Appendix C Match the psychological theories with the appropriate statement(s): __Psychodynamic Theory__Trait Theory __Learning Theory__Sociocultural __Humanistic Theory A. Individualism versus collectivism Sociocultural B. Popular theorist Eysenck initiated the five-factor model. Trait Theory C. The healthy personality is found in balancing the social self with the individual self. Humanistic Theory D. Genetics determine the traits for a healthy personality, but how those traits are expressed are influenced by learning experiences, development of skills, and the ability to choose our own actions.
Trait Theory E. Popular theorists include Maslow and Rogers. Humanistic Theory F. Popular theorists include Freud, Jung, and Erikson. Psychodynamic Theory G. Social and cultural factors such as ethnicity, gender, culture, discrimination, and socioeconomic status influence one’s sense of self and his or her adjustment to society. Sociocultural H. Taken from the European philosophy of Existentialism Humanistic Theory I. Focus on the individuals’ capacity to build knowledge and adapt to the environments around them. Includes behaviorism and social-cognitive theory. Learning Theory
J. Personality is characterized by a struggle between different elements within an individual’s personality. Behavior, thoughts, and emotions are the result of this inner struggle. Psychodynamic Theory K. Consists of five major personality factors which are reasonably stable elements of personality. These factors include extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience. Trait Theory L. Popular theorists include Pavlov and Skinner. Humanistic Theory M. Idea of the healthy personality is the ability to love and work Psychodynamic Theory
N. A healthy personality means knowing one’s self, making authentic choices which are consistent with goals, and the capability of making real changes in their lives. Humanistic Theory Choose two to three of the personality theories discussed in your text and write a 350- to 700-word summary comparing and contrasting the theories you have chosen. One and one mathematically equals two. This can be theoretically proven beyond a shadow of a doubt. How many colors are in the spectrum? Three primary colors, but an infinite number of permutations.
There is unlikely to be a consensus beyond a reasonable doubt. Science and mathematics gravitate toward a conclusive answer; however the realm of psychology introduces the science of relativity as opposed to absolute. To the ignorant cynic, psychology and its studies are based on best guestimates, the power of positive thinking and little by way of science. To state the obvious, no one is more blind than he cannot see. In closing, the science of psychology is as integrally involved with mathematics, science and logic as most other studies combined.
Thus, in the spirit of variety and self gratification, I have elected to compare and contrast the following theories: Psychodynamic Theory, Humanistic Theory and Trait Theory. Psychodynamic Theory is ostensibly the net result of Sigmund Freud’s research. While others may have previously intimated ideals considered within the realm of Psychodynamic Theory, Freud ultimately proposed ideals and lent clarity to opinion in a specific nature. Psychodynamic Theory looks primarily in a virtual vacuum at an individual’s conscious and preconscious and unconscious states of being.
Psychodynamic Theory largely alienates all outside influences and considers the internal mechanics that operate as filtering mechanisms politically dictating in a manner to protect the individual. Freud, in this comparatively ignorant writer’s opinion, appears to consider the psyche as a veritable pre-programmed computer. Preprogrammed to the extent that the areas other than the conscious appear to be beyond prescriptive control and true understanding. While in a conscious state, Homo sapiens have the ability to adjust with the benefit of intrinsic logic.
The other two platforms, namely the preconscious and unconscious are outside the control of the individual and society and thus less is known yet more is variable. Freud and his fellow academia have proposed a structured analysis of the various stages and structures that compose such an obscure existence. Their belief is that there is a specific order of cause and consequence associated with each perceptible stage of the psyche correlated with age. Humanistic Theory is epitomized by one Abraham Maslow. Maslow has been revered from areas as divergent as economics to psychology and undoubtedly numerous disciplines between.
For what value it may add, and doubtless will detract! I can more closely relate to Maslow that the other theorists presented to date. I believe Maslow looks at humankind as an evolutionary existence from earths creation to the stages within ones own self fulfillment. There does not appear to be a significant difference between the two. It is tantamount to survival of the fittest, yet with a more scientific psychoanalytical bent. At a minimum one needs to exist with basic needs such as eating, drinking, sexual gratification, and avoiding pain.
There exists a pathway that leads from basic survivability to safety, personal recognition, self worth, to the apex being regeneration and revitalization of ones intellect. This is almost a polar opposite to Psychodynamic Theory which considers as its basis causes based on outside influences and the mental struggle within. Humanistic is predominantly concerned with the evolution from survival to self fulfillment, all theoretically within ones control. Trait Theory is one of the areas of psychology that could be perceived as more personally consternational than others.
Trait theory looks at the genetic journey and the predilection that one may have toward a particular disposition based on ones lineage. Trait theory is, in this layman’s opinion, a weak recourse for the unknown. Individual’s mental construction is allegedly the result of hereditarily granted nuances and normalities. Studies in the past have supported the belief that personality traits are a direct result of genetics, yet truly how far back have researchers delved within the genetic ‘family tree’ where little was known, much less publicized about personality traits?
To say that genetics may shoulder the burden of the credit or blame for an individuals persona is to reiterate my earlier stance, an argument based on issues with no roots. The relevance of train theory to Humanistic Theory and Psychodynamic Theory is that while I may have inadvertently attempted to discredit such an appreciable existence, it is an inevitable component of existence, albeit somewhat mystic rather than scientific in terms of ocular proof.