Patterns of Organization Separating supporting points from main ideas is an important reading skill. The organization of the supporting details will help you understand how an author thinks. Detecting the patterns of organization of the major and minor details can help with comprehension and retention. The main idea… The thesis or main idea is usually a good predictor of the organization of an essay or paragraph. Main Idea Text Topic sentence Paragraph Thesis Essay Theme Story or Novel Patterns of organization Time Order List of Items Comparison and/or Contrast Cause and Effect Definition and Example Classification Order of Importance
Problem – Solution Process Mixed Patterns Signal Words Signal words, also known as transitions, are words which indicate the relationship between ideas, and the organization of the details. Also known and chronological order, steps and stages, narration or sequence of events, in this pattern, ideas are presented in the order in which they occurred in time. Questions Answered: “When did it happen? ” “In what order did it happen? ” When Used: Commonly used in anthropology, history, art history and political science. It answers the questions relating to time.
Thesis Example: Between now and the election, the candidate will make a umber of campaign stops throughout the U. S. Time order signal words first, third… ; next; then; finally; eventually; following this I ne ramous Leaning lower 0T Pisa nas Deen tlltlng Tor over years, ana recent improvements should allow it to continue tilting for another 300 more. On August 9, 1173, construction began on this well known Italian 1173 bell tower. Almost immediately, it began leaning because it was being immediately erected on the soft silt of a buried riverbed.
Between 1178 and 1360, work 1360 stopped and started two more times as workers tried to continue the project and gure out how to compensate for the tilt. Over the next six centuries, the centuries tower’s lean continued to increase, although tourists were still allowed to visit. Then, in 1990, Italys prime minister feared the tower would collapse 1990 and closed it to the public. From 1999 to 2001, engineers excavated soil 2001 from beneath the tower. Now, the tower still leans out about 15 feet beyond Now its base, but it should remain stable for several more centuries.
Covington, Richard (2001) Smithsonian. “The Leaning Tower Straightens Up,” p41-47 Also known as listing, series, addition and enumeration, the information isted may be items, facts, reasons, examples, features or characteristics. “What examples support the main idea? ” “What proof is there? ” Commonly used in history, art history, the social sciences and political science. It answers the questions regarding the appropriate proof, back-up or support. Managers experience a number of different personnel problems that must be solved before a department can work effectively.
List of items signal words And, too, in addition, moreover, or, also, furthermore, as well as, plus, in fact, moreover, besides… Many modern people are turning themselves into social victims. One example is a Tennessee woman who is suing McDonald’s because she was badly burned on the chin by a hot pickle in her namourger. A cana01an woman Is anotner example. example She wants to ban the South Park television show because her son Kenny is victimized by the shows Kenny character, who is killed in each episode.
A third example is a group of European and Australian women who want to ban urinals in men’s restrooms because the require men to stand in a way that suggests violence toward women. Another group argues that single people are victimized because society ignores them. Leo, John. (2000) U. S. News and World Report. Victims of the Year,” p24 Comparison and/or Contrast The material is organized to emphasize the similarities and/or differences between two or more items or topics . Readings answer the questions: “How are two items similar? ” “How are two items different? When Used: All Disciplines The items being considered usually fit into the same general category. Gangs and fraternities share many characteristics, but are quite different. comparison means what things have in common how items or concepts are alike the similarities between elements or ideas contrast means the differences between items or oncepts how things are not alike distinctions between elements Comparison and contrast signal words Similarly, like, the same as, compared to, in the same way, likewise… but, yet, on the other hand, however, instead, nevertheless, on the contrary…
My two children are so different that it surprises me every day. For one thing, my older child is a girl, and my younger child is a boy. My daughter loves reading, going to the movies, and writing in her Journal. My son, on the other hand, loves running, Jumping, and swimming- hand anything that requires using energy. My daughter loves all ifferent kinds of foods, but my son likes to eat only pizza. And while my son cant go a day without watching some kind of sporting event on television, my daughter will only watch a baseball game if nothing else is on.
