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Poetry Midterm

Verse
1) Any single line of poetry
2) any composition written in separate lines of more or less regular rhythm, in contrast to prose

Paraphrase
Restatement in one’s own words of what one understands a poem to say or suggest. Similar to a summary, not as brief or simple.

Subject
The main topic of a work, whatever the work is about

Theme
Generally recurring subject or idea noticeably evident in a literary work. Not all subjects in a work can be considered themes, only the central one(s)

Lyric Poem
A short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings and thoughts of a single speaker. Often written in first person, it traditionally has a songlike immediacy and emotional force.

Narrative Poem
A poem that tells a story. Ballads and epics are two common forms of narrative poetry.

Dramatic monologue
A poem written as a speech made by a character at some decisive moment. The speaker is usually addressing a silent listener.

Didactic poem
A poem intended to teach a moral lesson or impart a body of knowledge.

Tone
Mood or manner of expression in a literary work, which conveys an attitude toward the work’s subject, which may be playful, sarcastic, ironic, sad, solemn, or any other possible attitude. Helps to establish the readers relationship to characters or ideas presented in the work.

Satiric Poetry
Poetry that blends criticism with humor to convey a message, usually through the use of irony and a tone of detached amusement, withering contempt, and implied superiority.

Persona
Latin for “mask.” A fictitious character created by an author to be the speak of a literary work.

Irony
A discrepancy between what is said and what is meant. In life, a discrepancy between what is expected and what occurs.

Verbal irony
a mode of expression in which the speaker or writer says the opposite of what is really meant, such as saying “Great Story!” in response to a boring, pointless anecdote.

Sarcasm
A style of bitter irony intended to hurt or mock its target

Dramatic Irony
A situation in which the larger implications of character’s words, actions, or situation are unrealized by that character but seen by the author and the reader or audience.

Cosmic Irony
The contrast between a character’s position or aspiration and the treatment he or she receives at the hands of a seemingly hostile fate; also called irony of fate.

Diction
Word choice or vocabulary. Refers to the class of words that an author chooses as appropriate for a particular work.

Concrete diction
Words that specifically name or describe things or persons. Words refer to what we can immediately perceive with our senses.

Abstract diction
Words that express general ideas or concepts

Poetic diction
Strictly speaking, this kind of diction means any language intended for poetry rather than common use

Allusion
A brief, sometimes indirect, reference in a text to a person, place, or thing. Imply a common body of knowledge between reader and writer and act as a literary shorthand to enrich the meaning of a text. Reference to Shared knowledge between author and reader outside of text.

Vulgate
Lowest level of diction, language of the common people.

Colloquial English
Casual or informal but correct language of ordinary native speakers. Includes contractions, slang, and shifts in grammar, vocabulary, and diction.

General English
Ordinary speech of educated native speakers. Most literate speech and writing is general English. Diction more educated than Colloquial, not as elevated as formal.

Formal English
Heightened, impersonal language of educated persons, usually only written, possibly spoken on dignified occasions.

Dialect
A particular variety of language spoken by an identifiable regional group or social class of persons.

Image
A word or series of words that refers to any sensory experience(usually sight though also sound, smell, touch, or taste.) Is a direct or literal recreation of physical experience and adds immediacy to literary language.

Imagery
The collective set of images in a poem or other literary work

Haiku
A japanese verse form that has three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables. often serious and spiritual in tone, relying mostly on imagery and usually set in one of the four seasons.

euphony
The harmonious effect when the sounds of the words connect with the meaning in a way pleasing to the ear and mind. its opposite is cacophony.

Ballad
A song that tells a story. Characteristically compressed dramatic and objective in their narrative style.

Folk ballads
Anonymous narrative songs originally created for oral performance.

Ballad stanza
Most common pattern for ballad, consisting of four lines rimed a b c b

Literary Ballad
Not meant for singing, written by a sophisticated poet for educated readers, rather than arising from the anonymous oral tradition.

Alliteration
Repetition of a consonant sound in a line of verse or prose. Can be used at beginning of words or to stress internal syllables.

