policies of the duty Centre or top directors. These costs have no direct relation to volume of activity. Hence. direction discretion typically determines the sum budgeted. Some illustrations are: outgo on research and development. forces disposal. legal consultative services. Zero base budgeting. as the term suggests. examines or reviews a programme or map or duty from ‘scratch’ . The referee returns on the
premise that nil is to be allowed. The director suggesting the activity has. hence. to warrant that the activity is indispensable and the assorted sums asked for are sensible taking into history the end products or consequences or volume of activity envisaged. No activity or disbursal is allowed merely because it was being allowed or done in the past. Therefore harmonizing to this technique each programme. whether new or bing. must be justified in its entireness each clip a new budget is formulated. It involves: 1. Covering with peculiarly all elements of mangers’ budget requests 2. Critical scrutiny of on-going activities along with the freshly proposed activities 3. Supplying each trough a scope of pick in puting precedences in regard of different activities and in allocating resources.
Procedure of Zero Base Budgeting: The undermentioned stairss are involved in Zero base budgeting: Determining the aims of budgeting: The aim may be ‘to consequence cost decrease in staff operating expenses or it may be to drop. after careful analysis. undertakings which do non suit into accomplishment of the organisations objectives etc. Deciding on range of application: The extent to which zero base budgeting is to be introduced has to be decided. i. e. whether it will be introduced in all countries of the organisation’s activities or merely in a few selected countries on test footing. Developing determination units Decision units for which cost-benefit analysis is proposed hold to be developed so as to get at determinations whether they should be allowed to go on or to be dropped. Each determination unit. every bit far as possible should be independent of other units so that it can be dropped if the cost analysis proves to be unfavorable for it. Developing determination bundles: A determination bundle for each unit should be developed. While developing a determination bundle. replies to the undermentioned inquiries would be desirable:
• Is it necessary to execute a peculiar activity at all? If the reply is in the negative. there is no demand to continue farther.
• How much has been the existent cost of the activity and what has been the existent benefit both in tangible every bit good as intangible signifiers?
• What should be the estimated cost of the degree of activity and the estimated benefit from 12
• Should the activity be performed in the manner in which it is being performed. and what should be the cost?
• If the undertaking or activity is dropped. can the unit be replaced by an outside bureau? After finishing determination bundles for each unit. the units are ranked harmonizing to the findings of cost benefit analysis. Essential undertakings are identified and given the highest ranks. The last phase is that of implementing the determination taken in the visible radiation of the survey made. It involves the choice and credence of those undertakings which have a positive cost-benefit analysis or which are capable of run intoing the aims of the organisation. The above analysis shows that zero base budgeting is in a manner an extension of the method of cost benefit analysis to the country of the corporate budgeting. Advantages of Zero Base Budgeting:
• It provides the organisation with systematic manner to measure different operations and programmes undertaken. It enables direction to apportion resources harmonizing to precedence of the programmes.
• It ensures that each and every programme undertaken by directors is truly indispensable for the organisation. and is being performed in the best possible manner.
• It enables the direction to O.K. departmental budgets on the footing of cost-benefit analysis. No arbitrary cuts or increase in budget estimations are made.
• It links budgets with the corporate aims. Nothing will be allowed merely because it was being done in the yesteryear. An activity may be shelved if it does non assist in accomplishing the ends of the endeavors. 13
• It helps in placing countries of uneconomical outgo and. if desired. it can besides be used for proposing alternate classs of action.
• It facilitates the debut and execution of the system of `management by objectives’ . Thus it can be used non merely for fulfilment of the aims of traditional budgeting. but besides for a assortment of other intents. It is contended that zero base budgeting is clip devouring. Of class. it is true. but it happens merely in the initial phases when determination units have to be identified and determination bundles have to be developed or completed. Once this is done. and the methodological analysis is clear. zero base budgeting is likely to take less clip than the traditional budgeting. In any instance. till such clip the organisation is decently acclimatized to the technique of zero base budgeting. it may be done in a manner that all
duty centre’s are covered at least one time in three or four old ages. Zero base budgeting as a construct has become rather popular these yearss. The technique was foremost used by the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1962. Texas Instruments. a transnational company. pioneered its usage in the private sector. Today. a figure of major companies such as Zerox. BASF. International Harvester and Easter Airlines in the United State are utilizing the system. Some sections of the Government of India have late introduced zero base budgeting with a position to doing the system of budgetary control more effectual.
