1) Any single line of poetry
2) any composition written in separate lines of more or less regular rhythm, in contrast to prose
Restatement in one’s own words of what one understands a poem to say or suggest. Similar to a summary, not as brief or simple.
The main topic of a work, whatever the work is about
Generally recurring subject or idea noticeably evident in a literary work. Not all subjects in a work can be considered themes, only the central one(s)
A short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings and thoughts of a single speaker. Often written in first person, it traditionally has a songlike immediacy and emotional force.
A poem that tells a story. Ballads and epics are two common forms of narrative poetry.
A poem written as a speech made by a character at some decisive moment. The speaker is usually addressing a silent listener.
A poem intended to teach a moral lesson or impart a body of knowledge.
Mood or manner of expression in a literary work, which conveys an attitude toward the work’s subject, which may be playful, sarcastic, ironic, sad, solemn, or any other possible attitude. Helps to establish the readers relationship to characters or ideas presented in the work.
Poetry that blends criticism with humor to convey a message, usually through the use of irony and a tone of detached amusement, withering contempt, and implied superiority.
Latin for “mask.” A fictitious character created by an author to be the speak of a literary work.
A discrepancy between what is said and what is meant. In life, a discrepancy between what is expected and what occurs.
a mode of expression in which the speaker or writer says the opposite of what is really meant, such as saying “Great Story!” in response to a boring, pointless anecdote.
A style of bitter irony intended to hurt or mock its target
A situation in which the larger implications of character’s words, actions, or situation are unrealized by that character but seen by the author and the reader or audience.
The contrast between a character’s position or aspiration and the treatment he or she receives at the hands of a seemingly hostile fate; also called irony of fate.
Word choice or vocabulary. Refers to the class of words that an author chooses as appropriate for a particular work.
Words that specifically name or describe things or persons. Words refer to what we can immediately perceive with our senses.
Words that express general ideas or concepts
Strictly speaking, this kind of diction means any language intended for poetry rather than common use
A brief, sometimes indirect, reference in a text to a person, place, or thing. Imply a common body of knowledge between reader and writer and act as a literary shorthand to enrich the meaning of a text. Reference to Shared knowledge between author and reader outside of text.
Lowest level of diction, language of the common people.
Casual or informal but correct language of ordinary native speakers. Includes contractions, slang, and shifts in grammar, vocabulary, and diction.
Ordinary speech of educated native speakers. Most literate speech and writing is general English. Diction more educated than Colloquial, not as elevated as formal.
Heightened, impersonal language of educated persons, usually only written, possibly spoken on dignified occasions.
A particular variety of language spoken by an identifiable regional group or social class of persons.
A word or series of words that refers to any sensory experience(usually sight though also sound, smell, touch, or taste.) Is a direct or literal recreation of physical experience and adds immediacy to literary language.
The collective set of images in a poem or other literary work
A japanese verse form that has three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables. often serious and spiritual in tone, relying mostly on imagery and usually set in one of the four seasons.
The harmonious effect when the sounds of the words connect with the meaning in a way pleasing to the ear and mind. its opposite is cacophony.
A song that tells a story. Characteristically compressed dramatic and objective in their narrative style.
Anonymous narrative songs originally created for oral performance.
Most common pattern for ballad, consisting of four lines rimed a b c b
Not meant for singing, written by a sophisticated poet for educated readers, rather than arising from the anonymous oral tradition.
Repetition of a consonant sound in a line of verse or prose. Can be used at beginning of words or to stress internal syllables.
Repetition of two or more vowel sounds in successive words, which creates a kind of rime.
A harsh, discordant sound often mirroring the meaning of the context in which it is sued. its opposite is euphony.
An attempt to represent a thing or action by a word that imitates the sound associated with it.
Emphasis or accent placed on a syllable in speech. Unstressed syllable in a line of verse is the slack syllable.
Recurring pattern of stresses and pauses in a poem. A fixed version of this in a poem is called a meter.
The study of metrical structures in poetry
A practice used to describe rhythmic patterns in a poem by separating the metrical feet, counting syllables, marking the accents, and indicating the cesuras.
Cesura or Caesura
A light but definite pause within a line of verse. Cesuras often appear near the middle of a line, but their placement may be carried for rhythmic effect.
