Paraphrasing and sum uping are really similar. Both involve taking thoughts. words or phrases from a beginning and crafting them into new sentences within your authorship. In add-on. sum uping includes distilling the beginning stuff into merely a few lines. Whether rephrasing or sum uping. recognition is ever given to the writer. Below is a transition taken from Raymond S. Nickerson’s “How We Know-and Sometimes Misjudge-What Others Know: Imputing One’s Own Knowledge to Others. ” Psychological Bulletin 125. 6 ( 1999 ) : p737. In order to pass on efficaciously with other people.

one must hold a reasonably accurate thought of what they do and make non cognize that is pertinent to the communicating. Treating people as though they have knowledge that they do non hold can ensue in miscommunication and possibly embarrassment. On the other manus. a cardinal regulation of conversation. at least harmonizing to a Gricean position. is that one by and large does non convey to others information that one can presume they already have.

Here is an illustration of what would be considered plagiarism of this transition: For effectual communicating. it is necessary to hold a reasonably accurate thought of what our listerners know or do non cognize that is pertinent to the communicating. If we assume that people know something they do non. so miscommunication and possibly embarrassment may ensue ( Nickerson. 1999 ) . The author in this illustration has used excessively many of Nickerson’s original words and phrases such as “effective communicating. ” “accurate thought. ” “know or do non cognize. ” “pertinent. ” “miscommunication. ” and “embarrassment.

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” Besides note that the transition doesn’t have an gap ticket to bespeak where usage of the Nickerson’s stuff begins. A commendation at the terminal of a paragraph is non sufficent to bespeak what is being credited to Nickerson. Here is an illustration. in APA manner. that is considered acceptable paraphrasing of this transition: Nickerson ( 1999 ) suggests that effectual communicating depends on a by and large accurate cognition of what the audience knows. If a talker assumes excessively much cognition about the topic. the audience will either misconstrue or be bewildered ; nevertheless. presuming excessively small cognition among those in the audience may do them to experience patronised ( p. 737 ) . Here the author re-words Nickerson’s thought about what determines effectual communicating. The author re-phrases “generally accurate knowledge” into “reasonably accurate thought. ” In the 2nd sentence. the author re-words Nickerson’s thoughts about miscommunication and embarrassment utilizing alternatively the words “misunderstand. ” “bewildered. ” and “patronized. ” Nickerson is given recognition from the beginning as the conceiver of the thoughts. This is an illustration of a successful paraphrasis because the author understands the thoughts espoused by Nickerson. and is able to set them into her ain words while being careful to give him recognition. Here is an illustration. in APA manner. that would be considered acceptable summarizing of this transition: Nickerson ( 1999 ) argues that clear communicating flexible joints upon what an audience does and does non cognize. It is important to presume the audience has neither excessively much nor excessively small cognition of the topic. or the communicating may be inhibited by either confusion or discourtesy ( p. 737 ) . Notice that the author both paraphrasiss Nickerson’s thoughts about effectual communicating and compresses them into two sentences. Like rephrasing. sum uping transitions is a slippery enterprise and takes tonss of pattern. If you’re of all time in uncertainty about whether your drumhead or paraphrasis might be inadvertent plagiarism. inquire your instructor.

Example of Editing

Original: The fresh Fight Club works to carry through multiple things in footings of subject. for one thing it tries to demo the destructive inclinations of humanity. how in many ways people are geared towards the devastation of themselves. but the film besides tried to reject this thought. to demo that we can ne’er encompass this facet of ourselves. because if we do we’ll stop up merely like that. in devastation. and as the chief character find out in the terminal. what’s more of import is doing connexions with people and understanding others instead than populating merely for yourself and interrupting any regulations which disagree. Edited: The fresh Fight Club work to carry through legion things thematically. for one it attempts to show the inclinations of world to devolve to encompass self devastation. and on the other it attempts to demo how this can be nil but futile. If we merely encompass self devastation so we fail to see the importance and value of the people around us. and we merely live to interrupt regulations. which is no manner to populate at all.

Effective Paraphrasing A successful paraphrasis is your ain account or reading of another person’s thoughts. Paraphrasing in academic authorship is an effectual manner to repeat. condense. or clear up another author’s thoughts while besides supplying credibleness to your ain statement or analysis. While successful paraphrasing is indispensable for strong academic authorship. unsuccessful paraphrasing can ensue in unwilled plagiarism. Look through the paraphrasing schemes below to better understand what counts as an effectual paraphrasis.