PERFORMANCE BUDGETS Performance budgeting ( or programme budgeting ) has been designed to rectify the defects of traditional budgeting by stressing management’s considerations/ attacks. Both the fiscal and physical facets are incorporated into the budget. A public presentation budget presents the operations of an administration in footings of maps. programmes. activities. and undertakings. In public presentation budgeting. precise detention of occupation to be performed or services to be rendered is done. Second. the budget is prepared in footings of functional classs and their sub-division into programmes. activities. and undertakings. Third. the budget becomes a comprehensive papers. Since the fiscal and physical consequences are interwoven. it facilitates direction control. The Main aims of Performance Budgeting are: ( I ) to organize the physical and fiscal facets ; ( two ) to better the budget preparation. reappraisal and decision-making at all degrees of direction ( three ) to ease better grasp and reappraisal by commanding governments ( legislative assembly. Board of Trustees or Governors. etc ) as the presentation is more purposeful and apprehensible ; ( four ) to do more effectual public presentation audit possible ; and ( V ) to mensurate progress towards long-run aims which are envisaged in a development program. Performance budgeting involves rating of the public presentation of the administration in the context of both specific. every bit good as. overall aims of the administration. It presupposes a crystal clear perceptual experience of organizational aims in general. and short-run concern aims as stipulated in the budget. in peculiar by each employee of the
administration. irrespective of his degree. It therefore. provides a definite way to each employee and besides a control mechanism to higher direction. 15
Performance budgeting requires readying of periodic public presentation studies. Such studies compare budget and existent informations. and demo discrepancies. Their readying is greatly facilitated if the authorization and duty for the incurrence of each cost component is clearly defined within the firm’s organizational construction. In add-on. the accounting system should be sufficiently detailed and coordinated to supply necessary informations for studies designed for the peculiar usage of the persons or cost Centres holding primary duty for specific cost. The duty for fixing the public presentation budget of each section lies on the several Department Head. Each Department Head will be supplied with a transcript of the subdivision of the maestro budget appropriate to his domain. For illustration. the main purchaser will be supplied with the transcript of the stuffs purchase budget so that he may set up for purchase of necessary stuffs. Periodic studies from assorted subdivisions of a section will be received by the departmental caput that will subject a drumhead study about his section to the budget commission. The study may be daily. hebdomadal or monthly. depending upon the size of concern and the budget period. These studies will be in the signifier of comparing of budgeted and existent figures. both periodic and cumulative. The intent of fixing these studies is to quickly inform about the divergences in existent and budgeted activity to the individual who has the necessary authorization and duty to take necessary action to rectify the divergences from the budget.
