Part A: Muscle Reading
1. Reviewing information increases brain activity, especially the long-term memory. The more you recall or access information, the easier to remember it.
2. Before you read preview, outline, question. While you read read, underline, answer.
After you read recite, review, review again.
3. The first part of muscle reading is to picture yourself go through the material and make up questions. The second is to work your muscles as you read. The third involves reviewing aloud the things you learned.
4. “A review within 24 hours moves information from your short-term memory to your long-term memory.”
5. Preview may include any or all of these: scanning the table of contents, flipping through the pages of a chapter, taking note of summaries, and observing headings and subheadings.
6. Ellis suggests the following: visualizing or forming a mental picture of the concept or idea; reading the material aloud; and getting a “feel”, a sense, or texture (even if imaginary) of the subject.
7. a. Pry out questions. Root up answers, Recite, review and preview again.
b. What makes an effective leader?
What does it mean when the author says, “We are all leaders”?
Who are considered leaders?
Are people with titles the only leaders?
How do you own your leadership?
Why do we have to be a leader?
c. Read carefully first. Make choices about what to highlight. Underline then highlight.
d. An effective leader owns his leadership.
It means at some point in our lives we have to assume a leadership position.
Mahatma Gandhi is a leader.
People with titles are not the only leaders.
To own your leadership, you should not to back out from the responsibility when opportunity arises.
It can’t be avoided.
e. Using some of the strategies for muscle reading helped me to understand the material more. Previewing gives a feel of the material, however superficial. However, the suggestions for marking the text are time-consuming. To read the material and underline and read it again for highlighting is repetitive. I wonder if there are other, easier ways.
Part B. CyberLearning
1. Adam Robinson believes that the best students ask the same fundamental questions. He calls these 12 questions CyberLearning. The first six questions have to do with the student getting acquainted or “creating a dialogue” with the text. The next six questions are about learning from the text through organization and note taking.
2. a. I read this article in order to hoping I would learn tips on hoe to communicate effectively to people of different cultural backgrounds, especially non-Americans. As I came across the title, the first word that stuck was culture. Race and class are ideas I usually associate with culture. African Americans and American Indians also came to mind. I think the article tries to explain why it’s important to learn how use different communication styles for different sorts of people. The important concepts that have to be noted are desire, knowledge and skill.
b. I am also interested about conflict management. An environment that is culturally diverse is like to have conflict. Important tips are “keep temper in check” and “be patient.” Author also suggests giving crit in private, give the other person space, don’t intimidate
c. I am interested about conflict management because I sometimes instigate conflict unintentionally. An environment that is cultural diverse is likely to have conflict. According to the author, dealing with culturally different people requires patience. Rash temper should be avoided. Giving criticisms in private conveys respect for the culturally different person. Intimidation is a good way to get what you want, but the author advises otherwise: give the other person space.
d. I will definitely use note taking (which includes paraphrasing) to remember this material. I will also select, underline and highlight important passages and terms. I will keep in mind everything that I learned by regularly retrieving them in my memory and applying them to specific situations.
e. I work in an office that is culturally diverse. I can apply the ideas found in this article by being conscious of my communication style. I should adjust my style according to the attitudes of my peers and supervisors, and with respect to their customs. Familiarity with cultural nuances and idiosyncracies will hopefully make my job less stressful and encourage coworkers especially the minorities to like me.
Part C. Exploring other Reading Strategies
1. Construct a word stack, from “Read with a Dictionary in Your Lap” (p.142). To enrich one’s vocabulary, the author suggests noting down an unfamiliar word in an index card, including the sentence in which it was used, and looking up its definition and etymology in the dictionary. The reader should collate these cards. This strategy will develop in me a conscious effort to improve my vocabulary. A robust vocabulary will help me write better.
2. Notice and release ineffective habits, from “Reading Fast” (pp. 143-144). Sometimes our eyes have the tendency to go slow and read the same words over and over without our noticing it. Sometimes, too, we get so used to the habit of reading every letter. We have to be aware of and change these habits, said the author. I am prone to doing these things, and I realize that I have to get rid of them. Instead of reading letters, I should probably try to read chucks of words, and stay focused on my reading.
3. Read it again, from “When Reading is Tough” (pp.145-146). When dealing with technical material, the author suggests taking breaks instead of forcing oneself to digest the material. Once the brain recharges, it is easier to read the text the second time. Frankly, I’m too lazy to read, let alone read the same thing twice. This tip is sure to be a challenge.
4. Visualization, from “Remembering What You Read” (http://www.csbsju.edu/academicadvising/help/remread.htm, accessed 1 February 2008). This strategy prescribes the use of mental images to recall ideas, concepts or persons. Associating an idea with a mental picture would enhance my memory and make studying more profitable.
5. Association, from “Remembering What You Read” (http://www.csbsju.edu/academicadvising/help/remread.htm, accessed 1 February 2008). This strategy entails grouping related ideas together. When reading a text for example, the reader takes down important information and links ideas that are related to each other. The relationship, of course, is intuitively made by the reader. This skill will help me select and organize necessary information.