Mary Tudor was the best Tudor queen. She was determined, straightforward and had all of the good Tudor qualities. There was one thing, however, that made her the most hated monarch ever. Mary was a devout Catholic. Her reign started very badly. Edward’s protector: The Duke Of Northumberland kne w that Mary would become queen after Edward. He also knew that Mary would execute him as he had helped Edward change the church. To save his skin, he persuaded Edward to write in his will that the son of Lady Jane Grey – who had now married Northumberland’s son would rule after him. Edward became ill. It was obvious that he would soon die.
Edward’s will was altered; so that it said that Jane Grey and her son would rule. On 6th July 1553 Edward died. The news was kept secret until Northumberland bullied the council into proclaiming Lady Jane as queen. Mary managed to escape Northumberland’s agents and went to Norfolk, which was full of Catholics. She wrote a letter to the council demanding the throne. Northumberland’s troops sent to fight Mary deserted. He was forced to surrender. He was hanged on July 1553. Mary changed everything that her brother had done. This meant that: 1. The prayer book was outlawed. 2. Holy Days were to be observed.
3. Mary refused the title “head of the church”. 4. Married priests were to leave their wives. 5. The catholic service of mass (bread and wine) was restored. 6. Schoolteachers were told to teach their children what to say during mass. Mary wanted to marry. A woman ruler was an unknown, freakish thing. The English disliked foreigners. They expected her to marry Edward Courtenay. Mary was half Spanish and wanted to marry Phillip- prince of Spain. The English hated foreigners. The English loathed the Spanish. Even Catholics were worried at the thought. Everyone feared that Spain would “suck-up” England.
Sir James Croft, Sir Peter Carew and Sir Thomas Wyatt decided to do something about it. Croft and Carew didn’t persuade many men, but Wyatt said there would be a “Spanish Invasion” and raised an army of 4,000. Mary’s chief general – who was sent to fight Wyatt, had to retreat, when 500 of his men retreated. Mary held a council. She knew that some Londoners would open the city gates for the rebels. She reminded everyone of what would happen if an undisciplined mob was let loose. Robbing and murder would take place everywhere. When the rebels arrived, the city gates were closed. There was no way they could get in.
They had to surrender. Wyatt was tortured (to find out if Elizabeth had hired him) and killed. The marriage took place at Winchester cathedral. Mary invited her cousin – Cardinal Reginald Pole to stay in England. They both believed that burning heretics would give them a chance of going to heaven – especially if they repented. Mary ordered five important bishops to be burnt: Latimer Ridley Ferrar Hooper Rogers Burning was very painful and took up to 45 minutes. 300 people were burnt during Mary’s reign. The sad thing was that Mary burnt unimportant people – such as pregnant women!!!
Thomas Cranmer had given Henry VIII his divorce. He was the reason that Mary had once been called “illegitimate. ” Mary detested him. The law was that if he became a catholic and made a public speech denouncing Protestantism, he would be forgiven. Cranmer was now seventy which was twice the average death age. He made a speech and signed a paper that said he was Protestant. Mary detested him, so after he had done this, announced that he would be executed anyway. At his execution, he put his right hand (which he had signed the paper with) into the flames first to punish it.
Two bishops: Latimer and Ridley were to be burnt together at Oxford in October 1555. Latimer said these famous words to Ridley: “Be of good comfort master Ridley, and play the man. We shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace in England, as I trust shall never be put out. ” This means; Be happy – our death is a light which shows that Protestantism shall never be stamped out in England. His prediction is true – there are many protestants in England today. Mary’s marriage brought her little happiness. Phillip went back to Spain and hardly returned. Mary had no children. News of Mary’s last illness caused only relief and joy in London.
The citizens called the day before she died “Hope Wednesday”. The sad queen, who burnt nearly 300 protestants died on 17th November 1558. Reginald Pole died on the same day. “Turn or Burn” died with them. In conclusion, Mary’s reign was a disaster, as she was hated by her people, disliked by her husband and everything she did was to be undone by Elizabeth. 20/04/2007 (c) Copyright Gopal K Kotecha 2003 Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Richard III section.