Adapted from O Magazine, (2001) “Set Yourself Free,” p37. This pattern describes or discusses an event or action that is caused by another event or action. On occasion, this pattern is also referred to as result. “Why did something happen? ” “What were the results of a particular event? ” Thesis Example: Research has shown that birth defects have various causes. Cause and effect signal words Decause, Tor tnls reason, Oue to, cause, on account of, if this, then this… as a result, since, consequently, therefore, thus, in effect, resulting, and the outcome is…
There are four possible causeeffect relationships: single cause – single effect single cause – multiple effects multiple causes – single effect multiple causes – multiple effects Smoking is the single most preventable risk factor for fatal illnesses in the United States. Indeed, cigarette smoking accounts for more deaths than all other drugs, car accidents, suicides, homicides, and fires combined. Further, nonsmokers who inhale moke from other people’s cigarettes face an elevated risk for lung cancer and other illnesses related to the lungs, a fact that has given rise to a nonsmokers’ rights movement in the United States. Bernstein, et al. (1999) Psychology, p473 Definition and Example This pattern is found primarily in textbooks; a word or concept is introduced then explained or described. An example of its usage then follows. The pattern is very close to illustration or description. Readings answer the question: ‘What it? ” All Disciplines Terms are often in boldface print with the definition in the body of the text, in the margin, and in a lossary at tne ena 0T tne text Thesis Example: Ragtime music is a style that developed at the turn of the twentieth century. Played primarily by piano, the “Rocking Horse Rag” is an excellent short sample of ragtime.
Definition and example define as, is, known, the term means, is stated as, is used to mean… for example, to illustrate, for instance, such as, specifically… i. e. , e. g. A definition and example has three components: key term (often boldfaced, underlined or in italics) definition Acrophobia is an intense, unreasonable fear of high places. People with acrophobia exhibit emotional places nd physical symptoms in response to being at great heights. For instance, one sufferer of extreme instance acrophobia, Andrea Copeland, is unable to go above the third floor of any building without feeling enormous anxiety.
Her acrophobia began one evening when she was working alone in her office on the eighth floor of a large building. Suddenly she was struck with terror. She gathered her things and left the building, Yet, she still has no rational explanation for her fear, which is also typical of this type of phobia. I nls pattern Is also wlaely usea textbooks; classification, also known as division or categorization, ivides a topic into parts that are based on shared or common characteristics. “How do the parts work with the whole? ” Ex: What part does an editor play in the publication of a magazine?
Thesis Examples: There are many people involved in the publishing ofa magazine. Classification signal words Categories, classifications, groups, classes, ways, elements, features, kinds, types, varieties, methods… The Ordovician 505 to 440 Million Years Ago The Ordovician period began approximately 510 million years ago, with the end of the Cambrian, and ended around 445 million years ago, with the beginning of the Silurian. The Ordovician is classified into three parts: late, middle, and early. There are two groups in each part. In the late part, Ashgillian and Caradocian.
In the middle part there are the Llandeilian and Llanvirnian. The early part is made of the Arenigian and Tremadocian groups. Classification is often accompanied by a graphic or visual aid to nelp clarlTy tn categories. The chart at right shows the major subdivisions of the Ordovician Period. Order of Importance In this pattern the information is given either from the least important feature to the most important, or from the most important important to the least important. This attern is also known as hierarchical or chain of command. “Which point is the most/least important? “Which element is crucial? When Used: The sciences, particularly in laboratory texts and experiments. Thesis Example: While the most basic need is physiological, workers aspire to self-actualization as their most valued need. Order of importance central, principal, chief, major, main, key, primary, significant… finally, lastly, finishing with, ending with, least… Almost everyone in the United States files a tax return. There are several things that should be done during the year, beginning with the most basic and fundamental; eep copies of the tax return, W-2 fundamental statement and 1099 forms.
It is also wise to keep seven years’ worth of documentation in files, Just in case there is an audit. Keep and compare figures on tax return to the Social Security statement. Also, retain a record of yearly medical expenses. But all of this is dependent of one crucial act. It is supremely important to Keep all permanent records storeo In an ImpregnaDle place, sucn strongbox. Problem and Solution The text presents a significant problem and explains it in detail. Then, a possible solution is proposed. Sometimes, only the problem is resented because there is no solution. “What is the problem? ” “What is a possible solution? When Used: Often in essays and editorials The items being considered usually fit into the same general category. Thesis example: Since pollution has a detrimental impact on modern living standards, a key solution is increased recycling of waste products. Problem and Solution signal words problem, need, difficulty, dilemma, enigma, challenge, issue answer, propose, suggest, indicate, solve, resolve, improve, plan, respond to a need The growth of urban areas exacerbated many problems, problems as a TlreprooT ncluding the absence of clean drinking water, the lack of cheap public transportation, and most importantly, poor sanitation.
Sanitation problems led to heavy urban mortality rates and frequent epidemics of typhoid, dysentery, typhus, cholera, and yellow fever. Government officials, recognizing the need for improvement, initiated the return to suburban and rural areas. The proposal involved several cost effective solutions. Local solutions village water delivery systems were improved, and as villages were substantially smaller, almost everything was in walking distance, thereby eliminating the need for public transportation.