Ineffective Paraphrasing Schemes When rephrasing. there are a few common errors you should larn to avoid: 1. Avoid exchanging out or altering around of a few words in an author’s sentence ( s ) for usage in your paper. 2. Avoid neglecting to admit ( through an in-text commendation or direct quotation marks ) the outside beginning from which you obtained your information or thoughts. Exception: When rephrasing. you do non hold to straight mention common cognition. Common cognition is information that is widely known and can be found in multiple topographic points. For illustration. composing that Ronald Reagan was a U. S. Republican president would be considered common cognition. so it would non necessitate to be cited. However. when in uncertainty. it is ever better to mention than run the hazard of plagiarism. 3. Admiting the writer in an in-text commendation but neglecting to include citation Markss around any footings or give voicing that you have borrowed from the writer. Note that any of the unsuccessful elements of rephrasing are considered plagiarism in your essay. even if these rephrasing trips are unwilled.

Effective Paraphrasing Schemes

If you’re holding problem rephrasing a text efficaciously. seek following these stairss:

1. Reread the original transition you wish to rephrase. looking up any words you do non acknowledge. until you think you understand the full significance of and purpose behind the author’s words. 2. Following. screen or conceal the transition. Once the transition is hidden from position. compose out the author’s thought. in your ain words. as if you were explicating it to your teacher or schoolmates. 3. After you have finished authorship. look into your history of the author’s thought against the original. While comparing the two. inquire yourself the undermentioned inquiries: Have I accurately addressed the author’s thoughts in a new manner that is alone to my composing manner and scholarly voice? Have I tried to retroflex the author’s thought or have I merely changed words around in his/her original sentence ( s ) ? 4. Following. expression for any borrowed footings or peculiar phrases you have taken from the original transition. Envelop these footings and phrases in citation Markss to bespeak to your readers that these words were taken straight from the original text. 5. Last. include a commendation. which should incorporate the author’s name. the twelvemonth. and the page or paragraph figure ( if available ) . straight following your paraphrasis.

Examples of Paraphrasing

Here is the original beginning an writer might utilize in a paper: Differentiation as an instructional attack promotes a balance between a student’s manner and a student’s ability. Differentiated direction provides the pupil with options for processing and internalising the content. and for building new acquisition in order to come on academically. Here is an illustration of bad paraphrasing of the beginning. Even though the pupil is mentioning right. underlined words are merely synonyms of words used in the original beginning. You can besides see how the sentence construction is the same for both the original beginning and this paraphrasis. Differentiation is a manner to promote equality between the attack and endowment of the pupil ( Thompson. 2009 ) . This type of direction gives pupils different ways to cover with and grasp information. and for set uping new larning to travel on in instruction ( Thompson. 2009 ) . Here is an illustration of a better manner to rephrase the beginning. In this illustration. the writer has taken the indispensable thoughts and information from the original beginning. but has worded it in her ain manner. utilizing alone word pick and sentence construction. The writer has condensed Thompson’s ( 2009 ) information. including what is relevant to her paper. but go forthing out excess inside informations that she does non needed. Teachers use differentiated direction to assist pupils larn. leting the instructor to provide lessons to the manner each pupil learns and each student’s accomplishment ( Thompson. 2009 ) . –

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Paraphrasing and summarizing In contrast to citing straight. by summarizing or rephrasing an author’s thoughts you are able to show your reading of an author’s thoughts and to incorporate them more to the full into the construction of your authorship. Paraphrasing is by and large used when you wish to mention to sentences or phrases in the beginning text. It is peculiarly utile when you are covering with facts and definitions. Paraphrasing involves rewriting a short subdivision from the beginning text in different words whilst maintaining the same significance. Summarising is by and large used when you wish to mention to thoughts contained in a long text. Summarizing enables you to cut down the author’s thoughts to identify points in an lineation of the treatment or statement by excluding unneeded inside informations and illustrations. Whether you summarise or paraphrasis. you will still necessitate to include a mention mentioning the beginning of the thoughts you have referred to. A procedure for rephrasing and summarizing

