refers to language that describes concepts rather than concrete images (ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people, or places) ex: love, faith, friendship
the repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words. ex: she sells seashells
a reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. can be historical, literary, religious, or mythical, plus many more possibilities
repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row.
This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer’s point more coherent
a short, simple narrative of an incident; often used for humorous effect or to make a point
explanatory notes added to a text to explain, cite sources, or give bibliographical data
a short, often witty statement of a principle or a truth about life. ex: the early bird gets the worm
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love.
The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity
repetition of vowel sounds between different consonants. ex: neigh/fade
the emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author’s choice of objects that are described. Even such elements such as a description of the weather can contribute to this. Frequenty, it foreshadows events.
the person or persons spoken to in a poem
harsh, awkward, or dissonant sounds used deliberately in poetry or prose; the opposite of euphony
a word or phrase (including slang) used in everyday conversation and informal writing but that is often inappropriate in formal writing. ex: ya’ll
describes specific, observable things, people, or places, rather than ideas or qualities
repetition of identical consonant sounds within two or more words in close proximity, as in boost/best; it can also be seen with several compound words, such as fulfill and ping-pong
the picturing in words of something or someone through detailed observation of color, motion, sound, taste, smell, and touch; one of the four modes of discourse
related to style, refers to the writer’s word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness. (ex: formal or informal, ornate or plain)
spoken or written language, including literary works; the four traditionally classified modes are description, exposition, narration, and persuasion
harsh or grating sounds that do not go together
speakers and writers appeal to this, or character, to demonstrate that they are credible and trustworthy and often emphasize shared values. In some instances a speaker’s reputation, or the reputation of the publication where the piece is published, immediately establishes this.
a more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable, they are also used to obscure the reality of a situation. ex: xtra large – queen sized
a succession of harmonious sounds used in poetry or prose; the opposite of cacophony
a metaphor developed at great length, occuring frequently in or throughout a work
language that contains figures of speech, such as similies and metaphors, in order to create associations that are imaginative rather than literal
figures of speech
devices used to produce figurative language. many compare dissimilar things. includes: apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, aand understatement
the use of a hint or clue to suggest a larger event that occurs late in the work
the major category into which a literary work fits; there are also subgenres, such as science fiction or sonnet, within the larger genres
this term literally means “sermon,” but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice
the excessive pride or ambition that leads a tragic hero to disregard warnings of impending doom, eventually causing his or her downfall
anything that causes laughter or amusement; up until the end of the Renaissance, this meant a person’s temperament
a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement. They often have a comic effect, however a serious effect is also possible. They often produce irony at the same time.
a word or words, either figurative or literal, used to describe a sensory experience or an object percieved by the sense. It is always a concrete representation
the sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion or represent abstractions. On the physical level, it uses terms related to the five senses (visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory). On a broader and deeper level, one image can represent more than one thing. An other may employ other figures of speech at the same time, especially metaphor and similie.
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented when a multiple choice question asks for this to be drawn from a passsage, the most direct, reasonable choice is the safest answer choice. If an answer choice is implausible, it is unlikely to be the correct answer. If the answer choice is directly stated in the passage, it is not inferred and is wrong.
writing that records the conversation inside a character’s head
a contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant, the difference what appears to be and what actually is true. used to create poignancy or humor
form of irony in which the words literally state the opposite of the writer’s true meaning
form of irony in which the events turn out the opposite of what was expected
form of irony in which facts or events are unknown to a character in a place or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work.
the special language of a profession or group. The term usually has pejorative associations, with the implication that it is evasive, tedious, and unintelligible to outsiders. The writings of the lawyer and the literary critic are both susceptible to this.
writers and speakers appeal to logos, or reason, by offering clear, rational ideas. This includes a clear thesis, specific details, examples, facts, statistical data, and/or expert testimony. The argument must be logical
songlike; characterized by emotions, subjectivity, and imagination
a figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substituion of one for the other, suggesting some similarity. It makes writing more vivid, imaginative, thought provoking, and meaningful
similar to tone, it is the primary emotional attitude of a work
the lesson drawn from a fictional or nonfiction story
the telling of a story in fiction, nonfiction, poetry, or drama; one of the four modes of discourse
the use of words that sound like what they mean. ex: hiss, buzz, boom
a figure of speech composed of contradictory words or phrases. ex: bittersweet, pretty ugly, icy hot
a short tale that teaches a moral, similar to, but shorter than an allegory
a statement that seems to contradict itself but that turns out to have rational meaning
writers and speakers appeal to this with the intent of evoking pity or compassion. Over-emotionalism can be the result of an excess of this and writing that relies exclusively on emotional appeals is rarely effective in the long term
a term used to describe writing that borders on lecturing. It is scholarly and acedemic and often overly difficult and distant
designates the speaker of a poem, word means “mask” in ancient Greece
the attribution of human qualities to a nonhuman or inanimate object
point of view (P.O.V.)
