Political Science is the systematic study of the state and government. The word political is derived from the Greek polis, meaning a city, of what today would be equivalent of sovereign state. Science comes from the Latin score, “to know” Scope of Political Science: 1 _ Political theory 2. Public Law 3. Public Administration Political Theory It refers to the inure body of doctrines relating to the rolling, form, behavior, and purposes of the state are dealt with the study of political theory.
Public Law – the (a) organization of governments, (b) the limitations upon government authority, (c) the powers and duties of governmental offices and officers, and (d) the obligations of one state to another are handled In the study of public law. Private Laws are the one which govern the relations among individuals, public law is so specialized that separate courses offered in each of its subdivisions, namely: (a) constitutional law, (b) administrative law, and (c) international Law.
Public Administration – attention Is focused upon methods and techniques used branches of government. N. B, today, legislative bodies have been forced to delegate greater discretion to executive officers responsible for the conduct of government policies and powers. Thus we find many administrative agencies exercising quasi-legislative and quasi- judicial powers. Interrelationship of Political Science with other branches of learning: History “History is past politics and politics is present history. Political Scientist adopts a “historical approach and employs knowledge of the past when he seeks to interpret present and probable developments in political phenomena. 2. Economics Refers to the study of production, distribution, and conservation, and consumption of wealth. Political Scientist adopts an “economic approach” when seeking to interpret matters like public financial policies and government regulation of business. 3. Geography Geopolitics
It is concerned with the study of the influences of physical factors such as population pressures, sources of raw materials, geography, etc. Upon domestic and foreign politics. 4. Sociology & anthropology It is deeply concerned with the origins and nature of social control and governmental authority, with the abiding influences of race and culture upon society, & with the patterns of collective human behavior. 5. Psychology It promotes studies of the mental and emotional processes motivating the political behavior of individuals and groups.
Particular topics under this are: public pinion, pressure groups, and propaganda. 6. Philosophy in academic philosophy and also to the political scientist. 7. Statistics and Logic Political theorist must have abroad background & knowledge of current political problems and he must employ scientific methods in gathering and evaluating the data & in drawing conclusions. 8. Jurisprudence This branch of public law is concerned with the analysis of existing legal systems & also with the ethical, historical, sociological, & psychological foundations of law.
Concepts of State Meaning of the State State is a community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having a government of their own to which the great body of inhabitants render obedience, and enjoying freedom from external control. Elements of State: 1. People 2. Territory 3. Government 4. Sovereignty 5. Recognition This refers to the mass of population living within the state. There is no requirement as to the number of people that should compose a state. But it should be neither too small nor too large: small enough to be well-governed and large enough to be self-sufficing.
The smallest state is Vatican. China has the largest population. 2. Territory Components of Territory: . Terrestrial/land mass 3. Fluvial 4. Maritime Domain The smallest state is Vatican State with an area of 0. 43 square kilometers. It would fit in Racial Park in Manila. The biggest state is Canada with an area of 3,852,000 square miles which covers a surface nearly as large as Europe. The Philippines has a total land area of about 115,707 square miles . It refers to the agency through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and carried out.
It is the supreme power of the state to command and enforce obedience to its will from people within its Jurisdiction, and to have freedom from foreign control. Two manifestations of Sovereignty: 1. Internal or the power of the state to rule within its territory; 2. External or the freedom of the state to carry out its activities without subjection or control by other states. External sovereignty is often referred to as independence. N. B these internal and external aspects of sovereignty are not absolutely true in practice because of the development of international relations and consequently international law. . Legal sovereignty is the possession of unlimited power to make laws. It is the authority by which law has the power to issue commands. 2. Political sovereignty is the sum total of all the influences in a state which lie behind the law. It is roughly defined as the power of the people. What is emporium? Dominion? Secure obedience thereto, maintain peace and order within its territorial limits, defend the State against foreign invasion, and do any other act of government over its people and territory.
Dominion refers to the independent proprietary right of possession, use, conservation, disposition or sale, and control by the State over its territorial lands. How do you treat the Claim of the Philips. Over Saba? Is it emporium or dominion? Answer: It is both emporium and dominion. We seek to own exclusively Saba and in so owning, we have to exercise our sovereignty to govern the same. Characteristics of Sovereignty Permanence; Exclusivity; Comprehensiveness; Absoluteness; Individuality; Inalienability; and Impressibility Permanence means it exist in the same form forever or for a very long time.
Exclusivity means it is limited to a group of people. Comprehensiveness means including everything, so as to be complete comprehensive knowledge of the subject. Absoluteness means possessing unlimited power: having total power and authority. Individuality means the state or condition of being separate from others. Inalienability means it is impossible to take away or not able to be transferred or taken away, e. G. Because of being protected by law. Impressibility it means not to be taken away or impossible to remove or violate the people’s imperceptible rights. Governance manner of government: the system or manner of government; 2. Tate of governing a place: the act or state of governing a place; 3. Authority: control or authority It means the management of the affairs of a business, organization, or institution. GOVERNMENT Forms of Government: The principal forms are the following: 1 . As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers; 2. As to extent of powers exercised by the central or national government; 3. As to relationship between the executive and the legislative branches of the government; 4. As to source of power or authority: 1 . As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers: A.
