I think that the problem stated above is also the basic problem which the tutors of the book, The Untold People’s History: Samara, Philippines wishes to address to. As with other history books, the authors begin from a traditional-chronological-historical exposition. Beginning from a brief description of Samara’s rich natural resources, its history beginning from the pre-colonial era, it develops sequentially and ends up with an exposition of recent radical movements in the island.
It wraps up by a summary of Samaras long history of exploitation and impoverishment by both foreign colonizers and local collaborators in the island. I intend to summarize first the contents of the book, literally following its hierological outline, and hope to end up with my commentaries about the book and its implications to present realities. II. Pre-colonial Samara The island known as Samara today previously was called baobab – or the land above. By sheer luck or the lack of it, it was incidentally “discovered” in 1521 by the Portuguese navigator, Magellan.
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This “discovery’ paved the way for the Spanish colonization of the Philippines. It has to be noted however, that the word “discovery” is a debatable issue from the point of view of the Filipinos, especially the Samaritan who were already deeply entrenched in he island centuries before the coming of the first white men in the archipelago. In consonance with Council’s thesis that early Filipinos have attained a high level of civilization comparable to its contemporaries in Europe and America, the authors cite evidences to support such claims.
Primarily using Alias’s work on the History of the Bosnian People as translated by Cantina Kabob, FM and Lucia Guttering, POP, the book vividly narrates the advance way of life of early Samaritan as shown by the use of iron tools and implements. Agriculture was the main industry and Sweden farming was the quench used. Men and women usually share in the laborious task of planting, harvesting, pounding, cleaning and cooking of food for the family. Other industries are worth noting: weaving, goldsmith, fishing boat-making, making food delicacies, poultry and swine-raising, etc.
Culturally speaking, early Samaritan had already a written alphabet, the babying, which was also used by the others in the whole archipelago. They also wrote good poetry. Their songs were accompanied by musical instruments. According to Align,2 the indigenous Samaritan poetry was even more superior to Spanish poetry. The most skilled poets tackled the folk epic or side, spontaneous verses in tribute to a man’s bravery and a woman’s beauty – the qualities most desired for each sex – or an ancestors achievement. Visual art could be seen in the intricate body art of tattooing.
Indeed, Samaritan were also referred to by early historians as the Paleness (painted peoples), the most-tattooed natives in the Philippines. Politically speaking, Samara as with the rest of the country was characterized by a feudalistic system comparable to Europe with the coastal and revering settlement called bonito ruled by the data also called the Ghanaian or indolent. There was no central figure because there was no central government. As expected of a feudalistic type of society, there were gradations or classes of people occupying different positions and performing different functions.
On top were the Dates or nobles who were afforded greater privileges and of course the leadership of the bargain. The middle class were the so-called “Freemen”, the Tamaki who were not legally tied to their dates and is not bounded to anybody. Their only obligation is to pay the land rents for the land use. The lowest class was the serfs (mayhem) and the slaves (yahoo r irruption). The irruption was the equivalent to the term “commoner; in Western medieval society. The authors have this to say about pre-colonial Samaritan society: The indigenous people had already achieved a complex social organization .
Moreover, present in the archipelago were the prospect for progressive change-?-the advance from an early to mature feudal society, and beyond it in the longer… Feudal trade was a strong force for consolidating feudal unity and power. It benefited feudal trade to expand trading network through alliances and intermarriages among merchant data families across islands. In support of these kingship and trade network was their common cultural roots and their cultural affinities, such as common words and common customs. 3 II.
Colonial Samara Under Spain Changes in the political, socio-economic, and religious aspects of European life in the modern period (beginning 1 5th century) led to the expansion of trade and commerce and the demand for foreign goods (I. E. , silk and spices) in European markets. These developments ushered in the period of discoveries and explorations simply in the quest for new trade routes and colonies to supply the much needed raw materials for development. Thus, we come to the inevitable stage of colonialism which the modern thinkers regard as the crucial stage in the development of underdevelopment.
And just like the rest of the Southeast Asian region (the Mollusks), the Philippines was not spared from this worldwide phenomenon. By virtue of the “discovery’ of Sultan and Human in the southern tip of Samara by Magellan, the Philippines became a colony of Spain. However, it took the Spaniards forty (40) more years from the date Of discovery before officially proclaiming Cube as the seat of Spanish government in the Philippines in 1565. How did the Filipinos in general and the Samaritan in particular react to the coming of the Spaniards?
