Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM Introduction Our country is tropical in nature and because of this, planting pili trees become a suitable ground to grow considering the condition of soil, warm temperatures and well distributed rainfall. Specifically, the Bicol region has these kind characteristics of climates which mean that the region can produce and processes higher quantity of pili nuts. Pili are one of the economically important trees that deserve attention not only from farmers but also from our government.
According to Hamilton (2008) pili nut has the potential to become a major nut crop so it needs an improvement and attention especially in terms of vegetative propagation, ecological and cultural requirements of pili as a commercial crop and also for the mechanization for commercial processing.
Moreover, the current status of the pili is equivalent to the macadamia that is why pili nut has a great potential to develop into a major industry. Removing pili kernel on its shell is one problem that farmers encounter in producing high quality of kernel.
Manual operation using bolo is time consuming and sometimes it cannot guarantee to produce high quality kernel because this method can damage essential parts of a kernel. As time goes by, there are many machines that have been invented in order to help people to make their work easier. There are even machines that were invented for pili shelling however, none of these have the quality of being economically friendly especially to the small-scale farmers who are working in the Philippines.
This idea gives the researchers a motivation to develop a machine that can produce more and high quality pili kernel at low cost, easy to operate and practical for small-scale farmers and sellers.
The machine that proposes by the researchers is based on the theory of Isaac Newton which is the law of motion. In this theory it says that every action has an equal and opposite reaction that’s why the researchers use a weighted block as the source of force so that it can crack the pili shell.
The researchers was also designed the special tray that is suitable to sizes of pili which is ranging of 4 to 7 cm long, 2. 3 to 3. 8 cm in diameter. This special tray has also blade at the bottom and upper part so that it can assure to crack the pili shell when the weighted block was dropped. This machine also composed of other parts like rope, pulley and stopper. The purpose of pili de-shelling machine especially to the small scale farmers and sellers is to produce pili kernel without using fuel or electricity to operate the machine.
As of now the world was suffering to the decreasing source of energy especially fuel, that’s why we need to think another solution to do the same work without consuming a fuel. Pili de-shelling machine was designed in order to help small scale farmers but also the world especially our nature to control the decreasing source of energy. Statement of the Problem This project aims to help pili farmers and sellers in their de-shelling operation of pili nuts. The purpose of this study is to develop a pili de-shelling machine that can produce good quality pili kernels with easy operation, it could be economical and in a short period of time.
The study will be conducted to determine the efficiency and probably economic viability of the proposed fabricated pili de-shelling machine in comparison with other existing pili crackers. Specifically, this will answer the following questions: 1. What is the property of pili de-shelling machine in terms of: a. cracking capacity; b. kernel recovery; and c. gender friendliness 2. What is the economic viability of the pili de-shelling machine in comparison with the other existing pili crackers? 3. What possible improvement can be adopted to enhance the capability of the proposed pili de-shelling machine?
Assumption of the Study This study was anchored on the following assumptions: 1. The fabricated pili de-shelling machine was efficient in terms of cracking capacity and kernel recovery. Also, it was gender friendly that could a woman can operate the machine. 2. The proposed machine is probably economically practical especially for small-scale farmers and sellers. 3. Possible improvement of the proposed pili de-shelling machine was to include a 1 horse power electric motor to improve its speed and cracking capacity. Importance of the Study This study has highly importance to the following:
Farmers and sellers. The result of the study can provide an additional income, because if there is an advance technology for producing pili kernel, the demand of buying nut to the farmers and sellers would increase enabling them to develop their own micro-enterprise to sell pili product at prices they set. Farmers are able to sell pili not as fruit but as kernel at a high price, sellers as well. Department of Agriculture. With the information about the mechanization process, they can endorse it to the farmers of pili and they can profit in making contract to the farmers in using the machine.