Assonance
Repetition of two or more vowel sounds in successive words, which creates a kind of rime.

cacophony
A harsh, discordant sound often mirroring the meaning of the context in which it is sued. its opposite is euphony.

Onomatopoeia
An attempt to represent a thing or action by a word that imitates the sound associated with it.

Stress
Emphasis or accent placed on a syllable in speech. Unstressed syllable in a line of verse is the slack syllable.

Rhythm
Recurring pattern of stresses and pauses in a poem. A fixed version of this in a poem is called a meter.

Prosody
The study of metrical structures in poetry

Scansion
A practice used to describe rhythmic patterns in a poem by separating the metrical feet, counting syllables, marking the accents, and indicating the cesuras.

Cesura or Caesura
A light but definite pause within a line of verse. Cesuras often appear near the middle of a line, but their placement may be carried for rhythmic effect.

Run-on line
A line of verse that does not end in punctuation, but carries on grammatically to the next line. use of this type of line is called enjambent.

End-stopped line
A lien of verse that ends in a full pause, often indicated by a mark of punctuation.

Foot
The basic unit of measurement in metrical poetry. Each separate meter is identified by the pattern and order of stressed and unstressed syllables in its foot.

Lamb
Metrical foot in verse in which an unaccented syllable is followed by an accented one.

Iambic pentameter
Most common meter in English verse, many mixed forms, such as the sonnet and heroic couplets, employ this type of meter.

Anapest
A metrical foot in verse in which two unstressed syllables are followed by a stressed one

Trochee
A metrical foot in which a stressed syllable is followed by an unstressed one.

Dactyl
A metrical foot in which one stressed syllable is followed by two unstressed ones. less common in english than in classical greek and latin.

Spondee
A metrical foot of verse consisting of two stressed syllables.

accentual meter
Verse meter based on the number of stressed per line, not the number of syllables.

Form
A literary work expresses its content. in poetry, used to describe the design of the poem.

Fixed form
Traditional verse requiring certain predetermined elements of structure or predetermined length.

Closed form
A generic term that describes poetry written in a pattern of meter, rime, lines, or stanzas. adheres to a set structure.

Open form
Verse that has no set scheme, no regular meter, rime, or stanzaic pattern. Also known as free verse.

Quatrain
A stanza consisting of four lines, it is the most common stanza form used in English-language poetry

Epic
Long narrative poem tracing the adventures of a popular hero, usually with consistent form and meter throughout.

Epigram
Very short, comic poem, often turing at the end with some sharp wit or unexpected singer.

The Lake of Inisfree
William Butler Yeats

Those Winter Sundays
Robert Hayden

Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers
Adrienne Rich

Sir Patrick Spence
Anonymous

Out, Out-
Robert Frost

My Last Duchess
Robert Browning, most famous dramatic monologue in human history

Ask Me
William Stafford

For A Lady I know
County Cullen

The Author To Her Book
Anne Bradstreet

To A Locomotive in winter
Walt Whitman

Emily Dickinson
I like to see it lap the Miles

Doo Woop
Kevin Young

Weldon Kees
For my daughter

White Lies
Natasha Trethewey

Luke Havergal
Edwin Arlington Robinson

Hawk Roosting
Ted Hughes

Monologue for an Onion
Suji Kwock Kim

I Wandered Lonely As a Cloud
William Wordsworth

Journal Entry
Dorothy Wordsworth

A Glass of Beer
James Stephens

Her Kind
Anne Sexton

The Red Wheelbarrow
William Carlos Williams

Oh No
Robert Creeley

The Unknown Citizen
W.H. Auden

Rite of Passage
Sharon Olds

Dakota: October, 1822: Hunkpapa Warrior
Rod Taylor

The Golf Links
Sarah N. Cleghorn

Second Fig
Edna St. Vincent Millay

Comment
Dorothy Parker

Making it in poetry
Bob Hicok

The Measures Taken
Erich Fried

At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border
William Safford

To Lucasta
Richard Lovelace

Dulce et Decorum Est
Wilfred Owen

This is Just to Say
William Carlos William

My Papa’s Waltz
Theodore Roethke

Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You
John Donne

Aftermath
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Down, Wanton, Down
Robert Graves

Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You
John Donne

Chemise
Kay Ryan

Friend, on the scaffold Thomas More Lies
J.V. Cunningham

Dog Haiku
Anonymous

Upon Julia’s Clothes
Robert Herrick

Lonely Hearts
Wendy Cope

Jabberwocky
Lewis Carroll

Next to of course god america i
E.E. Cummings

Love Calls Us to Things of the World
Richard Wilbur

The Winter’s Settles Down
T.S. Eliot

Not Waving But Drowning
Stevie Smith

The falling flower
Arakida Moritake

The Fish
Elizabeth Bishop

Who said, “go in fear of abstractions?’
Ezra pound

Pied Beauty
Gerard Manley Hopkins

Temporal Vs. Spatial
temporal is when it happens in a set, plot-like order, whereas spatial is just occurring in an unmarked time (like various images)

What did Ezra pound found?
Imagism as a reaction against abstract language in poetry, to get to exact details, to be concise.

The Panther
Rainer Maria Rilke

The Eagle
Alfred, Lord Tennyson

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
William Shakespeare

My life had stood- a Loaded Gun
Emily Dickinson

Flower in A Crannied Wall
Alfred, Lord Tennyson

to see a world in a grain of sand
William Blake

Metaphors
Sylvia Plath

On the one-ton temple bell
Taniguchi Buson

Oh, my love is like a red, red rose
Robert Burns

It Dropped so low- in my regard
Emily Dickinson

The wind
james stephen

You fit into me
margaret atwood

the pulley
george herbert

money
dana gioia

fog
carl sandburg

my shoes
charles sinic

the silken tent
robert frost

the suitor
jane kenyon

the secret sits
robert frost

Coward
A.R. Annons

Madrigals
short secular songs for three or more voices arranged in counterpoint. always short usually one stanza

o mistress mine
william shakespeare

Richard Cory
Edward Arlington Robinson

Rising meters
movement rises from unstressed syllables ex: Iambic and anapestic

Falling meters
movements rise form stressed syllables
ex: trochaic and dactylic

line that does not end in punctuation
run-on line

cesura
defined pause in a line meaning “a cutting”

Consonance
a kind of slant rime, occurs when the rimed words or phrases have the same beginning and ending consonant sounds but a different vowel, as in chitter and chatter

End rime
comes at the ends of lines, internal rime within them. most rime tends to be this kind, poem may use this and internal rime.

Masculine rime
rime of one-syllable words(and in words of more than one syllable) stressed final syllables

Feminine rime
rime of two or more syllables, with stress on a syllable other than the last

Talks about the music of poetry
T.S. Eliot

Virginia by T.S. Eliot is part of what larger series?
Landscapes

Who wrote “Full Fathom five thy father lies?” and in what play is it sung? by what character, and to whom?
Written by William Shakespeare, used in “The Tempest.” Sung by Ariel to Ferdinand, prince of Naples, who mistakenly thinks his father is drowned

Initial alliteration
Succession of similar sounding words

Internal alliteration or hidden alliteration
Similar sounds occur inside of words

Onomatopoeia
attempt to represent a thing or action by a words that imitates the sound associated with it

Who goes with Fergus?
Fergus: Irish King who gave up his throne to be a wandering post

What is most important poetic sound?
Rhythm

“The sound must seem an echo to the sense.”
Alexander Pope

True ease in writing comes from Art, not Chance
Alexander Pope

Emergence of Rap
Four meter stressed syllables, a kind of poetry that formed in 1980s and comes out of the English tradition. recited to a driving rhythmic beat

Blues
Originally type of folk music developed by black slaves in the South, has distinctive form and tone. Traditionally consist of three-line stanzas in which the first two identical lines are followed by concluding riming third line.

What is this an example of? “He was my North, my South, my East, and West,” and what work is it from?
1) Personification/ metaphor
2) Funeral Blues by W.H. Auden

Ballad Stanza
four lines rimed a b c d to fall into 8, 6, 8, and 6 syllables

Literary Ballads
not intended to be sung, instead to be read by educated readers that who to be reminded of folk

Folk ballads
story songs transmitted orally before they were ever written down.

