Mythology/Poetry/English Exam Semester 2

Cronus
Ruler of the Titans; banished by hos son Zeus

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Zeus
Chief god; rules the sky; has a thunderbolt as a weapon and a bad temper

Poseidon
Rules the sea; likes horses; has a three-pronged spear called a trident

Hades
Rules the underworld; has a helmet of invisibility and a three-headed dog

Demeter
Earth goddess of of corn and agriculture

Persephone
Daughter of Demeter; wife of Hades; a symbol of springtime

Hera
Queen of the gods; protector of marriage, likes cows and peacocks, jealous

Hestia
Goddess of hearth and home

Athena
Goddess of wisdom, battle strategy, crafts

Hephaestus
God of fire; the blacksmith of the gods

Apollo
God of music, light, youth, healing, archery, prophecy

Artemis
Goddess of the moon, hunting, wild animals, childbirth

Ares
War

Aphrodite
Goddess of love, beauty, and pleasure

Eros
God of love; could make people fall in love with a shot from his bow and arrow

Hermes
Messenger of the god; god of secrets, tricks, merchants and thieves

Dionysus
God of wine and theater

adjacent
next to, adjoining

candor
honesty, sincerity

compassion
awareness or sympathy for the suffering of another person

democratic
of or for the people, relating to the government

dispersed
to scatter, or to distribute

doleful
sad or full of grief

duress
a threat of harm facing someone, which makes someone act against their will

irk
to irritate, to annoy

ratify
to formally approve or sanction (allow)

sobriety
serious in manner or nature

sobriety
the state of obtaining from drugs or alcohal

stagnate
to become inactive or motionless

subordinate
lower in rank or importance

talons
the claw of a bird or prey

taut
pulled, stretched, or drawn tight

wallow
to roll around in something unclean

alliteration
words with the same beginning sound

onomatopia
words that sound like the sound they make

ballad
a poem or song narrating a story

haiku
a poem with a 5,7,5 syllabic beat

rhyme
words that have the same ending sound

similie
comparing using like or as

metaphor
comparing without using like or as

stanza
the grouping of lines in a poem

repitition
repeating of the same words or sounds

refrain
repetition of the ending lines in a poem

rhythm
the beat of the poem

personification
giving something that is not alive human-like characteristics

limerick
a humorous short story with rhythm

concrete poem
a poem in the shape of what it’s about

narrative
free verse poem telling a story

ode
a poem praising someone or something

what is the greek name for vesta
hestia

what is the greek name for saturn
cronus

what is the greek name for jupiter
zeus

what is the greek name for juno
hera

what is the greek name for mars
ares

what is the greek name for neptune
poseidon

what is the greek name for apollo
apollo

what is the greek name for diana
artemis

what is the greek name for pluto
hades

what is the greek name for cupid
eros

what is the greek name for venus
aphrodite

what is the greek name for vulcan
hephaestus

what is the greek name for mercury
hermes

what is the greek name for minerva
athena

what is the greek name for ceres
demeter

what is the greek name for bacchus
dionysus

what is the area of power for vesta (hestia)
hearth

what is the area of power for bacchus ( dionysus)
wine; music

what is the area of power for saturn (cronus)
ruler of the titans

what is the area of power for Jupiter (zeus)
the sky; the weather; the chief god

what is the area of power for juno (hera)
queen of the gods; protector of woman and marriage

what is the area of power for mars (ares)
war

what is the area of power for neptune (poseidon)
the seas

what is the area of power for Apollo (apollo)
the sun; youth; archery; healing; music

what is the area of power for diana (artemis)
the moon; hunting; wild animals; child birth

what is the area of power for pluto (hades)
the under world

what is the area of power for cupid (Eros)
love

what is the area of power for venus (aphrodite)
love ;beauty; pleasure

what is the area of power for vulcan (Hephaestus)
fire; crafts man for the gods

what is the area of power for mercury (hermes)
messenger of the gods

what is the area of power for minerva (athena)
wisdom; war; crafts

what is the area of power for ceres (demeter)
an earth godess

What is a characteristic of Greek architecture that you can see in many American buildings today?
columns

What are a some of famous buildings that are built like the ancient Greece and Rome?
Capital building, New York Public Library, Saint Paul’s Cathedral, White House

Why do we need to know about Greek and roman mythology?
If you read poetry in english you may come across greek words that poets and artist expect us to know.

List the different fields of study and governmental systems that influenced our current way of life.
astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, architecture, Medicine ,Monetary system, Democracy

What does democracy mean?
Comes from the Greek word demokratia, meaning “rule of the people.” First flourished in the ancient Greek city-state of Athens.

Most of the myths come from the part of the world around the _________.
mediterranean sea

The stories were passed from generation to generation by word of mouth by the many tribes who passed through or lived in what is now _________ and _________.
Greece and western turkey

Many years the ______ were written down.
myths

who were the first collectors of greece myths?
Homer and Hesiod

What was homer’s famous poems
His two great epic poems are the lliad, and the odyssey

What were Hesiod’s 2 famous books?
His two books are called Theogony (which means “the origin of the gods”) and Work and Days.