The book gives us an explanation of the varied reactions of Filipinos in facing with colonialism: Further into the archipelago, he dealt of two basically opposite kinds of dates. Personifying the first was Raja Human of the trading community in now what is now Cube City – prone to colonial manipulation, weak in the face of colonial pressure, and willing to compromise its people’s independence… The second type of data was patriotic, strongly defiant of colonial accusations, and determined to defend their people’s independence.
Of this second type was Lap-Lap. 4 With a strategy in mind (the divide-and-rule tactic) Magellan volunteered to fight against Lap-Lap in support of his rival, Zulu. But the divide-and-rule approach backfired on Magellan. He was “massacred” to borrow a term from FRR. Align by the “aggressor” (Lap-l_pap). One interesting point worth mentioning here is the conjecture that Lap- Lap was Wary, based in his agricultural center in Billion Island (now a province beside Samara) and using Magmata as a trading outpost.
It is true that without the cross which exemplifies religion and the work of the Spanish friars in the propagation Of faith, resistance to Spanish rule should have been massive and long drawn. The very first missionaries to arrive In Samara were the Sustaining in 1585. It was however, the Jesuits who systematically established missions and parishes in the island beginning 1595. Guiana, and shortly after, in Attain (now part of Attractant), Actuating and palatal were the first established parishes in Samara. The Spaniards nevertheless, allowed the blending of indigenous religions and medieval
Catholicism to better gain allegiance with the people. With a combination of force and plunder and the work of the Spanish missions, one by one the island archipelago crumbled to Spanish control. The coming of Spain practically changed the traditional way of life of early Samaritan. A new political system was introduced, relegating the dates to the lowest position while the Spanish or Chinese messiest held high positions in government. The Philippines was centrally ruled by the Spanish governor- general subservient o the King and not to the natives.
The artistic and intellectual creativity and poetic brilliance of the pre-colonial Samaritan declined gigantically due to the rote learning under Spanish rule. Basically the subsistence economy of early Samaritan was drastically changed by the demand of the mother colony for surplus production of abaca and coconut oil. The trading of these precious products from the island became a very lucrative business for the Spanish and Chinese merchants in the Galleon Trade. With this came the hated tributes, the dreaded polo y services and the many restrictions and monopolies on locally produced goods.
Contrary to the claim of FRR. Align,5 colonialism intensified the exploitation ND hardships of the Filipino, especially the peasants and artisans. It often doubled and tripled the exploitation because they had to support the Spanish colonial masters. No wonder then that these impositions and restrictions would lead several Filipino natives to resist Spanish rule. One such incident happened in Palatal, Northern Samara when one man by the name of Augusto Summary spearheaded a revolt on June 1, 1649 by killing the parish priest with a baggy lance.
The rebellion spread to neighboring municipalities and was only suppressed by the power and betrayal of the corrupted data who was obliged with the help of the Spanish colonial money. The introduction of economic reforms initiated by the Spanish government late in the sass signaled the downfall and collapse of the local economy. The priceless fabric woven by natives Samaritan from abaca fibers lost in value as European and American-made textiles made its way to Philippine markets. And the advent of steamships signaled the rising domination of imported fossil fuel energy replacing the once lucrative coconut oil production of Samaritan folks.
Sad to say, the quest to bring about prosperity to the islands did not trivialize with the introduction Of economic changes by the Spanish government. Instead it worsened the peoples’ already grave state of poverty. It would be no wonder then that the rising tide of resistance would come from those classes of Filipinos who are the most disadvantaged by the capitalist incursions of foreign colonizers. The next era will show us the realization of these long drawn-out anti-colonial sentiments which would ultimately wound up in the 1896 Revolution. IV.
The 1896 Revolution and Resistance Against Invasion This chapter begins with a discussion of the factors leading to the velveteen of national consciousness among Filipinos which evidently led the movement for reforms and ultimately paving the way for the 1 896 revolution. Terror Canonical, a historian explains: The filtering through of progressive political ideologies and the transfer of technology to the Philippines through liberal minded men from Europe and America, along with disenchantment with Madder Espanola, catcalled Filipino nationalism in the 19th century.
Tired of being ‘being an individual… And not a member of a nation,’ the Filipino particularly the social elites, finally woke up o the realization that he must change. Change finally came about, stimulated by the opening of the Philippines to world commerce, with the attendant rise of the class media. Various factors such as the impact of European liberalism and the administration of Carols Ma. De Ia Tore, racial discrimination, the effects of the secular-Regular conflicts, and the Cavity Mutiny of 1 872, all contributed to the birth of the Filipino nationalism. It has to be recalled that the last few decades of the 19th century saw the stirrings within the ranks of the poor peasants and the artisans. The Spanish government reacted with impunity and crashed all attempts to subvert Spanish rule in many of the localities in the archipelago. However, these small, sporadic and intermittent rebellions spread like wildfire and remained unabated until that nationwide revolution of 1896. Prior to the 1 896 revolution, movements initiated from the ranks of the illustrator class were organized and were instrumental in the formation of national consciousness of the indigos.