Name a traditional scottish ballad
1) Sir Patrick Spence by Anonymous
2) Bonny Barbara Allan

Troubadours
minstrels of the late middle ages

terminal refrain
usually follows immediately after a stanza, called what?

internal refrain
one that appears within a stanza, generally in a position that stays fixed throughout a poem.

“A bird doesn’t sing because it has an answer, it sings because it has a song.”- who said this?
maya angelou

Identify examples of personification and apostrophe in “Hands”
“Beautiful country, her season, her beauty,”
Last three stanzas are apostrophe from Saying: “Look…And be supplanted; for you are also human.” implying that someone else (god? nature? mother earth?) is speaking to the brown people, appreciating the work of their hands

Apostrophe
In _________, a speaker may address an inanimate object, a dead or absent person, an abstract thing, or spirit. Often used to provide a speaker with means to articulate thoughts aloud.

Typical ballad
4 beats, 3 beats, 4 beats, 3 beats

“Cosmos in bloom
as if no war
were taking place” What literary devices are used here? who is the author?
Personification
Author is Suiko Matsushita.

Connotation
Overtones or suggestions of additional meaning that it gains form all the contexts in which have met it in the past.

Meaning
suggestion+ association i images, what author doesn’t see, what he wishes to see

Southeast Corner. Who is the author and what is the “Southeast Corner?”
Gwendolyn Brooks, cemetery in CHicago where a number of prominent African Americans including Brooks herself, are buried.

denotation
a meaning as defined in a dictionary. Can change depending on context. Can change depending on noun, verb, adjective, etc.

Cargoes. Who is author and what are some main themes in this work?
John Masefield, places in the first two stanzas suggest exotica and far away. Ophir, a vanished place, may have been in Arabia; according to the Bible, King Solomon sent expeditioners there for luxury items. last stanza contrasts previously mentioned items with crudeness of common things. quinquireme=rowing, galleon=dipping

What are gold moidores?
portuguese coins

Poetic Diction
Strictly speaking, this means any language deemed suitable for verse, but the term generally refers to elevated language intended for poetry rather than common use.

pormanteau word. what work/author is this from, and what does this word mean? break down it’s roots
An artificial word that combines parts of other words to express some combination of their qualities( for ex: Brunch combines breakfast & lunch) This word means a large suitcase that opens up into two separate compartments Port= to wear
Man= to coat
Portman=luggage with two pieces

What was Lewis Caroll’s real name?
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson

Define Villanelle. List 3 examples
fixed form developed by the French courtly poets in imitation of Italian folk song. ex: Lonely Hearts by Wendy Cope, One Art by Elizabeth Bishop, and Do Not go gentle into that good night” by Dylan Thomas

State who said this and where? ” Poetry begins in trivial metaphors, pretty metaphors, ‘grace’ metaphors, and goes on to the profoundest thinking we have. Poetry provides that one permissible way of saying one thing and meaning another.”
Robert Frost in “Education by Poetry”

Overstatement
Also called hyperbole. Exaggeration used to emphasize a point.

Synecdoche
The use of a significant part to stand for the whole thing ex: wheels to stand for car

Understatement
An ironice figure of speech that deliberately describes something in a way
that is less than the case

Paradox
A statement that at first strikes one as self-contradictory, but that on reflection reveals some deeper sense. Paradox is often achieved by a play on words.

Metonymy
Figure of speech in which the name of a thing is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. For instance, we might say “The White House decided” when we mean that the president did

Simile
A comparison of two things, indicated by some connective, usually like, as, or than, or a verb such as resembles. usually compares two things that initially seem unlike but are shown to have a significant resemblance.

Metaphor
a statement that one thing is something else, which, in a literal sense, it is not. A metaphor creates a close association between the two entities and underscores some important similarity between them.