Many pupils find the undermentioned procedure utile for summarizing and rephrasing information. Read the text carefully – you may necessitate to read the text several times. and look into the significance of footings you do non understand in a dictionary. Identify and underscore the cardinal words and chief thoughts in the text. and write these thoughts down. See these points as a whole and your intent for utilizing this information in relation to the construction of your assignment. You may be able to group the thoughts under your ain headers. and set up them in a different sequence to the original text. Think about the attitude of the writer. i. e. critical. supportive. certain. unsure. Think about appropriate coverage verbs you could utilize to depict this attitude. Think of words or phrases which mean approximately the same as those in the original text. Remember. if the key words are specialised vocabulary for the topic. they do non necessitate to be changed. ( see Using synonyms below. ) Using your notes from the above stairss. outline your sum-up or paraphrasis. When you have finished your bill of exchange reread the original text and compare it to your paraphrasis or sum-up. You can so look into that you have retained the significance and attitude of the original text.

Using equivalent word

To rephrase a text. you can utilize a assortment of techniques. such as synonymous words. synonymous word signifiers. or synonymous phrases. For illustration. the pupil text below has used synonymous word signifiers ( scanners – scanner. usage – utilizing ) ( in bold ) . synonymous words ( convert – recreates ) ( in bold italics ) . and synonymous phrases ( their “eyes” – the scanner oculus ) ( in italics ) . Original beginning

scanners convert parallel informations into digital information… scanners use little electronic constituents ( called CCDs. PMTs. or CISs ) as their “eyes”… Student text A scanner recreates an image such as a in writing utilizing little electronic constituents referred to as the scanner’s eyes… Changing word signifiers A common attack to altering the word forms in a sentence is to alter the chief verb into a noun. or less normally to alter the chief noun into a verb. For illustration. compare the two sentences below: Original beginning

Scanners convert parallel informations into digital information. Paraphrased sentence The transition of an image such as a in writing by a scanner occurs… Re-ordering chief thoughts Another manner of paraphrasing is to alter the order of the chief thoughts in a sentence. One manner of making this is to alter the active voice to inactive voice or the inactive voice to active voice. The active voice focal points on who or what is affected by a procedure or event. whilst the inactive voice focal points on the event or procedure. For illustration compare the usage of ‘ scanners convert’ and ‘ the transition of’ in the illustrations above. For farther information on the usage of active and inactive voice see the grammar tutorial.

Paraphrasing is the procedure of showing another author’s content in your ain words. while keeping the significance of the transition. It is utile when the writer uses difficult-to-understand linguistic communication and construction. when you want to concentrate on a different component of the transition or when your audiences are different ( for illustration. the writer wrote an academic paper. and you are a newspaper newsman ) . However. rephrasing can besides take to plagiarism ( utilizing another author’s work or thoughts as your ain ) if your beginnings are non suitably and explicitly cited.

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How to Paraphrase Without Plagiarizing Types Of Paraphrases Instruction manuals

1 Change the voice of the sentences from active to inactive voice and frailty versa. For illustration. “Educators prefer learning lower grades” can go “Teaching lower classs is preferred by pedagogues. ” This is helpful when you want to concentrate more on the object instead than the topic of the sentence. 2

Change the diction of a transition utilizing equivalent word. A synonym finder can turn out rather utile for this undertaking. “Children develop their linguistic communication by interacting with those around them” can go “Kids get linguistic communication accomplishments by pass oning with people near to them. “

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SoftLayer® Official Site More Custom-made Hosting From A Trusted Source. 24?7 Support. Chat Now. SoftLayer. com/Asia-Pacific 3 Change the verb of the temper to subjunctive if you want to rephrase a want. a petition or an unrealistic state of affairs. You can besides alter subjunctive temper to indicative. For illustration. “The curate requested that his helper conveying the paperss. ” can go “The curate asked his helper to convey the paperss. ” 4

Change the order of the sentence’s elements — without changing the temper of the verb of the voice — to emphasize the most of import portion for your work. For case. “John Day ( an fanciful individual ) was a successful author. politician and man of affairs. ” can be “John Day is celebrated for his success as a man of affairs. politician and author. ” 5

Use monikers or conversational footings to alter a passage’s diction. You can alter “New York City” to “the Big Apple. ” for case. or mention to “night shift” as the “graveyard displacement. ” However. this technique is non acceptable when composing a formal paper.