The farmers and the Department of Agriculture can divide the profit according to the percentage they agreed. The researchers, themselves. The findings of the study will help the present researchers especially in understanding engineering principles involved in the mechanical function of the pili de-shelling machine. Future Researchers. The result of this research may provide future researchers with the facts needed in the preparation of development plans. Investigation on topics related to development programs may find a new horizon of interest from this study. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This research study will focus on the efficient and it could be economy of the fabricated pili de-shelling machine that the researchers proposes. The step by step process on how it operates and the process of production of quality kernels will be observed from the study. Also, the study will conduct tests to show if the proposed fabricated pili de-shelling is comparable or can surpass the manual pili de-shelling operation. The researchers limit their study according to the efficiency and probably economical value of the proposed machine in producing quality pili kernels.
The researchers did not include in their study the selection and germination of the pili nuts. Also they did not include the process of separation of the pulp to the nuts, because a pili nut that is used in the study was the dried and the pulp was already removed. Likewise, the scope of the study is limited on the small-scale farmers and sellers in Daet, Camarines Norte which will randomly be selected according to the nature of their work. These farmers and sellers will be limited to those who are active in pili farming and selling. Definition of Terms
The following terms were defined contextual and operationally to be able to provide the readers with enough understanding of the present study and to be able to avoid interpretation other than what the researchers wish to imply: Case – a covering box or sheath. It is designed for pili de-shelling to assure the cracking ability of the machine. Pili – is the regional commodity of Bicol which is the purpose of the study to be process. Pili De-shelling – it is a machine that the purpose is to crack the pili shell by using weighted block. Rope – a thick twisted cord of fibers or wires.
It is use as a connector to pull and hold the weighted block in this machine. Weighted block – is a solid piece of wood or stone. It is the punching part of the machine or serves as the source of force that would crack the pili. Notes Richard A. Hamilton, Planting Pili Trees: An Economical Value for the Philippines. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pili_nut, 2008. Encyclopedia American, Groiler International Inc. , United State of America, p. 3 The New Lexicon Webster Dictionary Vol. 2, Lexicon Publication Inc. , United State Of America, p. 762 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies which were gathered from books and other references including the internet in order to shed lights on areas that need enrichment and to give readers proper background of the present study being conducted. Included in this chapter is the synthesis of the state-of-the-art, theoretical and conceptual framework of the study. Related Literature The Pili nut (Canariumovatum), one of 600 species in the family Burseraceae, is native to the Philippines and is abundant and wild in the Bicol Region particularly in Sorsogon, and in parts of Visayas and Mindanao.
Trees of Canariumovatum are attractive symmetrically shaped evergreens, averaging 20 m tall with resinous wood and resistance to strong wind. C. ovatum is dioecious, with flowers borne on cymose inflorescence at the leaf axils of young shoots. As in papaya and rambutan, functional hermaphrodites exist in pili. Pollination is by insects. Flowering of pili is frequent and fruits ripen through a prolonged period of time. The ovary contains three locules, each with two ovules, most of the time only one ovule develops (Chandler 1958). (en. wikipedia. org) Fruit is a drupe, 4 to 7 cm long, 2. 3 to 3. cm in diameter, and weight 15. 7 to 45. 7 g. The skin (exocarp) is smooth, thin, shiny, and turns purplish black as the fruit ripens. Much of the kernel weight is made up of the cotyledons, which are about 4. 1 to 16. 6% of the whole fruit; it is composed of approximately 8% carbohydrate, 11. 5 to 13. 9% protein, and 70% fat. (www. hort. purdue. edu) Pili nut kernel is the most important product. When raw, it resembles the flavor of roasted pumpkin seed, and when roasted, its mild, nutty flavor and tender-crispy texture is superior to that of the almond. Pili kernel is also used in chocolate, icecream, and baked goods.