Government by one AY) Monarchy or one in which the supreme and final authority is in the hands of a single person without regard to the source of his election or the nature or duration of his tenure. Monarchies are further classified into: Monarchy, form of government in which one person has the hereditary right to rule as head of state during his or her lifetime; the term is also applied to the state so governed. Monarchs include such rulers as kings and queens, emperors and empresses, tsars, and Kaisers. Two types of Monarchical government: 1 . Absolute Monarchy or one in which the ruler rules by divine right; and 2.
Limited monarchy or one in which the ruler rules in accordance with a constitution. The power of the monarch varies from absolute to very limited; the latter is AAA Authoritarian or one in which the supreme power of the dictator whose power is usually through force. 1 . Strict and demanding obedience: favoring strict rules and established authority; 2. Demanding political obedience: belonging to or believing in a political system in which obedience to the ruling person or group is strongly enforced. B. Government by few Bal Aristocracy or one in which political power is exercised by few privileged class. . People of highest social class: people of noble families or the highest social class 2. Superior group: a group believed to be superior to all others of the same kind 3. Overspent by elite: government of a country by a small group of people, especially a hereditary nobility 4. State run by elite: a state governed by an aristocracy. 82 Oligarchy 1 . Small governing group: a small group of people who together govern a nation or control an organization, often for their own purposes; 2. Entity ruled by oligarchy: a nation governed or an organization controlled by an oligarchy; 3. Overspent by small group: government or control by a small group of people. Sources of their power: By births. By wealthy. By wisdom In an aristocracy, although the power of government is wielded by a few, hermetically the administration of government is carried on for the welfare of the many. Whenever the interests of the people as a whole are made subservient to the selfish interests of the rulers, aristocracy becomes a form of government known as oligarchy. CLC Democracy or one in which political power is exercised by the majority of the people. It is further classified into: CLC . Direct or pure democracy or one in which the will of the state is formulated or expressed directly and immediately through the people in a mass meeting or primary assembly rather than through the medium of representatives chosen by the people o act for them. CLC . 2 Indirect, representative or republican democracy or one in which the will of the state is formulated and expressed through the agency of a relatively small and select body of persons chosen by the people to act as their representatives. 2. As to extent of powers exercised by the central or national government: A.
Unitary government or one in which the control of national and local affairs is exercised by the national government; B. Federal government or one in which the powers of government are divided between two sets of organs, one for national affairs and the other for local affairs, ACH organ being supreme within its own sphere. Didst. Bet. Federal & Unitary Covet Federal states, such as the U. S. And Switzerland, comprise unions of states in which the authority of the central or national government is constitutionally limited by the legally established powers of the constituent subdivisions.
In unitary states, such as the United Kingdom and Belgium, the constituent subdivisions of the state are subordinate to the authority of the national government. Countries with federal political systems have both a central government and overspent based in smaller political units, usually called states, provinces, or territories. These smaller political units surrender some of their political power to the central government, relying on it to act for the common good. In a federal system, laws are made both by state, provincial, or territorial governments and by a central government.
In the United States, for example, people who live in the state of Ohio must obey the laws made by the Ohio legislature and the Congress of the United States. Federal political systems divide power and resources between central and Central governments decide issues that concern the whole country, such as organizing an army, building major roads, and making treaties with other countries. In unitary systems, with laws giving virtually all authority to the central government.
The central government may delegate duties to cities or other administrative units, but it retains final authority and can retract any tasks it has delegated. The central government in a unitary system is much more powerful than the central government in a federal system. Government: A. Parliamentary government or cabinet gobo. Is one in which the executive and selective branch of the government are dependent or executive branch is part of the legislative branch. B. Presidential government or one in which the state makes the executive independent from the legislative.
Distinctions bet. Presidential & Parliamentary In parliamentary governments, of which the United Kingdom, India, and Canada are examples, the executive branch is subordinate to the legislature. In presidential governments, such as in the U. S. , the executive is independent of the legislature, although many of the executive’s actions are subject to legislative review. A. De facto is one not so constituted or founded with the existing constitution but has the general support of the people and has effective control of the territory over which it exercises its powers.
B. De Cure is one which is constituted or founded in accordance with the existing constitution of the state but has no control of the territory. C. Hereditary & Elective Checks and Balances, the doctrine and practice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability among political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens. The first check comes from the fact that different branches of the government have overlapping authority, so each branch can act as a limit on the other.
For example, the president can veto an act of Congress. A two-thirds majority in Congress can then override the president’s veto. The president appoints major federal officials, but only if the Senate by majority vote agrees. Separation of Powers, the doctrine and practice of dividing the powers of a government among different branches to guard against abuse of authority. A government of separated powers assigns different political and legal powers o the legislative, executive, and Judicial branches. The legislative branch has the power to make laws.
The executive branch has the authority to administer the law”primarily by bringing lawbreakers to trial”and to appoint officials and oversee the administration of government responsibilities. The Judicial branch has the power to try cases brought to court and to interpret the meaning of laws under which the trials are conducted. A government of separated powers is less likely to be tyrannical and more likely to follow the rule of law: the principle that government action must be constrained by saws.
A separation of powers can also make a political system more democratic by making it more difficult for a single ruler, such as a monarch or a president, to become dictatorial. The division of powers also prevents one branch of government from dominating the others or dictating the laws to the public. Most democratic systems have some degree of separation of powers. POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES Liberalism, attitude, philosophy, or movement that has as its basic concern the development of personal freedom and social progress. The course of liberalism in a given country is usually conditioned by the character