One was the movement for colonization of the Philippine parishes which led to the execution of the Sombrero. This event temporarily silenced the Filipino cries for reforms. Ten after this famous martyrdom, several Filipino illustrates under the leadership of Jose Racial, Marcelo H. Del Pillar, Agrarian Lopez Jean, and Antonio Ulna organized the Propaganda Movement in Spain. The movement worked vehemently for the assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of Spain, F-loping representation in the Spanish Cortes and the granting Of rights to Filipinos.
This movement was a failure because the mother country deaf to the cries of Filipinos for reforms. It finally came to an end with the arrest and peroration of Dry. Jose Racial. At the night of Racal’s deportation to Adapting several freedom loving Filipinos under the leadership of Andrea Boniface secretly organized the revolutionary society, Justinian. The main objective was to secure independence from Spanish rule through an armed revolution. Meanwhile, with a national figure leading the revolution, local leaders were becoming bolder to show their discontentment of the regime. Still many recruits went to the side of the Justinian.
The likes of Second Let. Benediction Pipeline Ninjas, of the Visalia Regiment No. 62, a former convent worker room a peasant family in Globally, Samara was recruited and fought on the side of the revolutionaries. Eventually, Spain suffered defeat from the hands of the Filipinos when the nationalist Philippine revolution sparked, spearheaded and inspired by the Justinian beginning in 1896. The independence proclaimed by Continual in Kuwait, Cavity (Cavity) in 1898 would be shortlists as the imperialist America put its stronghold upon the islands and succeeded in suppressing Philippine industrialization and nationhood with the Philippine American war.
The Samaritan displayed their singular revere and patriotism by dealing the American troops their biggest defeat during the war through the Balancing Raid of 1 901. After the occupation of the principals, it was the peasants and artisans who took up the leadership of the patriotic resistance through the Paleness and a guerrilla war. But hampered by feudal superstition, they failed to duplicate the success of the Justinian. V. American and Japanese Colonial Rule in Samara When Samara fell under American rule, the American investors proceeded to obliterate what was left of Samara’s glorious past and greatness.
Importing not the country both cloth and petroleum products, they killed off Samaras remaining peasant subsistence textile weaving and coconut lighting oil production. Moreover, they extracted much of Samara’s wealth in the form of unequal and unfair trade and hidden profits from undervaluing Samara s abaca and copra. Thus began a process of severe impoverishment of the island’s economy and people that painfully endures in the island to this day. In the uses a radical movement developed with the first Communist party but it failed to focus on the issue of imperialism and foreign plunder and idealistic underdevelopment of the country.
Shortly before World War II, the Party would continue to fail to carry on the sharp anti-imperialist tradition of the Justinian by embracing the U. S. Imperial forces under General MacArthur in its struggle against Japanese colonization. At the end of World War II, the Philippines was declared independent from the U. S. But it continued to be under the control of financial advisers through the MIFF. Furthermore, the country remained under the grip of the unequal, unfair trade that American and British firms has pioneered in 19th century Philippines. VI.
Semicolons, Semifinal Samara Today Today, that unequal, unfair trade remains the most exploitative and lopsided yet in the country history, with U. S. And European firms principally siphoning off hidden profits from Samara to the tune of PH 15. 4 billion (IIS$ 298 million; 2002 data) yearly in unpaid copra value and PH 1 1. 2 billion yearly (LOS$ 21 7 million; 2002 data) unpaid abaca value. Together, copra and abaca trade dominated U. S. , European and Japanese corporations thus drains nearly PH 26. 6 billion (IIS$ 516 million; 2002 data) in unpaid value from Samara each year.
These fields of trade remain the single largest source of impoverishment and underdevelopment in Samara. In turn, to cope with these measly frigate prices, the peasant must buy abaca-and- copra-making services of job-hungry hired artisans offering to work for pay at bargain rates. In the end, this chain of buying and selling ends up with the severe impoverishment and exploitation of the coconut and abaca work force, which receive a mere one to eight per cent of the crop’s true value, while surrendering 92 to 99 per cent to foreign and local merchants, and landlords.