The edible light-yellow color oil from the kernel is comparable in quality to that of olive oil, containing 59. 6% oleic glycerides and 38. 2% palmitic glycerides. The largest buyers of pili nuts are in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the kernel is one of the major ingredients in one type of the famous Chinese festive desserts known as the “moon cake”. (www. hort. purdue. edu & en. wikipedia. org) From Christian B. de Guzman, the Philippines is the only country that produces and processes pili in commercial quantity (Coronel, 1978) and has the monopoly of processed pili in the foreign market.
Bicol Region is known for its pili candies and confectioneries which are sold in different product forms and in various packaging containers. These products are exported to Australia, Guam, Canada, Japan, Hongkong, China, UK, Korea, Singapore, Hawaii, Germany, France and the United States. (www. pinoybisnes. com) Pili nut is a minor crop produced only in the Philippines. The bulk of the raw nuts are supplied from wild stands in the mountains around Sorsogon, Albay and Camarines Sur in the Bicol region.
Pili nut has the potential to become a major nut crop. Improvement of nd knowledge in efficient vegetative propagation, ecological and cultural requirements of pili as a commercial crop, and the mechanization for commercial processing are needed. Related Study In the study of Ojolo and Ogunsina (2009), they developed a prototype machine to crack roasted cashew nuts. It is a box like machine that has a hinged and spring-loaded mild steel cracking lid with grooves to hold a cast aluminum feeding tray which has machined to hold 25 nuts at a time.
The nuts get cracked by the impact of the lid against the feeding tray. The lid provides for a minimum clearance from the feeding ray on which nuts are preloaded; this prevents the applied force from being in excess of the required cracking force. The machine was tested with various cashew nut sizes and placement orientations. The percentage of whole kernels produce was 66. 66%. The capacity of the machine was estimated to be about 18. 3 kg/hr. Another study is headed by Engr. Arnulfo P. Malinis (2009), it is entitled “Pili Nut Cracker Goes High-tech”.
The Bicol University college of Agriculture and Forestry (BUCAF) in collaborator with the Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Postharvest Research and Extension (DA-BPRE), Tropics Agro-Industries (KOLBI) and DA-Regional Field Unit (RFU) 5 developed the latest mechanical pili nut cracker because of the need for appropriate tools and equipment in processing pili nut. The prototype was consisted of six-blade cracker powered by a 1 Hp electric motor. The motor’s energy consumption is 0. 41 kW-hr. The machine consists of fine major parts: the cracking unit, conveying unit, stand/frame, transmission, and prime mover.
The prototype was tested using three major parameters: cracking capacity, the cracking efficiency and economic viability. Technology verification of the prototype showed that on the average, it can crack 204 pieces of pili nut in a minute (117 kg/hr) with a cracking efficiency averaging 93% with 89% whole kernel recovery. It is one-man operated machine that could crack bags of dried pili nuts. For eight hours a day, the simple machine could crack 16 bags of dried nuts. To produce the machine an outlay amounting to 40,000 php is needed and they guaranteed that the return of investment is 53% after more than a year of use.
Synthesis of the State-of-the-Art The development of the mechanical pili nut cracker is somehow similar to the present study since the researchers aimed to make improvement as to create a possibility of including a motor powered pili de-shilling machine for future research. However, they differ especially in terms of capability and speed, the only advantage of the present study is that: because of being simple of the propose machine, it is easy to carry for a farmer bringing to his farm besides of a mountain than to bring the mechanical pili nut cracker at here. It is more comparable to bring a one especially when you home is far from the place where your pili trees is planted. Also, from your farm you can sell your pili nuts at the price that you want and making the most of the benefits of it is in you because you’re brought pili are all kernels than if you brought pili with shells, after at home, you will de-shell it or you will sell it at a low price. The development of a Cashew Nut Cracking Device is posed similarities in part that the present study is also use a tray for the nuts are hold.
They both use the impact force for the cracking of the shells of the nuts. But they differ on the method to make the nuts cracked. Instead of using hinged and spring-loaded mild steel cracking lid, the researchers using in their machine a weighted blocked that is hang on the pulleys. The cashew cracking device is having grooves to hold 25 nuts at a time while the pili de-shelling machine is fabricated a beehive-like tray to hold 17 pili nuts at a time.