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Paraphrasing right can forestall plagiarizing. When you paraphrase. you merely show person else’s thoughts in your ain words. Unlike a brief drumhead. a paraphrasis contains more item. harmonizing to the Purdue Online Writing Lab ( OWL ) . Although you have reworded the original. you must utilize in-text commendations. parentheses incorporating the beginning of the information. in the needed format. Paraphrasing may affect alterations in vocabulary. length. parts of address and sentence construction.

How to Write a Paraphrase How to Teach Students How to Paraphrase 1. Synonym Replacement At its simplest degree. rephrasing involves replacing original diction with equivalent word. See this original sentence from Claudia Kalb’s “Newsweek” article. “Painkiller Crackdown. ” “While the DEA says OxyContin is a ‘valuable’ drug. it is ‘concerned’ that many physicians who are ordering the medicines don’t ‘know’ plenty about it and are non ‘conveying’ the dangers to patients. . . . ” If a pupil made merely these replacings — “useful” for “valuable. ” “worried” for “concerned. ” “know” for “understand” and “explaining” for “conveying” — some paraphrasing would ensue. but much of the original would stay. ensuing in partial plagiarism. Decrease of Clauses

Another method of rephrasing involves altering clauses to phrases. For illustration. the clause. “while the DEA says OxyContin is a valuable drug” could go a more compendious phrase. “claiming Oxycontin’s value. ” If a pupil combines this attack with synonym replacing. more effectual paraphrasing occurs.

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Download Free Personal computer Software Download Free PC Manager Software. Easy File Transfer. Download Now! mobogenie. com/download-pc-software Partss of Speech Changing parts of address may help in rephrasing. See another original sentence from Kalb’s “Newsweek” article: “Last hebdomad the ‘spotlight’ on OxyContin ‘intensified’ as the Drug Enforcement Administration ‘announced’ a national scheme to ‘combat’ the painkiller’s ‘illegitimate’ usage. . . . ” If a pupil restructured the sentence. altering parts of address. some rephrasing would happen: “The Drug Enforcement Administration last hebdomad ‘spotlighted’ OxyContin more ‘intensely’ and made an ‘announcement’ of a national scheme. which combats utilizing the analgesic ‘illegitimately. ‘” However. this rephrasing deficiencies originality and once more consequences in partial plagiarism.

Change of Structure

Changing the sentence construction adds to the value of the paraphrasis. reflecting the writer’s reading of the author’s ideas. See this original diction from the “Newsweek” article: “OxyContin was developed to make good: alleviate enfeebling hurting. But since the powerful drug debuted in 1996. it has become progressively known for a unsafe side consequence — the potency for serious dependence. ” By get downing with a phrase and altering the construction. a author could make the undermentioned: “First looking in 1996. Oxycontin claimed to alleviate unneeded agony. Today. nevertheless. experts know it can present an ‘addictive’ menace ( Kalb 38 ) . ” These restructured sentences besides include synonym replacing ( “appeared” for “debuted” ) and alterations in parts of address ( “addictive” for “addiction” ) . With the Modern Language Association ( MLA ) in-text commendation. this rephrasing avoids any hint of plagiarism by uniting multiple signifiers of paraphrasing.

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How to Teach Students How to Paraphrase By Hilary Riepenhoff. eHow Subscriber

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Print this article Teaching pupils to rephrase takes clip and pattern. Paraphrasing is an indispensable accomplishment for pupils to obtain. Without rephrasing. pupils are at hazard for plagiarism. It is of import to put the land work for successful direction of rephrasing through account of cardinal constructs. mold and pattern of the accomplishment. Merely through pattern and changeless feedback will a student’s paraphrasing ability grow.

Activities for Paraphrasing Information Difference Between Summarizing & A ; Paraphrasing Instruction manuals 1. 1 Teach the cardinal differences between reciting. summarizing and paraphrasing. Writer of “Summarizing. Paraphrasing. and Retelling. ” Emily Kissner suggests. the three constructs are similar. but are different in development. formation. and concluding merchandise. Summaries contain chief thoughts. some back uping inside informations and are in chronological order. yet shorter in length. Retelling is orally sharing information. while remembering of import information from the text. Harmonizing to Purdue’s Online Writing Lab. successful paraphrasing puts the information from the transition in your ain words. while imputing the original beginning. It is shorter in length because you abbreviate the information. 2

Remind pupils that although paraphrased stuff is non in quotation marks. one must recognition the original beginning. Explain that doing little alterations in give voicing. rearranging the original quotation mark or neglecting to mention the beginning is plagiarism.