A line of verse that does not end in punctuation, but carries on grammatically to the next line. use of this type of line is called enjambent.
A lien of verse that ends in a full pause, often indicated by a mark of punctuation.
The basic unit of measurement in metrical poetry. Each separate meter is identified by the pattern and order of stressed and unstressed syllables in its foot.
Metrical foot in verse in which an unaccented syllable is followed by an accented one.
Most common meter in English verse, many mixed forms, such as the sonnet and heroic couplets, employ this type of meter.
A metrical foot in verse in which two unstressed syllables are followed by a stressed one
A metrical foot in which a stressed syllable is followed by an unstressed one.
A metrical foot in which one stressed syllable is followed by two unstressed ones. less common in english than in classical greek and latin.
A metrical foot of verse consisting of two stressed syllables.
Verse meter based on the number of stressed per line, not the number of syllables.
A literary work expresses its content. in poetry, used to describe the design of the poem.
Traditional verse requiring certain predetermined elements of structure or predetermined length.
A generic term that describes poetry written in a pattern of meter, rime, lines, or stanzas. adheres to a set structure.
Verse that has no set scheme, no regular meter, rime, or stanzaic pattern. Also known as free verse.
A stanza consisting of four lines, it is the most common stanza form used in English-language poetry
Long narrative poem tracing the adventures of a popular hero, usually with consistent form and meter throughout.
Very short, comic poem, often turing at the end with some sharp wit or unexpected singer.
The Lake of Inisfree
William Butler Yeats
Those Winter Sundays
Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers
Sir Patrick Spence
My Last Duchess
Robert Browning, most famous dramatic monologue in human history
For A Lady I know
The Author To Her Book
To A Locomotive in winter
I like to see it lap the Miles
For my daughter
Edwin Arlington Robinson
Monologue for an Onion
Suji Kwock Kim
I Wandered Lonely As a Cloud
A Glass of Beer
The Red Wheelbarrow
William Carlos Williams
The Unknown Citizen
Rite of Passage
Dakota: October, 1822: Hunkpapa Warrior
The Golf Links
Sarah N. Cleghorn
Edna St. Vincent Millay
Making it in poetry
The Measures Taken
At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border
Dulce et Decorum Est
This is Just to Say
William Carlos William
My Papa’s Waltz
Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Down, Wanton, Down
Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You
Friend, on the scaffold Thomas More Lies
Upon Julia’s Clothes
Next to of course god america i
Love Calls Us to Things of the World
The Winter’s Settles Down
Not Waving But Drowning
The falling flower
Who said, “go in fear of abstractions?’
Gerard Manley Hopkins
Temporal Vs. Spatial
temporal is when it happens in a set, plot-like order, whereas spatial is just occurring in an unmarked time (like various images)
What did Ezra pound found?
Imagism as a reaction against abstract language in poetry, to get to exact details, to be concise.
Rainer Maria Rilke
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
My life had stood- a Loaded Gun
Flower in A Crannied Wall
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
to see a world in a grain of sand
On the one-ton temple bell
Oh, my love is like a red, red rose
It Dropped so low- in my regard
You fit into me
the silken tent
the secret sits
short secular songs for three or more voices arranged in counterpoint. always short usually one stanza
o mistress mine
Edward Arlington Robinson
movement rises from unstressed syllables ex: Iambic and anapestic
movements rise form stressed syllables
ex: trochaic and dactylic
line that does not end in punctuation
defined pause in a line meaning “a cutting”
a kind of slant rime, occurs when the rimed words or phrases have the same beginning and ending consonant sounds but a different vowel, as in chitter and chatter
comes at the ends of lines, internal rime within them. most rime tends to be this kind, poem may use this and internal rime.
rime of one-syllable words(and in words of more than one syllable) stressed final syllables
rime of two or more syllables, with stress on a syllable other than the last
Talks about the music of poetry
Virginia by T.S. Eliot is part of what larger series?
Who wrote “Full Fathom five thy father lies?” and in what play is it sung? by what character, and to whom?
