Tragedy Literal Meaning
Tragedy literally means “Goat Song”
Tragedy had its beginnings in an improvisational type of poetry called dithyrambic poetry
Who was dithyrambic poetry sung by?
Dithyrambic poetry was sung by a group of dancers
The chorus dressed up as satyrs and performed during festivals celebrating the god of Dionysus
What was type of poetry was dithyrambic poetry?
Dithyrambic poetry was satirical-it mocked or made light of serious matters
What are the two festivals celebrating Dionysus?
The Greater Dionysia
The Lesser Dionysia
When was The Greater Dionysia celebrated?
During the vernal equinox (tragedy)
When was The Lesser Dionysia celebrated?
During the autumnal euqinox (comedy)
What was Dionysus the god of?
Dionysus was the god of wine, ecstasy, madness, fertility, and rebirth
What was Arion rescued by?
Arion was rescued by a dolphin
What is Arion said to be responsible for?
Arion is also said to be responsible for introducing satyrs into the performance of the dithyrambic poetry
Turned dytharambic poetry into a more composed and scripted style
What did Pisistratus do to help the formation of tragedy?
Founded a festival the City Dionysia to celebrate the god Dionysus
In 536 the tragic competition begins in the City Dionysia
The competition encourages innovation
What does Thespis do to improve tragedy?
In 536-533 Thespsis puts on tragedies at the Greater Dionysia
In these tragedies he introduces the first actor
What does an actor allow in tragedy?
With an actor added to the performances dialogue becomes possible
When did Aeschylus live?
What is Aeschylus’ nickname?
The Father of Tragedy
What does Aesychlus do that creates tragedy?
Aeschylus is the first to give tragedy a serious tone and elevated language
How does Aeschylus create an elevated tone?
Aeschylus creates an serious/elevated tone by elevating the language and changing the rhythm
What does Aeschylus introduce to tragedy? What does this do to the play?
Aeschylus introduces a second actor which allows Aeschylus portray conflict. Once there is conflict plot is possible and with plot-drama was born
When/where did Sophocles live?
496-406BC born in Colonus near Athens
When does Sophocles life extend through?
Sophocles’ life extends through the rise and fall of the Athenian Empire
Who was Sophocles a priest of?
He was a priest of Amynos the god of healing
What did Sophocles found?
Sophocles founded a literary and musical society
How did Sophocles start out his career?
Sophocles began his career in theater as a successful actor
How many plays did Sophocles produce?
Sophocles produced 120 plays
How many of Sophocles’ play survive?
7 of Sophocles’ plays survive
How many times did Sophocles win first prize in the City Dionysia? What happened whenever he didn’t win first prize?
Sophocles won first prize in the City Dionysia 24 times
Whenever Sophocles did not win first place he got 2nd place
How many plays did playwrights have to create to enter the City Dionysia? What did Sophocles do to change the way people submitted plays?
Playwrights had to submit 3 tragedies and one satyr play
Sophocles does not submit connected trilogies-each one of his plays is self obtained
What two things did Sophocles introduce to tragedy?
He introduced a third actor which allowed for more complex plots
He also introduced scene paintings
What are Sophoclean heroes like?
Sophoclean heroes are strong, independent individuals
When did Euripides live?
Was Euripides popular?
In his own lifetime Euripides was least popular of the 3 playwrights that are still extant
How many times did Euripides win first prize in the City Dionysia?
Euripides won first prize only 5 times out of more than 78 entries
What happened to Euripides legacy after he dies?
After his death he became the most popular and widely produced playwright
How many of Euirpides plays still exist today? Of Aeschylus? Of Sophocles?
18 of Euripides’ plays exist
7 of Aeschylus’ plays exist
7 of Sophocles’ plays exist
Who’s plays did Aristotle claim were the most tragic? Why?
Aristotle claimed that Euripides’ plays were the most tragic
Because he is the most successful at evoking pity or fear for his protagonists
In Euripides’ plays how does he portray his characters and gods?