the perspective from which a story is presented
one of the major divisions of genre, refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all of its forms, because they are written in ordinary language and most closely resemble everyday speech. Technically, anything that is not poetry or drama is this.
the duplication, either exact or approximate, of any element of language, such as sound, word, phrase, clause,
most important sound device in poetry; the repeating of end sounds of words
form of rhyme that occurs between single stressed syllables of rhyme. ex: fleece, release, niece
feminine rhyme (double rhyme)
form of rhyme that matches two syllables. ex: stinging, flinging, bringing
form of rhyme that matches three syllables. ex: slithering, withering
form of rhyme that contains hints of sound repetition. ex: chill, dull, sale
form of rhyme that occurs at occurs at the end of the line
assigning a letter to the matching sounds of the end rhyme
time and place of a literary work
figure of speech that uses like, as, or as if to make a direct comparison between two essentially different objects, actions, or qualities
the voice of a work; an author may speak as himself/herself or as a fictitious persona
a character who represents a trait that is usually attributed to a particular social or racial group and who lacks individuality; a conventional patter, expression, or idea
the use of symbols or anything that is meant to be taken both literally and as a representative of a higher and more complex significance
a contraction- a dropping of a letter which is done to help maintain the poem’s meter. ex: falt’ring, o’er
the central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers to life. usually it is unstated in ficitonal works, but in nonficiton, it may be directly stated, especially in expository or argumentative writing
in expository writing, this is the sentence(s) that directly expresses the author’s opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition. Expository writing is usually judged by analyzing how accurately, effectively, and thoroughly a writer has proven it.
similar to mood, it describes the author’s attitude toward his material, the audience, or both. It is easier to determine in spoken language than in written language. Considering how a work would sound if it were read aloud can help in identifying this. ex: playful, serious, sarcastic, formal, somber
the ironic minimizing of fact, it presents something as less significant than it really is. the effect can frequently be humorous and emphatic. it is the opposite of hyperbole.
genre of poetry originally comprised of brief poems that were meant to be chanted/sung
genre of poetry whose main function is to tell a story. contains plots, characters, setting, and point of view, and may be discussed in the same terms as a short story
genre of poetry composed to be chanted at religious rituals by a chorus- forerunner of tragedy
free verse poetry
form of poetry. verse with no consistent metrical pattern. the line length is a subjective desicion made by the poet, and the length may be determined by grammatical phrases, the poet’s own unit of breath, or even visual arrangement on the page
form of poetry. purely visual design for a poem. concrete poem is one that takes the shape of the object it describes
patterns for poetry that encompass an entire poem. ex: sonnet or ballad
consistent patterns in the individual units of the poem
(stanza form) paired rhyming lines (aabbcc..)
(stanza form, couplet) a meter of iambic pentameter
(stanza form) a three line stanza
(stanza form, triplet) if the lines have a rhyming scheme of (aaa bbb ccc..)
(stanza form, triplet) iambic pentameter with the rhyme scheme (aba bcb cdc..)
(stanza form) four line stanza
(stanza form, quatrain) alternating lines of tetrameter and trimeter with the rhyme scheme abcb or abab
(stanza form, quatrain) strictly iambic pentameter
(stanza form) five line stanza
(stanza form) six line stanza
(stanza form) seven line stanza
(stanza form, septet) seven lines of iambic pentameter with a rhyme scheme of abababcc
(stanza form) eight line stanza
(stanza form, octave) iambic pentameter lines rhyming abababcc
(fixed form) 3 lines, consisting of 5, 7, then 5 syllables
(fixed form) a humorous form in which the first line is a person’s name and has a rhhyme scheme of aa bb.
(fixed form) lines 1, 2, and 5 are anapestic trimester and lines 3 and 4 are anapestic dimeter with a rhyme scheme aabba