Written by William Shakespeare, used in “The Tempest.” Sung by Ariel to Ferdinand, prince of Naples, who mistakenly thinks his father is drowned
Succession of similar sounding words
Internal alliteration or hidden alliteration
Similar sounds occur inside of words
attempt to represent a thing or action by a words that imitates the sound associated with it
Who goes with Fergus?
Fergus: Irish King who gave up his throne to be a wandering post
What is most important poetic sound?
“The sound must seem an echo to the sense.”
True ease in writing comes from Art, not Chance
Emergence of Rap
Four meter stressed syllables, a kind of poetry that formed in 1980s and comes out of the English tradition. recited to a driving rhythmic beat
Originally type of folk music developed by black slaves in the South, has distinctive form and tone. Traditionally consist of three-line stanzas in which the first two identical lines are followed by concluding riming third line.
What is this an example of? “He was my North, my South, my East, and West,” and what work is it from?
1) Personification/ metaphor
2) Funeral Blues by W.H. Auden
four lines rimed a b c d to fall into 8, 6, 8, and 6 syllables
not intended to be sung, instead to be read by educated readers that who to be reminded of folk
story songs transmitted orally before they were ever written down.
Name a traditional scottish ballad
1) Sir Patrick Spence by Anonymous
2) Bonny Barbara Allan
minstrels of the late middle ages
usually follows immediately after a stanza, called what?
one that appears within a stanza, generally in a position that stays fixed throughout a poem.
“A bird doesn’t sing because it has an answer, it sings because it has a song.”- who said this?
Identify examples of personification and apostrophe in “Hands”
“Beautiful country, her season, her beauty,”
Last three stanzas are apostrophe from Saying: “Look…And be supplanted; for you are also human.” implying that someone else (god? nature? mother earth?) is speaking to the brown people, appreciating the work of their hands
In _________, a speaker may address an inanimate object, a dead or absent person, an abstract thing, or spirit. Often used to provide a speaker with means to articulate thoughts aloud.
4 beats, 3 beats, 4 beats, 3 beats
“Cosmos in bloom
as if no war
were taking place” What literary devices are used here? who is the author?
Author is Suiko Matsushita.
Overtones or suggestions of additional meaning that it gains form all the contexts in which have met it in the past.
suggestion+ association i images, what author doesn’t see, what he wishes to see
Southeast Corner. Who is the author and what is the “Southeast Corner?”
Gwendolyn Brooks, cemetery in CHicago where a number of prominent African Americans including Brooks herself, are buried.
a meaning as defined in a dictionary. Can change depending on context. Can change depending on noun, verb, adjective, etc.
Cargoes. Who is author and what are some main themes in this work?
John Masefield, places in the first two stanzas suggest exotica and far away. Ophir, a vanished place, may have been in Arabia; according to the Bible, King Solomon sent expeditioners there for luxury items. last stanza contrasts previously mentioned items with crudeness of common things. quinquireme=rowing, galleon=dipping
What are gold moidores?
Strictly speaking, this means any language deemed suitable for verse, but the term generally refers to elevated language intended for poetry rather than common use.
pormanteau word. what work/author is this from, and what does this word mean? break down it’s roots
An artificial word that combines parts of other words to express some combination of their qualities( for ex: Brunch combines breakfast & lunch) This word means a large suitcase that opens up into two separate compartments Port= to wear
Man= to coat
Portman=luggage with two pieces
What was Lewis Caroll’s real name?
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson
Define Villanelle. List 3 examples
fixed form developed by the French courtly poets in imitation of Italian folk song. ex: Lonely Hearts by Wendy Cope, One Art by Elizabeth Bishop, and Do Not go gentle into that good night” by Dylan Thomas
State who said this and where? ” Poetry begins in trivial metaphors, pretty metaphors, ‘grace’ metaphors, and goes on to the profoundest thinking we have. Poetry provides that one permissible way of saying one thing and meaning another.”
Robert Frost in “Education by Poetry”
Also called hyperbole. Exaggeration used to emphasize a point.
The use of a significant part to stand for the whole thing ex: wheels to stand for car
An ironice figure of speech that deliberately describes something in a way
that is less than the case
A statement that at first strikes one as self-contradictory, but that on reflection reveals some deeper sense. Paradox is often achieved by a play on words.