FUNCTIONAL BUDGET A functional budget is one which is related to map of the concern as for illustration. production budget relating to the fabrication map. Functional budgets are prepared for each map and they are subordinate to the maestro budget of the concern. The assorted types of functional budgets to be prepared will change harmonizing to the size and nature of the concern. The assorted normally used functional budgets are:
• • •
Gross saless budget Production budget Plant use budget Direct-material usage budget Direct-material purchase budget Direct-labour ( forces ) budget Factory overhead budget Production cost budget Ending-inventory budget Cost-of-goods-sold budget Selling and distribution cost budget Administration disbursals budget Research and development cost budget ( xiv ) Capital outgo budget Cash budget
Illustration: Gross saless Budget: Gross saless forecast is the beginning of budgeting and hence gross revenues budget assumes primary importance. The measure which can be sold may be the chief budget factor in many concern projects. In any instance in order to chalk out a realistic budget programme. there must be an accurate gross revenues prognosis. The gross revenues budget indicates for each merchandise: 1. The measure of estimated gross revenues and 2. The expected unit merchandising monetary value. These informations are frequently reported by parts or by gross revenues
representatives. In gauging the measure of gross revenues for each merchandise. past gross revenues volumes are frequently used as a starting point. These sums are revised for factors that are expected to impact future gross revenues. such as the factors listed below. 1. Backlog of unfilled gross revenues orders 2. Planned advertisement and publicity 3. Expected industry and general economic conditions 4. Productive capacity 5. Projected pricing 6. Findingss of market research surveies 7. Relative merchandise profitableness. 8. Competition. 18
Once an estimation of the gross revenues volume is obtained. the expected gross revenues gross can be determined by multiplying the volume by the expected unit gross revenues monetary value. the gross revenues budget represents the entire gross revenues in physical measures and values for a future budget period.
Gross saless directors are invariably faced with job like expectancy of client demands. new merchandise demands. rival schemes and assorted alterations in distribution methods or promotional techniques. The intents of
gross revenues budget is non to try to gauge or think what the existent gross revenues will be. but instead to develop a program with clearly defined aims towards which the operational attempt is directed in order to achieve or transcend the nonsubjective. Hence. gross revenues budget is non simply a gross revenues prognosis. A budget is a planning and control papers which shows what the direction intends to carry through. Thus. the gross revenues budget is active instead than passive. A gross revenues prognosis. nevertheless. is a projection or estimation of the available client demand. A prognosis reflects the environmental or competitory state of affairs confronting the company whereas the gross revenues budget shows how the direction intends to respond to this environmental and competitory state of affairs. A good budget flexible joints on aggressive direction control instead than on inactive credence of what the market appears to offer. If the company fails to do this differentiation. the budget will stay more a figure-work exercising than a on the job tool of dynamic direction control.
The gross revenues budget may be prepared under the undermentioned categorization or combination of categorizations: 1. Merchandises or groups of merchandises. 2. Areas. towns. salesmen and agents. 3. Types of clients as for illustration: ( I ) Government. ( two ) Export. ( three ) Home gross revenues. ( four ) Retail terminals. 4. Period—months. hebdomads. etc Example of Gross saless Budget: XYZ Ltd. Gross saless Budget for the Year Ended 31 March XXXX Particulars Units Selling Price ( P. U ) Total Gross saless Value ( Rs. ) Product A Merchandise B Total 5000 10000 75 80 375000 800000 1175000
Lead TO THE PREPARATION OF THE MASTER BUDGET When all the necessary functional budgets have been prepared. the budget officer will fix the maestro budget which may dwell of budgeted net income and loss history and budgeted balance sheet. These are in fact the budget sum-ups. When the maestro budget is approved by the board of managers. it represents a criterion for the accomplishment of which all the sections will work. On the footing of the assorted budgets ( agendas ) prepared earlier in this survey. we
prepare below budgeted income statement and budgeted balance sheet. Illustration: Floatglass Manufacturing Company requires you to show the Master budget for the 31 March 2012 from the undermentioned information: Gross saless: Toughened Glass Bent Glass Direct Material Cost Direct Wages Factory Overheads: Indirect Labour Works Manager Foreman Rs. 500 per month Rs. 400 per month 2. 5 % on Gross saless Rs. 600000 Rs. 200000 60 % of Gross saless 20 workers @ Rs. 150 per month