Cashew nuts get cracked by the impact of the lid against the feeding tray, however pili nuts get crack by the impact of the loosened weighted block at the upper blade which is have direct contact to the shell and the bounce back impact to the lower blade that is also with direct contact to the shell. In cashew cracking device, the lid provides for a minimum clearance from the feeding tray on which nuts are preloaded to prevent the applied force from being excess of the required cracking force.
In pili de-shelling machine, it provides a stopper at the both side of the metal plate where the upper and lower blades are attached for it does not excess on the required cut deep needed. Cashew cracking device was tested with various cashew nut and placement orientations, throughout the pili nut will be test with various pili nut sizes but instead of placement orientation, another test is getting how much weight of the weighted block must be needed to crack all pili nuts in the beehive-like tray. Theoretical Framework This study anchored to the law of Isaac Newton, the Third Law of Newton’s Theory.
It state that ‘for every action there is an equal and opposite re-action’. The researchers use this theory in respect on the process of cracking the pili shell. Because of being brittle of pili shell, the researchers themselves conclude that it needs only a little amount of force to crack the shell. In relevant with the theory, since the force is going down because of the blowing of the weighted bar, the researchers put a blade under the tray suite in every hole where pili are placed. If the weighted block is blow down it produce impact and the big pili will crack surely but for the small pili, the under blade is designed.
For if the upper blade cannot reached the shell of the small pili, the impact of the block will help to crack the shell because it have a another blade under the tray. Pili Nuts Third Law of Newton’s Theory Or The Third Law of Motion Pili De-Shelling Machine Figure 1. Theoretical Paradigm Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework of this study was based on the system concept. A system consists of three elements, the input, the process and the output. The input, which is actually the load of the system, consists of all things that enter the system.
In this study, the input refers to the pili nuts, which is the main objective of this study to be process and the machine if it is more efficient than to the existing. The process which study, the process refers to research method to be used. The tools in gathering data and procedures of interpretation are also written. The output will be the result of the study after analyzing the data related to the problem under study. The summary reports about the application of the propose principles, if it is more efficient or not to the existing. PROCESS
Application of the propose principle to the machine to be actualize its process and gathering data to show if it is more efficient OUTPUT Efficient and economical pili de-shelling machine INPUT Pili de-shelling machine FEEDBACK Figure 2. Conceptual Paradigm Notes Francis T. Zee, Pili Nut. http://www. hort. purdue. edu/newcrop/cropfactsheets/pilinut. html, 2005 Richard A. Hamilton, Planting Pili Trees: An Economical Value for the Philippines. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pili_nut, 2008. Christmas B. De Guzman, Pili Nuts and It’s Uses, http://www. pinoybisnes. om/agri-business/pili-nuts-and-its-uses. July, 2010 Rita T. Dela Cruz and ARnulfo Malinis, Pili nut cracker goes high-tech. http://blog. agriculture. ph/pili-nut-cracker-goes-high-tech. html, March 03, 2009 S. J. Ojolo and B. S. Ogunsina, Development of a Cashew Nut Cracking Device,http://www. emeraldinsight. com/journals. htm? articleid=1876508&show=html, Febraury,2009 Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURES This chapter presents the research methods and procedures that was utilized in the study. The step by step process of development was the highlight of this chapter.
Also discussed was the scientific principles behind the development of the pili de-shelling machine. Methodology The researchers will be using experimental method on a basis of actual values of weight, dimensions or sizes of parts needed for constructing the machine. We will do some trials to test the weight of the block and even the velocity of the block distance per unit time of travel. The primary function of this test is to assure that the entire pili nut in the case will crack. The cracking ability of the machine will depend in the case, composes of two parts, the upper and the lower part.