Implied metaphor
used neither connectives nor the verb to be. “John crowed over his victory” assume John is a rooster but do not say so specifically

Mixed metaphor
The usually unintentional combining of two or more incompatible resulting in ridiculousness/nonsense. ex: mary was such a tower of strength that she breezed her way through all the work. (Towers do not breeze)

Who said, “money is a kind of poetry?”
Wallace Stevens

Who wrote “a martian sends a postcard home?” what does the title mean?
Craig raine, title means that a martian literally describes everyday activity on earth, but the visitor seems them all from an alien perspective. Narrator is Martian, and lacks complete vocal, and sometimes describes general categories of things with a proper noun. Can you translate it back into earth based English?

Who said, “all slang is metaphor, and all metaphor is poetry?”
G.K. Chesterton

A route of evanescence is by whom? and why is it titled this? what was it’s original title?
Emily Dickinson, originally titled “a humming-bird” in letter to a friend. Ornithologist’s term for the luminous sheen of certain bird’s feathers Tunis: capital city of tunisia

Where was “the Panther written” and by whom?
Written at the Jardin des Plantes, Paris or “garden of plants,” a large botanical garden of the bank of the river Seine, which also has small zoo. Written by Rainer Maria Rilke

State author that said this, “it is better to present one image in a lifetime than to produce voluminous works.” What literary development was he referring to?
Ezra pound in reference to imagism

Types of imagery
1) sight
2) sound
3) touch
4) taste
5) smell
1) visual
2) auditory
3) tactile
4)gustatory
5) olfactory

Name author and literary devices and type of poem
The piercing chill I feel:
my dead wife’s comb, in our bedroom,
under my heel…
Taniguchi Buson, Haiku, visual and tactile imagery

Who wrote “The Tyger?”
William Blake

who wrote “Ulysses?”
Alfred, Lord Tennyson

who wrote ” as i walked out on the evening?”
W.H. Auden

Iamb
line made up primarily of unstressed syllable followed by stressed syllable

Anapestic
line made up primarily two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable

Trochaic
a line made up primarily of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable

dactylic
a line made up primarily of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables

Prose poetry
poetic language printed in prose paragraphs, but displaying the careful attention to sound, imagery, and figurative language characteristic of poetry.

Concrete poetry
A visual poetry composed exclusively for the page in which a picture of image is made of printed letters and words. Concrete poetry attempts to blur the line between language and visual objects, usually relying on puns and cleverness.

Free verse
Originally French vers libre. Poetry whose lines follow no consistent meter. It may be rimed, but usually is not.

Symbol
A person, place, or thing in a narrative that suggest meanings beyond its literal sense. Related to allegory, but works more complexly. Bears more multiple suggestions and associations. It is unique to the work not common to a culture.

Symbolic act
An action whose significance goes well beyond its literal meaning. In literature, it often involves a primal or unconscious ritual element such as rebirth, purification, forgiveness, vengeance, or initiation.

Convential symbols
Symbols that, because of their frequent use, have acquired a standard significance. They may range from complex metaphysical images such as those of Christian saints in Gothic art to social customs such as a young bride in white dress. They are _______ because they carry recognizable meanings and suggestions.

Myth
A traditional narrative of anonymous authorship that arises out of a culture’s oral tradition. The characters are often gods or heroic figures engaged in significant actions or decisions. Usually differentiated form legend, which has specific historical base.

Archetype
Recurring symbol, character, landscape, or event found in myth and literature across different cultures and eras, one that appears so often that it evokes a universal response.

Bathos
An unintentional lapse form the sublime to the ridiculous or trivial. An attempt to capture the grand and profound that comes off as inflated and fatuous.

Convention
Any established feature of technique in literature that is commonly understood by authors and readers. A something that is generally agreed on to be appropriate for customary uses, such as the sonnet form for a love poem or the opening “Once upon a time” for fairy tale.

Conceit
A far-flung and often extended metaphor comparing dissimilar things. John Donne, for example, casts his doctors as cosmographers and his body as their map.

Poetic inversion
usually done for purposed of meter and/or rime, the _______of normal word order

Sentimentality
a term negatively applied to a literary work that tries to convey great feeling but fails to give the reader sufficient grounds for sharing it. Involves an emotion that is excessive in relation to its cause, as opposed to, ______ which connotes one proper to its cause.

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