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Madrigal Poetry Vocab

abstract
refers to language that describes concepts rather than concrete images (ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people, or places) ex: love, faith, friendship

alliteration
the repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words. ex: she sells seashells

allusion
a reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. can be historical, literary, religious, or mythical, plus many more possibilities

anaphora
repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer’s point more coherent

anecdote
a short, simple narrative of an incident; often used for humorous effect or to make a point

annotation
explanatory notes added to a text to explain, cite sources, or give bibliographical data

aphorism
a short, often witty statement of a principle or a truth about life. ex: the early bird gets the worm

apostrophe
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity

assonance
repetition of vowel sounds between different consonants. ex: neigh/fade

atmosphere
the emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author’s choice of objects that are described. Even such elements such as a description of the weather can contribute to this. Frequenty, it foreshadows events.

auditor
the person or persons spoken to in a poem

cacophony
harsh, awkward, or dissonant sounds used deliberately in poetry or prose; the opposite of euphony

colloquialism
a word or phrase (including slang) used in everyday conversation and informal writing but that is often inappropriate in formal writing. ex: ya’ll

concrete language
describes specific, observable things, people, or places, rather than ideas or qualities

consonance
repetition of identical consonant sounds within two or more words in close proximity, as in boost/best; it can also be seen with several compound words, such as fulfill and ping-pong

description
the picturing in words of something or someone through detailed observation of color, motion, sound, taste, smell, and touch; one of the four modes of discourse

diction
related to style, refers to the writer’s word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness. (ex: formal or informal, ornate or plain)

discourse
spoken or written language, including literary works; the four traditionally classified modes are description, exposition, narration, and persuasion

dissonance
harsh or grating sounds that do not go together

ethos
speakers and writers appeal to this, or character, to demonstrate that they are credible and trustworthy and often emphasize shared values. In some instances a speaker’s reputation, or the reputation of the publication where the piece is published, immediately establishes this.

euphemism
a more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable, they are also used to obscure the reality of a situation. ex: xtra large – queen sized

euphony
a succession of harmonious sounds used in poetry or prose; the opposite of cacophony

extended metaphor
a metaphor developed at great length, occuring frequently in or throughout a work

figurative language
language that contains figures of speech, such as similies and metaphors, in order to create associations that are imaginative rather than literal

figures of speech
devices used to produce figurative language. many compare dissimilar things. includes: apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, aand understatement

foreshadowing
the use of a hint or clue to suggest a larger event that occurs late in the work

genre
the major category into which a literary work fits; there are also subgenres, such as science fiction or sonnet, within the larger genres

homily
this term literally means “sermon,” but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice

hubris
the excessive pride or ambition that leads a tragic hero to disregard warnings of impending doom, eventually causing his or her downfall

humor
anything that causes laughter or amusement; up until the end of the Renaissance, this meant a person’s temperament

hyperbole
a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement. They often have a comic effect, however a serious effect is also possible. They often produce irony at the same time.

image
a word or words, either figurative or literal, used to describe a sensory experience or an object percieved by the sense. It is always a concrete representation

imagery
the sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion or represent abstractions. On the physical level, it uses terms related to the five senses (visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory). On a broader and deeper level, one image can represent more than one thing. An other may employ other figures of speech at the same time, especially metaphor and similie.

inference
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented when a multiple choice question asks for this to be drawn from a passsage, the most direct, reasonable choice is the safest answer choice. If an answer choice is implausible, it is unlikely to be the correct answer. If the answer choice is directly stated in the passage, it is not inferred and is wrong.

interior monologue
writing that records the conversation inside a character’s head

irony
a contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant, the difference what appears to be and what actually is true. used to create poignancy or humor

verbal irony
form of irony in which the words literally state the opposite of the writer’s true meaning

situational irony
form of irony in which the events turn out the opposite of what was expected

dramatic irony
form of irony in which facts or events are unknown to a character in a place or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work.

jargon
the special language of a profession or group. The term usually has pejorative associations, with the implication that it is evasive, tedious, and unintelligible to outsiders. The writings of the lawyer and the literary critic are both susceptible to this.

logos
writers and speakers appeal to logos, or reason, by offering clear, rational ideas. This includes a clear thesis, specific details, examples, facts, statistical data, and/or expert testimony. The argument must be logical

lyrical (lyric)
songlike; characterized by emotions, subjectivity, and imagination

metaphor
a figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substituion of one for the other, suggesting some similarity. It makes writing more vivid, imaginative, thought provoking, and meaningful

mood
similar to tone, it is the primary emotional attitude of a work

moral
the lesson drawn from a fictional or nonfiction story

narrative
the telling of a story in fiction, nonfiction, poetry, or drama; one of the four modes of discourse

onomatopoeia
the use of words that sound like what they mean. ex: hiss, buzz, boom

oxymoron
a figure of speech composed of contradictory words or phrases. ex: bittersweet, pretty ugly, icy hot

parable
a short tale that teaches a moral, similar to, but shorter than an allegory

paradox
a statement that seems to contradict itself but that turns out to have rational meaning

pathos
writers and speakers appeal to this with the intent of evoking pity or compassion. Over-emotionalism can be the result of an excess of this and writing that relies exclusively on emotional appeals is rarely effective in the long term

pedantic
a term used to describe writing that borders on lecturing. It is scholarly and acedemic and often overly difficult and distant

persona
designates the speaker of a poem, word means “mask” in ancient Greece

personification
the attribution of human qualities to a nonhuman or inanimate object

point of view (P.O.V.)
the perspective from which a story is presented

prose
one of the major divisions of genre, refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all of its forms, because they are written in ordinary language and most closely resemble everyday speech. Technically, anything that is not poetry or drama is this.

repetition
the duplication, either exact or approximate, of any element of language, such as sound, word, phrase, clause,

rhyme
most important sound device in poetry; the repeating of end sounds of words

masculine rhyme
form of rhyme that occurs between single stressed syllables of rhyme. ex: fleece, release, niece

feminine rhyme (double rhyme)
form of rhyme that matches two syllables. ex: stinging, flinging, bringing

triple rhyme
form of rhyme that matches three syllables. ex: slithering, withering

slant rhyme
form of rhyme that contains hints of sound repetition. ex: chill, dull, sale

end rhyme
form of rhyme that occurs at occurs at the end of the line

rhyme scheme
assigning a letter to the matching sounds of the end rhyme

setting
time and place of a literary work

simile
figure of speech that uses like, as, or as if to make a direct comparison between two essentially different objects, actions, or qualities

speaker
the voice of a work; an author may speak as himself/herself or as a fictitious persona

stereotype
a character who represents a trait that is usually attributed to a particular social or racial group and who lacks individuality; a conventional patter, expression, or idea

symbolism
the use of symbols or anything that is meant to be taken both literally and as a representative of a higher and more complex significance

syncope
a contraction- a dropping of a letter which is done to help maintain the poem’s meter. ex: falt’ring, o’er

theme
the central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers to life. usually it is unstated in ficitonal works, but in nonficiton, it may be directly stated, especially in expository or argumentative writing

thesis
in expository writing, this is the sentence(s) that directly expresses the author’s opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition. Expository writing is usually judged by analyzing how accurately, effectively, and thoroughly a writer has proven it.

tone
similar to mood, it describes the author’s attitude toward his material, the audience, or both. It is easier to determine in spoken language than in written language. Considering how a work would sound if it were read aloud can help in identifying this. ex: playful, serious, sarcastic, formal, somber

understatement
the ironic minimizing of fact, it presents something as less significant than it really is. the effect can frequently be humorous and emphatic. it is the opposite of hyperbole.

lyric poetry
genre of poetry originally comprised of brief poems that were meant to be chanted/sung

narrative poetry
genre of poetry whose main function is to tell a story. contains plots, characters, setting, and point of view, and may be discussed in the same terms as a short story

dramatic poetry
genre of poetry composed to be chanted at religious rituals by a chorus- forerunner of tragedy

free verse poetry
form of poetry. verse with no consistent metrical pattern. the line length is a subjective desicion made by the poet, and the length may be determined by grammatical phrases, the poet’s own unit of breath, or even visual arrangement on the page

concrete/spatial poetry
form of poetry. purely visual design for a poem. concrete poem is one that takes the shape of the object it describes

fixed forms
patterns for poetry that encompass an entire poem. ex: sonnet or ballad

stanza forms
consistent patterns in the individual units of the poem

couplets
(stanza form) paired rhyming lines (aabbcc..)

heroic couplet
(stanza form, couplet) a meter of iambic pentameter

tercet
(stanza form) a three line stanza

triplet
(stanza form, triplet) if the lines have a rhyming scheme of (aaa bbb ccc..)

terza rima
(stanza form, triplet) iambic pentameter with the rhyme scheme (aba bcb cdc..)

quatrain
(stanza form) four line stanza

ballad stanza
(stanza form, quatrain) alternating lines of tetrameter and trimeter with the rhyme scheme abcb or abab

common meter
(stanza form, quatrain) strictly iambic pentameter

quintet
(stanza form) five line stanza

sestet
(stanza form) six line stanza

septet
(stanza form) seven line stanza

rime royal
(stanza form, septet) seven lines of iambic pentameter with a rhyme scheme of abababcc

octave
(stanza form) eight line stanza

ottava rima
(stanza form, octave) iambic pentameter lines rhyming abababcc

Haiku
(fixed form) 3 lines, consisting of 5, 7, then 5 syllables

Clerihew
(fixed form) a humorous form in which the first line is a person’s name and has a rhhyme scheme of aa bb.

Limerick
(fixed form) lines 1, 2, and 5 are anapestic trimester and lines 3 and 4 are anapestic dimeter with a rhyme scheme aabba

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