The gods are dramatic entities but not deities in any theological sense
His characters are often sympathetic
Likable or not his characters have a physiological depth that is more realistic than those of his predecessors
What is tragedy?
Tragedy is any work of literature, especially drama, in which the conclusion ends in catastrophe for the central character. The heroes fate must be related to his actions
The protagonist is the central character with whom the audience has the greatest sympathy
The protagonist is always a person of high status or noble character
What is the root word for protagonist?
Agon which means conflict
The protagonist of a tragedy always has a weakness in his character
Because of this weakness in his character or thought and prompted by his pride (hubris) and the protagonist makes a decision or choice that he cannot unmake
This choice sets in motion forces on events on events that will leave inevitably to his destruction
Greeks used an open air theater called an ampitheter
Where was the seating in the amphitheater?
The seating (theatron) was carved into the side of the hill
At the bottom of a theatron was a circular stage called the orchestra on which the chorus dance
At the back of the orchestra stood a facade or building called a skene
Actors could enter and exit the orchestra via the skene
The chorus entered the orchestra via two doors called the paradoi
Because of the layout of the limestone seats the theater at Epidarus has extraordinary acoustics
What does classical Greek tragedy resemble? Why?
Classical tragedy resembles opera more than modern drama
Scenes of dialogue alternate with songs sung by the chorus
What was the structure for every Greek tragedy?
most tragedies would also include a Paean and a Kommos
A dialogue or monologue that opens the play
It is typically used for exposition
First ode sung by the chorus as it enters the orchestra
Consist of dialogue ( can include both the actors and the choragus)
What is the choragus?
The lead singer of the chorus
Odes sung by the chorus
They do not advance the action of the play; instead they offer commentary thematically linked to what is unfolding in the story
Dialogue or song sung by the chorus and actors as they leave the stage
Often an Exodus will include a Kommos
What is a Kommos?
A song of lament
How did Exodus, the book of the Bible, get its name?
The second book of the Pentateuch gets its nam e from the term Exodus from Greek tragedy
A song of praise or joy it was usually an ode dedicated to Apollo
But in later tragedy it might be dedicated to some other deity
The ode is an elaborate lyric poem expressed in sincere and dignified language
In form the ode is more complex than other lyric types
What is the tone of odes?
The tone is imaginative and intellectual
What three parts is the ode divided into?
What does the chorus do during the strophe?
During the strophe the chorus dances right to left across the stage
What does the chorus do during the antistrophe?
During the antistrophe the chorus dances left to right across the stage
What does the chorus do during the epode?
The chorus remained stationary
What does the movement of the chorus emphasize?
In general the movement emphasized the rise and fall of emotional intensity in the lyric
What is tragedy and what is its purpose?
Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious through pity and fear affecting the proper purgation (catharsis) of these emotions
The purpose of tragedy is to make the audience feel pity and fear for the protagonist
Difference between the structure of classical and modern tragedy?
Classical tragedy is highly structured-divided into prologue, parodos, episodes, stasima, and an exodus
Modern tragedy is not highly structured
Difference between the celebratory festivals of classical and modern tragedy?
Classical tragedy is part of religious festival
Modern tragedy is not part of a religious festival
Difference between the acts of classical and modern tragedy?
Classical tragedy has one act plays
Modern tragedy has multiple acts
Difference between the length of classical and modern tragedy?
Classical tragedy is limited in length because it is submitted in a contest-limited for practical purposes
In modern tragedy length is not predetermined
Difference between the importance of music in classical and modern tragedy?
Classical tragedy is like opera-music and dance play important roles
In modern tragedy music is not an essential part of the play
What are the similar parts of classical and modern tragedy/what is essential for all tragedy?
The character has a reversal of fortune
Irony is a fundamental element of of tragedy
The hero has a hamartia and is guilty of hubris
Who is Antonio Salieri?
The court composer
Who is Rosenberg/court orsini?
The director of the Imperial Opera
Who is Guiseppe Bono?
The Kappelmeister-director of musicians
Who is Baron Von Strack?
The court chamberlain
Who is the emperor of Austria?
Emperor Josef II
Who is Constanze Weber?