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Download Free Personal computer Software Download Free PC Manager Software. Easy File Transfer. Download Now! mobogenie. com/download-pc-software 3 Indiana University of Bloomington’s Writing Tutorial Service suggests learning several cardinal schemes. including to rewrite utilizing your ain words while covering the quotation mark you are rephrasing to avoid the impulse to transcript ; besides look into your paraphrased work to guarantee you have non by chance written anything word for word from the original and that the information included is right. 4

Get down little by presenting rephrasing with sentences alternatively of drawn-out paragraphs. Ensure pupils understand information stated in each sentence. See a student’s ability degrees in reading. 5

Model the construct of rephrasing to pupils. Show pupils what good rephrasing expressions like. Give illustrations based on appropriate alteration in words and construction. Prepare illustrations and have pupils explain their logical thinking on whether the paraphrasing is right or non. 6

Provide pupils the chance to orally rephrase sentences in their ain words. Work as a group to acknowledge what works with a student’s paraphrased responses and what does non. Instantaneous feedback ushers pupils toward right paraphrasing. Independent pattern so evaluates pupil advancement and growing.

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Paraphrasing and Summarizing Exercise This resource was written by Tony Cimasko. Last edited by Allen Brizee on August 7. 2009.

Summary: This resource contains the pattern exercising on paraphrasing and summarizing to assist you larn how to use the guidelines in this subdivision to your ain authorship. Take a expression at the text below ( excerpted from “Expert: Wikipedia Won’t Go Away. So Learn How to Use It” by Maggie Morris ) and the undermentioned efforts at paraphrasing and summarizing. The first four are non equal. but the last 1 is. Look at each of the four inappropriate efforts. and make up one’s mind what precisely makes each inappropriate. The popularity of Wikipedia makes it of import that users learn to utilize the online collaborative encyclopaedia as a starting point for their research instead than as the concluding word. says a Purdue University communications expert. “Students are addicted to Wikipedia. and instructors fight it with austere rating policies and limitations on its usage. ” says Sorin A. Matei. an helper professor in the Department of Communication. “But Wikipedia is here to remain and. despite punishments. people are likely to go on utilizing it. ”

Version 1: The popularity of Wikipedia makes it of import that users learn to utilize the online collaborative encyclopaedia as a starting point for their research. “Students are addicted to Wikipedia. and instructors fight it with austere rating policies and limitations on its usage. ” says Sorin A. Matei. an helper professor in the Department of Communication.

Version 2: The popularity of Wikipedia makes it of import that users learn to utilize the online collaborative encyclopaedia as a starting point for their research. “Students are addicted to Wikipedia. and instructors fight it with austere rating policies and limitations on its usage. ” says Sorin A. Matei. an helper professor in the Department of Communication ( Morris ) .

Version 3: Wikipedia is popular. which makes it critical that users learn to utilize the online collaborative encyclopaedia as a beginning point for their research. “Students are addicted to Wikipedia. ” says Sorin A. Matei. an helper professor in the Department of Communication. “and instructors fight it with austere rating policies and limitations on its use” ( Morris ) .

Version 4: “Wikipedia is popular. which makes it necessary to larn utilizing the on-line collaborative encyclopaedia as a beginning point for their research. ‘Students are addicted to Wikipedia. ’ says Sorin A. Matei. an helper professor in the Department of Communication. ‘and instructors fight it with austere rating policies and limitations on its use’” ( Morris ) .

Version 5: Sorin A. Matei of Purdue University says that because pupils are “addicted to Wikipedia” and will go on to trust on it. it is of import for instructors to assist them to utilize Wikipedia as a topographic point to get down research. instead than as a concluding beginning. Matei besides says that punishments are improbable to be effectual ( Morris ) .

Version 5 is right. Here the pupil combined her ain paraphrasing with a citation of dramatic linguistic communication of the original text. She made certain her words and those taken straight from the beginning tantrum together ; she quoted accurately and cited her beginning. Some of the information is consolidated. and the specific sorts of punishments given by teachers—a minor detail—are left out.

Answers for Paraphrasing and Sum uping Exercises This resource was written by Tony Cimasko. Last edited by Allen Brizee on November 5. 2008.