Who were the famous collectors of roman myths?
Ovid and Virgil

What did Ovid write?
metamorphoses

What was Virgil’s famous book called
He wrote a long epic called the Aenied

What were the classic myths used for?
1. To explain the creation of the world
2. To explain natural phenomena
3. To give story form to ancient religious practices
4. To teach moral lessons
5. To explain history
6. To express the deepest fears and hopes of the human race

What do you think he means?
“Mythology teaches you what’s behind literature and the arts; it teaches you about your own life.”
it means that mythology teaches you the very beginning of literature and arts and that it can teach you more than you know.

Every culture has its own stories, which are called folktales. They are often passed down by word of mouth, which is called ________.
tradition

Myths
stories that are considered sacred or highly important to a particular culture.

Explain _______ of universe(the weather, human behavior, stars, planets, etc.)
What folktale?
mysteries and myth

Explain how something connected with __________ or __________ came to be.
What folktale?
humans, nature and myth

Help to create and maintain the ______, _______, ________, and __________ of a society
What folktale?
values, beliefs, rituals, customs and myth

Include beings that have abilities that _______ do not. What folktale?
humans and myth

Legends
based on real people and events, although the majority of the tale is fiction.

Tell about a hero or _______ who has unusual powers.
Legend and heroine

Focus on the ________ struggle to defeat a powerful force
Legend and protagonist’s

Highlight a positive quality or way of __________.
Legend and behaving

Fables
are brief stories that teach a lesson, or moral, about human nature.

Usually include animal characters that stand for specific human qualities, such as _______ or __________.
Fable and kindness, or dishonesty

have a ________ that is directly stated at the end or indirectly communicated through what happens in the fable.
Fable and moral

Tall Tales
are humorous exaggerated stories about impossible events.

Star a hero or heroine who is larger than life—that is _____, _____ and even _______ than a regular person
Tall Tales and bigger ,stronger, and even louder

Use _______ to emphasize the abilities and achievements of the hero or heroine
Tall Tales and exaggeration

basic plot of the story Demeter and persephone
hades kidnaps persephone

characters in the story demeter and persephone
eros
demeter
persephone
hades
zues
hermes
aphrodite

punishments that take place in the story demeter
-things become hard for anyone trying to grow crops due to the river nymph not revealing the location of persephone

theme of demeter and persephone
you can’t make someone love you

natural phenomonon
seasons

what happens in the story
cupid strikes hades with a love arrow and hades falls in love with persephone and kidnaps her to be his bride a river nymph knows her location but will not speak of it due to fear of hades the world is punished with bad soil zues to try and save the world gets hermes to go and retrieve persephone once she is returned she has to go back four months a year which is fall and when she returns spring starts which is how the 4 seasons work

who is Aphrodite’s son?
eros

What did the gods bury alive under Mt. Aetna?
fire breathing giants

Who had seen Pluto carry off Persephone?
a river nymph

Why was Pluto alarmed?
because the giants were shaking the earth so much and he thought they might open a hole into the underworld and let in the light

What was Persephone filling her apron with?
ilies and violets

What did Pluto do after he saw Persephone?
What did Pluto do after he saw Persephone? he fell in love with her and immediately picked her up with one arm and drove away with her

Who did Demeter blame instead she of suspecting Pluto?
the earth

What did Demeter do to punish the land for taking her daughter?
cursed it so that it was no longer fertile and wouldn’t grow anything

Why didn’t Zeus tell Demeter where Persephone was?
he did not like to take the one joyful thing from his brother

Who did Zeus send to talk to Pluto?
Hermes

Zeus said there was one thing that would prevent Persephone from returning to her mother, what was it?
that she had not eaten any of the food in the underworld

Why didn’t she want the jewels of the underworld?
she wanted flowers, she said jewels have no fragrance

Why does Persephone have to spend one third of the year, or 4 months in the underworld each year?
one month for each pomegranate seed that she had tasted in the underworld

What happens on earth when Persephone is in the underworld each year?
nature dies, the leaves fall, and the earth stops plants from growing

Eurydice
Wife of Orpheus, bitten by a snake while dancing at her wedding, dies and goes to the Underworld

Orpheus
Husband of Eurydice, known for playing beautiful music on his lyre

what happened when Orpheus got to the under world to try and get back Eurydice?
Orpheus played beautiful songs to hypnotize the guards and people of the under world. Then when he got to the king of the dead, he told him that if he went back now and never turned back that he would send his love with him.

how does Orpheus die?
the maddens killed him

What happens to people who look at Narcissus?
they fall in love with him

What curse does Hera place on Echo?
Hera takes Echo’s voice, so she can only repeat the last words she has heard.

How does Echo react to Narcissus?
she loves him at first sight, but she is quite shy.

what eventually happens to echo
she withers away with age in a cave. only her voice remains.

With whom does Narcissus fall in love?
himself

What happens to Narcissus at the end of the story?
he turns into a flower

what is the natural phenomenon of narcissus
the echo

What is Hercules best known for?
his strength

Who was Hercules’ mother?
Alcmene

How did Hera feel about Hercules?
Hera hated him, because Zeus had fathered Hercules with another woman

What happened to Megara (Hercules wife)
Hera made Hercules insane, and he killed Megara and his children

What did Hercules do to atone (make up for) his madness?
He was told he had to obey King Eurystheus, king of Mycenae for twelve years