Figure of speech in which the name of a thing is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. For instance, we might say “The White House decided” when we mean that the president did
A comparison of two things, indicated by some connective, usually like, as, or than, or a verb such as resembles. usually compares two things that initially seem unlike but are shown to have a significant resemblance.
a statement that one thing is something else, which, in a literal sense, it is not. A metaphor creates a close association between the two entities and underscores some important similarity between them.
used neither connectives nor the verb to be. “John crowed over his victory” assume John is a rooster but do not say so specifically
The usually unintentional combining of two or more incompatible resulting in ridiculousness/nonsense. ex: mary was such a tower of strength that she breezed her way through all the work. (Towers do not breeze)
Who said, “money is a kind of poetry?”
Who wrote “a martian sends a postcard home?” what does the title mean?
Craig raine, title means that a martian literally describes everyday activity on earth, but the visitor seems them all from an alien perspective. Narrator is Martian, and lacks complete vocal, and sometimes describes general categories of things with a proper noun. Can you translate it back into earth based English?
Who said, “all slang is metaphor, and all metaphor is poetry?”
A route of evanescence is by whom? and why is it titled this? what was it’s original title?
Emily Dickinson, originally titled “a humming-bird” in letter to a friend. Ornithologist’s term for the luminous sheen of certain bird’s feathers Tunis: capital city of tunisia
Where was “the Panther written” and by whom?
Written at the Jardin des Plantes, Paris or “garden of plants,” a large botanical garden of the bank of the river Seine, which also has small zoo. Written by Rainer Maria Rilke
State author that said this, “it is better to present one image in a lifetime than to produce voluminous works.” What literary development was he referring to?
Ezra pound in reference to imagism
Types of imagery
Name author and literary devices and type of poem
The piercing chill I feel:
my dead wife’s comb, in our bedroom,
under my heel…
Taniguchi Buson, Haiku, visual and tactile imagery
Who wrote “The Tyger?”
who wrote “Ulysses?”
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
who wrote ” as i walked out on the evening?”
line made up primarily of unstressed syllable followed by stressed syllable
line made up primarily two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable
a line made up primarily of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable
a line made up primarily of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
poetic language printed in prose paragraphs, but displaying the careful attention to sound, imagery, and figurative language characteristic of poetry.
A visual poetry composed exclusively for the page in which a picture of image is made of printed letters and words. Concrete poetry attempts to blur the line between language and visual objects, usually relying on puns and cleverness.
Originally French vers libre. Poetry whose lines follow no consistent meter. It may be rimed, but usually is not.
A person, place, or thing in a narrative that suggest meanings beyond its literal sense. Related to allegory, but works more complexly. Bears more multiple suggestions and associations. It is unique to the work not common to a culture.
An action whose significance goes well beyond its literal meaning. In literature, it often involves a primal or unconscious ritual element such as rebirth, purification, forgiveness, vengeance, or initiation.
Symbols that, because of their frequent use, have acquired a standard significance. They may range from complex metaphysical images such as those of Christian saints in Gothic art to social customs such as a young bride in white dress. They are _______ because they carry recognizable meanings and suggestions.
A traditional narrative of anonymous authorship that arises out of a culture’s oral tradition. The characters are often gods or heroic figures engaged in significant actions or decisions. Usually differentiated form legend, which has specific historical base.
Recurring symbol, character, landscape, or event found in myth and literature across different cultures and eras, one that appears so often that it evokes a universal response.
An unintentional lapse form the sublime to the ridiculous or trivial. An attempt to capture the grand and profound that comes off as inflated and fatuous.
Any established feature of technique in literature that is commonly understood by authors and readers. A something that is generally agreed on to be appropriate for customary uses, such as the sonnet form for a love poem or the opening “Once upon a time” for fairy tale.
A far-flung and often extended metaphor comparing dissimilar things. John Donne, for example, casts his doctors as cosmographers and his body as their map.
usually done for purposed of meter and/or rime, the _______of normal word order
a term negatively applied to a literary work that tries to convey great feeling but fails to give the reader sufficient grounds for sharing it. Involves an emotion that is excessive in relation to its cause, as opposed to, ______ which connotes one proper to its cause.