At the same time, receiving similarly exploitative low prices for their produce or catch, peasants growing staple food and fishhook selling their catch enable the rice and fish to be sold way below their true values. In this way these peasants and fishhook subsidize the copra and other export- producing peasants with cheap food, enabling them to suffer and survive the dirt-cheap payments. VII. Radical Ferment in the Island Today, this colonial plunder and feudalistic underdevelopment have impelled the people of Samara to rise up and confront the continuing persistent roots of their poverty and factorization.
The guerrilla war conducted by the NAP hews to the centuries-old historical tradition of peasant resistance to external domination and local injustice, from Lap-Lap and the Samaritan who speared Legalize expedition’s Francesco Gomez, and the first Spaniard colonizer killed in the county, to Summary, to Gatekeeper Benediction pipeline Ninjas, to Captain Eugenia Daze under General Vaccine Lusaka, and to the Paleness. On other fronts, the struggle to recover the greatness that was pre-colonial Samara proceeds in various forms such as the Togo-weaving and embroidery art of Lillo Dona of Bases.
Efforts to restore Samara as a bastion of industrial creativity and finished products at fair prices and not merely as supplier of underpinned raw materials for foreign markets belong to this grand, unstoppable movement to re-create the greatness of Samara and its people. The drive for self-sufficient Samara and national industrialization in Samara is a just struggle for a Samara for the Samaritan and controlled by Samaritan. VIII. Concluding Remarks The book is a timely revelation of the roots of Samara’s poverty and volatility.
Samaras history is replete with stories of greatness and stagnation; and the kook is a narrative of the events unfolding from the pre-colonial past to the present. Being born in this third largest island in the archipelago compelled me to know more about Samara, the hometown of almost 1. 5 million Filipinos. The dearth of in-depth studies and researches on the history and culture of Samara has left many unanswered questions behind. Indeed many myths about Samara have yet to be broken because of ignorance or the lack of scientific data to debunk it.
Even the government, through the National Historical Institute recognizes the lack of written historical literature about the arioso localities thus the move to encourage the writing of local histories became its fitting theme during the centenary of the First Philippine Republic. This recent scholarly work on Samara written by two credible, though not very known historians, will be considered another great contribution in the collection of written literature about Samara.
This could be another milestone in our quest for more information about Samara as a whole, not Samara being lumped together with those of Letter and Billion to cover the whole Region VIII, not divided according to its three provinces. This, the authors were very cognizant when writing this historical treatise. The general framework of analysis for this study is patterned after the modern Marxist theories of development and underdevelopment. The thesis that the underdevelopment of today’s Third World resulted from its being brought into the orbit of the capitalist expansion of the West can be traced back to Mar’s discussion of foreign trade and the expansion of capitalism. Since then, the theory has been variously elaborated by many scholars, the better known amongst them are Lenin, Paul Barn, Andre Gender Frank and . Wholesalers. This theory is better explained in the book of Annie M. Hogget: Fundamental to the theory is the conception of a dialectical relationship between the development of the First World and the underdevelopment of the Third World.
The term ‘dialectic’ refers to a two-way causal connection. What is implied is that the West developed precisely because it was underdevelopment the Third World, whilst the Third World became underdeveloped in aiding the ascendancy of the West. Historically, this dialectical relationship has unfolded in three distinct stages: mercantilism- fatalist stage, a colonial stage and a neo-colonial stage. 8 In the words of the authors: CT]he book continues to explore the deepest, core historical roots of the impoverishment, subjugation, and insemination of Third World peoples such as the Samaritan and the rest of the Filipinos.
Training a critical eye at these societies’ pre-colonial and colonial past to the present, it delves into the facts and figures of class divisions, exploitations, and unfair trade that has underdeveloped and plundered these economies. Furthermore, it traces the persistent path of rebellion in the island from Hispanic to contemporary mimes. 9 Recent developments in the island check the validity of the thesis of the development of underdevelopment.
A case in point is the continued human rights violations committed by government operatives in the guise of checking the insurgency problem in the Samara region. Implementation in the countryside is an offshoot of the government’s thrust of cleaning up opposition from local residents against the continued destruction of its rich biodiversity ecology through the operations of mining in the area. Again, the national government is forcibly taking away from the Samaritan the redeem to use these resources for their own sustainable development and the freedom to determine their own future.
Indeed, Samara has been the source of the much needed raw materials for the development of adjacent regions and other countries as history reveals. While other regions and territories have gained from this unequal trade relations, the conditions in the island remain to be below par compared with the rest.