The lower part, there is a tray where the pili nut put in and the lower blade. The upper part has a cover to prevent the movement of the pili nut and where the upper blade attached. Other mechanisms that are part of the case are the stopper, the base, the poles and the upper brazed. In the pulling of the rope, the force you will exert is not too large. It is in the range of 8. 8 to 17. 6 lb more or less. It’s like you pulling a toy car weighing 4 to 8 kg. It is easy to pull because it have a wheels same as this machine. We connect pulley to resist the friction while in operation.
With it comes to actual constructing of machine we will make it adjustable. For example, the weighted block can be adjustable by adding another weight to satisfy the required weights needed. The stopper is also adjustable by little-by-little subtracting a height to make get the appropriate height needed. Research Procedure The researchers use a questionnaire to gathered data to answer the problem whether the machine is gender friendly or not and to get the idea of the respondents for the specified improvements given by the researchers. The esearchers selected 10 farmers or sellers randomly who are active in pili farming or selling in Daet, Camarines Norte. The researchers use a time frame to make the research possible. But because of some conflictions to the other subjects of the researchers, they made more adjustments to their time frame. The researchers also use to pattern some of their paper works on the undergraduate thesis that are place at the school library. Assembly and Constructions This part deals the procedure on how the machine works and operates. 1. The beehive-like tray
Here, where pili nuts are place. Because of being like of the beehive holes, the pili is easily shoot and place when you droop it of your hands. 2. The amazing case Here, the upper and lower blades are located. In this part, the beehive-like tray with pili nuts is inserted between the two blades. The upper blade is adjustable for the variation of pili nuts height while the lower blade is fixed on the base. 3. The base, poles and the upper braze The poles are attached to the base at the lower part and the upper braze is on top of it.
In the base, the lower blade of the amazing case is in fixed and the upper braze, where the pulley is in place. The poles signify for the approaching height of the weighted block when it drops. 4. The pulley and the rope The rope is attach to the weighted block while the pulley made the pulling of the rope easy for the weighted block goes to it’s initial position. 5. The weighted block It gives the biggest contribution on the machine. The force that can get from falling of it from its initial position serves as to push the upper blade and bounce back by the lower blade.
That is why, the pili nuts inserted in between of it where nothing to go but to crack. Statistics Tools CHAPTER 4 Pili De-Shelling Machine For Small Scale Farmers This chapter present and interprets the data gathered by the researchers about getting the efficiency of the Pili De-Shelling Machine. The details are focused on calculating the cracking capacity, the kernel recovery and if the machine is gender friendly, including the economic viability of the machine in compare to the existing and improvements that can be adopted to enhance the machine efficiency.
Preliminary test were carried out with dry-rousted pili nuts to determine the performance of the machine. Table 1 and 2 indicates on how to measure the said performance. By using the tables, it will help to give a scientific discussion on how to treat the data. I. The efficiency rate of pili de-shelling machine Table 1: Cracking Capacity Sample| Cracked nuts (pcs)| Time of Operation (s)| 1| | | 2| | | 3| | | 5| | | Mean| | | Table 2: Kernel Recovery Sample| Whole Kernel| Broken Kernel| 1| | | 2| | | 3| | | 5| | | Mean| | | Table 3: Gender Friendliness Respondents| Yes| No| 1| | | | | | 3| | | 5| | | 6| | | 7| | | 8| | | 9| | | 10| | | Mean| | | II. Economic Viability III. Possible Improvements CHAPTER 5 Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations Summary Removing pili kernel on its shell is one problem that farmers encounter in producing high quality of kernel. Manual operation using bolo is time consuming and sometimes it cannot guarantee to produce high quality kernel because this method can damage essential parts of a kernel. As time goes by, there are many machines that have been invented in order to help people to make their work easier.
There are even machines that were invented for pili shelling however, none of these have the quality of being economically friendly especially to the small-scale farmers who are working in the Philippines. This idea gives the researchers a motivation to develop a machine that can produce more and high quality pili kernel at low cost, easy to operate and practical for small-scale farmers and sellers. The machine that proposes by the researchers is based on the theory of Isaac Newton which is the law of motion.