Shops and Spares Depreciation on Machinery Repairs and Maintenance Other Sundries Administration. merchandising and Distribution Expenses
Rs. 12600 Rs. 3000 Rs. 8000 10 % on Direct Wages Rs. 36000 per twelvemonth
Solution: Master Budget for the Year Ending 31 March 2012 Particulars Amount ( Rs. ) Gross saless: Toughened Glass Bent Glass Total Gross saless Less: Cost of Production: Direct Material Direct Wages Prime Cost ( A ) Fixed Factory Overhead: 480000 36000 516000 600000 200000 800000 Amount ( Rs. )
Works Manager’s Salary Foreman’s Salary Depreciation Light and Power Total Fixed Factory Overhead ( B ) Variable Factory Overhead: Shops and Spares Repairs and Maintenance Sundry Expenses Total Variable Factory Overhead ( C ) Works Cost ( A+B+C ) Gross Profit ( Sales- Works Cost ) Less: Administration. Selling and Distribution Expenses Net Net income
6000 4800 12600 3000 26400
20000 8000 3600 31600 574000 226000 36000 190000
Capital EXPENDITURE BUDGET: The capital outgo budget represents the
planned spending on fixed assets like land. edifice. works and machinery. etc. during the budget period. This budget is capable to rigorous direction control because it entails big sum of outgo. The budget is prepared to cover a long period of old ages and it undertakings the capital costs over the period in which the outgo is to be incurred and the expected net incomes. The readying of this budget is based on the undermentioned considerations: 1. Operating expense on production installations of certain sections as indicated by the works use budget. 2. Future development programs to increase end product by enlargement of works installations. 3. Replacement petitions from the concerned sections 4. Factors like gross revenues possible to absorb the increased end product. possibility of monetary value decreases. increased costs of advertisement and gross revenues publicity to absorb increased end product. etc. Merits/Advantages: 1. It outlines the capital development programme and estimated capital outgo during the budget period. 2. It enables the company to set up a system of precedences. When there is a deficit of financess. capital rationing becomes necessary. 3. It serves as a tool for commanding outgo. 4. It provides the sum of outgo to be incorporated in the hereafter budget
sum-ups for computation of estimated return on capital employed. 5. This enables the hard currency budget to be completed. With other hard currency committednesss capital outgo committedness should besides be considered for the completion of the budget. 6. It facilitates cost decrease programme. peculiarly when modernisation and redevelopment is covered by this budget.
FIXED AND FLEXIBLE BUDGETS Fixed Budget: Harmonizing to Chartered Institute of Management Accountants of England. “a fixed budget is a budget designed to stay unchanged irrespective of the degree of activity really attained” . A fixed budget shows the expected consequences of a duty centre for merely one activity degree. Once the budget has been determined. it is non changed. even if the activity alterations. Fixed budgeting is used by many service
companies and for some administrative maps of fabrication companies. such as buying. technology. and accounting. Fixed Budget is used as an effectual tool of cost control. In instance. the degree of activity attained is different from the degree of activity for budgeting intents. the fixed budget becomes uneffective. Such a budget is rather suited for fixed disbursals. It is besides known as a inactive budget. Essential conditions: 1. When the nature of concern is non seasonal. 2. There is no impact of external factors on the concern activities 3. The demand of the merchandise is certain and stable. 4. Supply orders are issued on a regular basis. 5. The market of the merchandise should be domestic instead than foreign. 6. There is no demand of particular labor or stuff in the production of the merchandises. 7. Supply of production inputs is regular. 8. There is a tendency of monetary value stableness. Generally. all above conditions are non found in pattern. Hence fixed budget is non of import 26
in concern concerns. Merits/advantages: 1. Very simple to understand 2. Less clip devouring Demerits/Disadvantages: 1. It is misdirecting. A hapless public presentation may stay undetected and a good public presentation may travel unfulfilled. 2. It is non suited for long period. 3. It is besides found unsuitable peculiarly when the concern conditions are altering invariably. 4. Accurate estimations are non possible. Flexible Budget Harmonizing to Chartered Institute of Management Accountants of England. ”a flexible budget is defined as a budget which. by acknowledging the difference between fixed. semi-variable and variable costs is designed to alter in relation to the degree of activity attained. ” Unlike inactive ( fixed ) budgets. flexible budgets show the expected consequences of a duty centre for several activity degrees. You can believe of a flexible budget as a series of inactive budgets for different degrees of activity. Such budgets are particularly utile in gauging and commanding mill costs and operating disbursals. It is more realistic and operable because it gives due consideration 27
to be behavior at different degrees of activity. While fixing a flexible budget the disbursals are classified into three classs viz. 1. Fixed. 2. Variable. and 3. Semi-variable. Semi-variable disbursals are farther segregated into fixed and variable disbursals. Flexible budgeting may be
resorted to under following state of affairss: 1. In the instance of new concern venture due to its typical nature it may be hard to calculate the demand of a merchandise accurately. 2. Where the concern is dependent upon the clemency of nature e. g. . a individual covering in wool trade may hold adequate market if temperature goes below the freeze point. 3. In the instance of labour intensive industry where the production of the concern is dependent upon the handiness of labor. Merits/ Advantages: 1. With the aid of flexible budget. the gross revenues. costs and net income may be calculated easy by the concern at assorted degrees of production capacity. 2. In flexible budget. accommodation is really simple harmonizing to alteration in concern conditions. 3. It besides helps in finding of production degree as it shows budgeted costs with categorization at assorted degrees of activity along with gross revenues. Hence the direction can easy choose the degree of production which shows the net income predetermined by the proprietors of the concern. 4. It besides shows the measure of merchandise to be produced to gain determined net income. 28
Demerits/Disadvantages: 1. The preparation of flexible budget is possible merely when there is proper accounting system maintained. perfect cognition about the factors of production and assorted concern fortunes is available. 2. Flexible Budget besides requires the system of standard costing in concern. 3. It is really expensive and labour oriented. Need for flexible budget: 1. Seasonal fluctuations in gross revenues and/or production. for illustration in soft drinks industry ; 2. A company which keeps on presenting new merchandises or makes alterations in the design of its merchandises often ; 3. Industries engaged in make-to-order concern like ship edifice ; 4. An industry which is influenced by alterations in manner ; and 5. General alterations in gross revenues.
Illustration: A mill which expects to run 7. 000 hours. i. e. . at 70 % degree of activity. furnishes inside informations of disbursals as under: Particulars Variable Expenses Amount ( Rs. ) 1260
Semi- Variable Expenses 1200 Fixed Expenses 1800
The semi-variable disbursals go up by 10 % between 85 % and 95 % activity and by 20 % above 95 % activity. Construct a flexible budget for 80. 90 and 100 per cent activities. Solution: Particulars Budgeted Hours Variable Expenses Semi-Variable Expenses Fixed Expenses Total Expenses Recovery Rate Per Hour 70 % 7000 1260 1200 1800 4260 0. 61 80 % 8000 1440 1200 1800 4440 0. 55 90 % 9000 1620 1320 1800 4740 0. 53 100 % 10000 1800 1440 1800 5040 0. 50
Difference between Fixed and Flexible Budget: Fixed Budget Flexible Budget
It does non alter with existent volume of It can be recasted on the footing of activity activity achieved. Thus it is known as stiff degree to be achieved. Thus it is non stiff. or inflexible budget. It operates on one degree of activity and under It consists of assorted budgets for one set of conditions. It assumes that there different degrees of activity. will be no alteration in the prevalent conditions. which is unrealistic. Here as all costs like – fixed. variable and Here analysis of discrepancy provides utile semi-variable are related to merely one degree information as each cost is analyzed of activity so variance analysis does give utile information. If the budgeted and existent activity degrees differ Flexible budgeting at different degrees of significantly. so the facets like cost activity facilitates the ascertainment of ascertainment and monetary value arrested development do non give a cost. arrested development of selling monetary value and tendering right image. of citations. a meaningful footing of non harmonizing to its behavior.
Comparison of existent public presentation with It provides budgeted marks will be
meaningless comparing of the existent public presentation with
specially when there is a difference the budgeted marks. between the two activity degrees.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 ICAI Module on Cost Accounting 2 Newsletters and sentiments published by ICAI 3 hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Budget 4 World Wide Web. icai. org