Summary: This resource contains the replies for the ESL exercises on rephrasing and sum uping. Paraphrasing and Sum uping The popularity of Wikipedia makes it of import that users learn to utilize the online collaborative encyclopaedia as a starting point for their research instead than as the concluding word. says a Purdue University communications expert. “Students are addicted to Wikipedia. and instructors fight it with austere rating policies and limitations on its usage. ” says Sorin A. Matei. an helper professor in the Department of Communication. “But Wikipedia is here to remain and. despite punishments. people are likely to go on utilizing it. ”

Version 1: The popularity of Wikipedia makes it of import that users learn to utilize the online collaborative encyclopaedia as a starting point for their research. “Students are addicted to Wikipedia. and instructors fight it with austere rating policies and limitations on its usage. ” says Sorin A. Matei. an helper professor in the Department of Communication.

This version would be considered blazing plagiarism. The text is excerpted about word for word without utilizing citation Markss suitably. without giving recognition to the original writer. Some words have been cut out. but the original author’s linguistic communication is still rather obvious.

Version 2: The popularity of Wikipedia makes it of import that users learn to utilize the online collaborative encyclopaedia as a starting point for their research. “Students are addicted to Wikipedia. and instructors fight it with austere rating policies and limitations on its usage. ” says Sorin A. Matei. an helper professor in the Department of Communication ( Morris ) .

Recognition is given to the original writer ( Morris ) . but citation Markss are still non used. and the linguistic communication still closely resembles the original authorship.

Version 3: Wikipedia is popular. which makes it critical that users learn to utilize the online collaborative encyclopaedia as a beginning point for their research. “Students are addicted to Wikipedia. ” says Sorin A. Matei. an helper professor in the Department of Communication. “and instructors fight it with austere rating policies and limitations on its use” ( Morris ) .

The original writer is given recognition. and technically the transition is right. but the author suggests that Morris’ chief point is teachers’ reactions. In fact. Morris is stressing the importance of Wikipedia. and negotiations about teachers’ reactions as a secondary point.

Version 4: “Wikipedia is popular. which makes it necessary to larn utilizing the on-line collaborative encyclopaedia as a beginning point for their research. ‘Students are addicted to Wikipedia. ’ says Sorin A. Matei. an helper professor in the Department of Communication. ‘and instructors fight it with austere rating policies and limitations on its use’” ( Morris ) .

The citation is basically accurate. citation Markss are used. and Morris is given recognition. The bigger job is that the author made no effort to utilize his or her ain linguistic communication. to incorporate the citation into their ain words. The smaller job is the deficiency of eclipsiss ( . . . ) to bespeak where the author took out portion of the citation.

Version 5: Sorin A. Matei of Purdue University says that because pupils are “addicted to Wikipedia” and will go on to trust on it. it is of import for instructors to assist them to utilize Wikipedia as a topographic point to get down research. instead than as a concluding beginning. Matei besides says that punishments are improbable to be effectual ( Morris ) .

Version 5 is right. Here the pupil combined her ain paraphrasing with a citation of dramatic linguistic communication of the original text. She made certain her words and those taken straight from the beginning tantrum together ; she quoted accurately and cited her beginning. Some of the information is consolidated. and the specific sorts of punishments given by teachers—a minor detail—are left out.

Paraphrasing & A ; Summarizing Exercise This is the last portion of Wallace’s Copyright & A ; Plagiarism tutorial. Please read the undermentioned transitions to earn an apprehension in the art of rephrasing. More pattern is available via Web links on the Student Guide to Copyright.

Original transition: Cipher called him Abe–at least non to his face–because he loathed the moniker. It did non suit a well-thought-of professional who’d struggled difficult to get the better of the restrictions of his frontier background. Frankly Lincoln enjoyed his position as a attorney and politician. and he liked money. excessively. and used it to mensurate his worth. By the 1850’s. thanks to a combination of endowment and swerve difficult work. Lincoln was a adult male of significant wealth. He had an one-year income of around $ 5. 000–the equivalent of many times that today–and big fiscal and real-estate investings. Oates. Stephen B. Our Ardent Test: Abraham Lincoln. John Brown. and the Civil War Era. Amherst. MA: University of Massachusetts Press. 1979. p. 65 Incorrect paraphrasis:

No 1 used Lincoln’s moniker. Abe. because he detested it. It didn’t travel with a attorney and politician who had worked to acquire off from the limitations of his state heritage. Lincoln liked his new place. and his wealth. and used it to estimate his position. By mid-century. his accomp

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