In this theory it says that every action has an equal and opposite reaction that’s why the researchers use a weighted block as the source of force so that it can crack the pili shell. The researchers was also designed the special tray that is suitable to sizes of pili which is ranging of 4 to 7 cm long, 2. 3 to 3. 8 cm in diameter. This special tray had also blade at the bottom and upper part so that it can assure to crack the pili shell when the weighted block was dropped. This machine also composed of other parts like rope, pulley and stopper.
The purpose of pili de-shelling machine especially to the small scale farmers and sellers is to produce pili kernel without using fuel or electricity to operate the machine. As of now the world was suffering to the decreasing source of energy especially fuel, that’s why we need to think another solution to do the same work without consuming a fuel. Pili de-shelling machine was designed in order to help small scale farmers but also the world especially our nature to control the decreasing source of energy. This project aimed to help pili farmers and sellers in their de-shelling operation of pili nuts.
The purpose of this study is to develop a pili de-shelling machine that can produce good quality pili kernels with easy operation, it could be economical and in a short period of time. The study was conducted to determine the efficiency and probably economic viability of the proposed fabricated pili de-shelling machine in comparison with other existing pili crackers and sighted some improvements for the machine. The researchers measured the property of pili de-shelling machine in terms of its cracking capacity, kernel recovery and if it was gender friendly.
They compare the proposed machine to the existing pili crackers to determine its economic viability. Also, the researchers cited some improvements that could adopted to enhance the capability of the pili de-shelling machine. Findings I. II. III. Conclusions I. II. III. Recommendations I. II. III. IV. Additional Recommendations Curriculum Vitae Personal Data Name : Christian Jess A. Natan Nickname:Nathz Contact No. :09103842029 Address:Pob. I, Basud, Camarines Norte Date of Birth:December 22, 1990 Place of Birth:QMMC, Quezon City Father’s Name:Roberto E.
Natan Mother’s Name:Jocelyn A. Natan Religion:Born Again Christian Educational Background Elementary:Mangcamagong Elem. School(S. Y. 2002-2003) Mangcamagong, Basud, Camarines Norte Secondary:Basud National High School(S. Y. 2006-2007) Basud, Camaries Norte Tertiary:Camarines Norte State College(S. Y. 2011-2012) Daet, Camarines Norte Course:Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering Curriculum Vitae Personal Data Name :Edwin T. Bombales Nickname:Edz Contact No. :09463127539 Address:Brgy. Mangga, Sipocot, Camarines Norte Date of Birth:February 07, 1988
Place of Birth:Brgy. Mangga, Sipocot, Camarines Norte Father’s Name:Eduardo T. Bombales Mother’s Name:Beatriz T. Bombales Religion:Roman Catholic Educational Background Elementary:Mangga Elem. School(S. Y. 2000-2001) Brgy. Mangga, Sipocot, Camarines Norte Secondary:Barcelonita Fisheries School(S. Y. 2004-2005) Barcelonita, Cabusau, Camarines Sur Tertiary:Camarines Norte State College(S. Y. 2011-2012) Daet, Camarines Norte Course:Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering Curriculum Vitae Personal Data Name :Karlo Jamie A. Ong Nickname:Kaloy
Contact No. :09095699023 Address:p-3, Brgy. Calintaan, Talisay, Camarines Norte Date of Birth:February 12, 1991 Place of Birth:Brgy. 7, Daet, Camarines Norte Father’s Name:James S. Ong Mother’s Name:Rosemarie A. Ong Religion:Roman Catholic Educational Background Elementary:Talisay Elem. School(S. Y. 2000-2001) Talisay, Camarines Norte Secondary:D. Q. Liwag High School(S. Y. 2006-2007) Sto. Domingo, Vinzons, Camarines Norte Tertiary:Camarines Norte State College(S. Y. 2011-2012) Daet, Camarines Norte Course:Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering