Chapter I Introduction Almost in all times and among all nations which have reached a sufficient level of cultural development, there have always been fraternal associations formed for higher purposes. The development of Fraternities can be traced from trade unions or guilds that emerged in England. These guilds were set up to protect and care for their members at a time when there was no welfare state, trade unions or National Health Service (Sarmiento, 2011).
Various secret signs and handshakes were created to serve as proof of their membership allowing them to visit guilds in distant places that are associated with the guild they belong.
Others even modify their body like piercing, tattoo, and burns. ”The awakening of the Filipinos to a deep sense of injustice being practice upon them by the colonizers was the introduction of fraternal societies in the islands, and the influence of higher education obtain by those of means to schools of Hongkong and other old-world countries” (Sarmiento, 2011).
Nowadays fraternities and sororities exist for high school students as well as college students. Like their college counterparts, most have Greek letter names. There are local high school fraternities and sororities with one or two chapters, many of the local chapters of these national fraternities were not tied to or affiliated with individual high schools but were instead area based, often drawing membership from multiple high schools in a given area. The high-school fraternity has become a serious problem through the years.
These organizations have sprung into the schools even in the watchful eyes of the school administrators who suddenly felt the need to act with all forces not easy to control, and remove from school.
With the DepEd Order no. 6 series of 1954, which prohibits hazing in schools, and DepEd Order no. 20 series of 1991, which prohibits the operation of fraternities and sororities in public and private elementary and secondary schools and with laid out sanctions, like suspensions and expulsion, administrators and school authorities are aiming to eradicate these organizations.
The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others (Erikson, E. H. ). As they make the transition from childhood to adulthood, adolescents ponder the roles they will play in the adult world. Initially, they are apt to experience some role confusion- mixed ideas and feelings about the specific ways in which they will fit into society- and may experiment with a variety of behaviors and activities (e. g. tinkering with cars, baby-sitting for neighbors, affiliating with certain political or religious groups).
Human beings are social animals; they develop and mature in dyadic, small group and other group contexts over a long period. Thus, it is not surprising that a growing body of evidence suggests that people are healthier and happier when they experience social belonging. Adolescents participate in a complex social environment populated by many friendship groups, cliques, and crowds. In the last few years, there have been many circumstances in school that are fraternity related. Various steps are taken, like investigation to suspected frat members.
The school further promotes co-curricular and extra-curricular organizations and activities that can serve as more wholesome and productive alternatives to fraternities, sororities and like organizations. Various clubs were introduced by the school administrator to stir up students’ interest in different fields and divert them to a more productive group. This study hopes to shed light on old but under-researched phenomenon in the Philippines and based on the results, develop program for interventions which is non-existent at the moment.
Consequently, this study will help open a whole new of world of understanding on the subject of fraternities and sororities and its implications to the future, since only few know about these groups. Lastly, the study aims to fill the gap in current research literature in the Philippines on fraternities and sororities. It hopes to provide insight into modern conceptualizations and definitions of fraternities and sororities. This information may be used in future research on fraternities and sororities and for effecting necessary changes on government institutions’ policies that govern fraternities and sororities.
Statement of the Problem This study explores, describes and analyzes the lived experiences of high school fraternity members. Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions: 1. What significant reason motivates high school students to join fraternities and sororities? 2. What insights, meaning and inspiration for fraternities and sororities members emerge from these experiences? 3. What do these insights reveal about their involvement in these organizations? 4. What counseling program can be designed to assist the needs of frat and not frat members?
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework This study is anchored on theory of belongingness by Baumeister and Leary’s (1995) individuals have an evolved, and robust, need for closeness, and social belonging. This theory suggests that natural selection favored individuals who maintained close bonds with groups because this attachment provided security, and facilitated reproduction. Man is a social being in he has to be with others in order to cope with this pass paced world. Conceptual Framework Need to Belong Friends Belongingness Interventions Fraternity/Sorority The need to belong.
As social being, teenagers as participants study seek to belong to, or identify oneself with others. Friends teenagers often be in the fill the gap if not satisfied in home Scope and Limitation The research is concerned with exploring and probing the lived experiences of 7-10 high school fraternity/sorority members in Canlaon City. The participants in the study are high school students currently enrolled during the school year 2011-2012 and are currently fraternity/sorority member. The participants are at least 12 years old at the time of the study. The study will use in-depth interview.
This study will be conducted in public and private high schools Canlaon City for the school year 2010-2011. Significance of the Study The results of the study intend to benefit the following sectors: Educators. The study may spawn valuable insights concerning the real needs of this sector in educational institutions. This study may provide hard facts on their actual needs and the information gathered may be valuable in the school’s attempt to understand them more fully and to help provide opportunities to address their pertinent needs in and outside of the school.
This group is expected to benefit directly from the actual data generated in this study. School Administrators. The information gathered in this research may provide baseline data for the administrators to plan and create a more concrete program to address the needs of the fraternity and sorority members. Since this study is a first-of-its-kind in the city, the researcher expects to provide a better and more comprehensive program in the future that addresses the actual needs of the students.
Guidance Counselors. This research aims to provide baseline data that will help in the formulation of appropriate guidance programs to answer the need of the students and will help them in their quest to belong. Future researchers. This research is hoped to lay down a solid foundation on the needs of students who join fraternity and sororities for future researchers who may want to further investigate the topic and explore areas not covered by the present study.
Furthermore, since local data on fraternity and sorority is scarce, it is the hope of the researcher to contribute to the local literature on the subject to benefit those who would wish to delve deeper into the topic in the future. The Government, Organization Leaders and Policy-Makers. The focus of this study is an attempt to provide new knowledge to leaders of organizations, government and policy-makers. The data can help enhance and develop strategies implementing specialized training, support systems, programs and laws that might protect the welfare of our students who are still in their teenage years.
Definition of Terms In order to facilitate proper understanding of the context of how they are used in the study, the following terms are defined conceptually, operationally or both. Age – conceptually and operationally defined as the length of time that somebody or something has existed, usually expressed in years (Microsoft® Encarta® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. ) Counseling Program – a plan of action that will be the product of the results of this study Family Background – whether participant of the study is living with parents, mother only, father only, uncle/aunt, grandparents, and relatives.
Fraternity/Sorority – a group of individuals formed with the spirit of brotherly love Fraternity/Sorority Member – are the participants of the study, they are self confessed affiliates of high school fraternities. Gangs – group of teenagers who perform rights often to harm to the school and society Year Level – current educational status of the participant. Chapter II Review of Related Literature The purpose of this study is to see the real picture of high school fraternities and sororities in high school. This chapter presents the review of related studies that resembles in any way of this study.
Several related literature and studies are related to this study. One of these studies is the study made by Timothy E. Bleeker and Sarah K. Murnen (2005) on fraternity membership, the display of degrading sexual images of women and rape myth acceptance wherein it was found out that fraternity men had significantly more images of women displayed in their rooms and that images were rated significantly more degrading than those in the rooms of non-fraternity men. Fraternity men were found to have significantly higher scores on rape supportive attitude scale (RSA).
Carolyn Kolb (2008) cites that high school fraternities like the college level groups, have Greek letter name, a motto usually related to the name initials, secret rites and handshakes and a self generating membership: new members have to be voted in by the current members. Moreover Micheal T. Gibbons (2006) in his article “The Idea of Fraternity Revisited”, mentioned that the aspiration and drive for fraternity are indicated throughout the political history of human beings. An article of Jon Marcus (2004) discusses the controversy over fraternities and sororities in U. S. universities.
It is being debated whether fraternities and sororities should be banned due to their involvement in sexism, alcohol abuse, hazing among others. Fraternities here in the Philippines have a “stigma” according to Juan Dela Cruz (2008). That is, people think that fraternities have nothing to do any good for you. It involves in frat wars, murders and any kind of crimes. He also added that being a fratmen, especially when you are member of a big fraternity is risky and dangerous. It is true that these big frats made services to people. Another research conducted by Brett Wells and Daniel P.
Corts (2008) explored on implicit attitudes towards members of social fraternities and sororities. Members of Greek organizations showed preferential responses towards Greek groups over academic and service groups. These patterns of results suggest that many independent students harbor ill feelings towards sorority and fraternity members, and it is possible that the attitudes are stronger than reported typical. Eric A. Storch and Jason B. Storch (2002) examined the relationship between membership in fraternity or sorority and the frequency of academic dishonesty.
Findings revealed that (1) members of fraternities and sororities reported higher rates of academic dishonesty as compared to non-members, and (2) the degree of involvement in fraternity or sorority sponsored activities was positively associated with academic dishonesty. Arsenio Baquilid (2010) emphasized that a fraternity or sorority is a choice of lifestyle for a lifetime. It has a strong influence on ones personality. He also stressed the truth that there are fraternities that pride themselves on academic performance, extra-curricular activities, leadership development, community service and may other achievements.
The organization is a venue where a person can practice the full development of an integrated personality. However Ben O’Donnell (2009) argues that, despite negative stereotypes and news stories, fraternities can make a positive contribution to campus life. He notes that fraternity friendships create lifelong bonds between members, expose people to a variety of personality types because of the necessary diversity in any group and offer real diversity in fraternities at his alma mater, Dartmouth College.
Juan Dela Cruz (2008) also included in his article that fraternity also made lot of services every year like outreach program. They adopt a baranggay and help the people there. They educate the children and give them goods. Through all the studies showed no concrete evidence on the concrete experiences and purpose of fraternities and sororities. The researcher persisted in conducting this study on the phenomenological study on the lives of high school students involving fraternities and sororities membership: Basis for a Counseling Program. Chapter III METHODOLOGY
This chapter describes the research design, the participants of the study, the sampling procedure, the statistical tool, the data gathering procedure and analyzing the data. The Research Design The study mainly uses the qualitative-phenomenological approach in research. The study will use the descriptive type of research methodology as to the nature of the problem. The researcher will employ the field survey and the phenomenological in-depth interviewing methods. The qualitative approach used in-depth and key informant interviews with high school fraternity/sorority members to determine their experiences in the organization.
The Participants of the Study The participants of this study are 7-10 high school students who are members of fraternity and sorority in Canlaon City. The age range will be 12-20 years old. The participant will be a mixture of frat members from different organizations. In order to protect their identity and ensure confidentiality, the participants were assigned pseudonyms (quoted in parenthesis). These were the names consistently used all throughout the paper when there was a need for the researcher to refer to the participants. The Sampling Design
Due to the sensitivity of the study, the researcher conducted a pre-survey. The study employs purposeful sampling in identifying the participants. The researcher selects individuals and sites for study because they can purposefully inform an understanding of the research problem and the central phenomenon under study (Creswell, 2007). A Snowball or Chain sampling will also be used by which it identifies cases of interest from people who know people who know people who know what cases are information-rich, that is, good examples for study, good interview subjects (Patton, 1990).
More specifically, the study uses criterion sampling wherein only the participants who met the criteria set by the researcher were involved in the study. The criteria used are the following: (1) first, participants are high school students enrolled in the current year and (2) second, they are members of fraternity/sorority for at least 6 months prior to the interview; and (3) third, they are 12 to 20 years old. For phenomenological studies, the use of small number of participants is justifiable due to the nature of the data-gathering procedure Research Instruments
An interview guide will be used by the researcher to gather data. The researcher himself will make his own questions and will not rely on pre-prepared questionnaire to gather information. Guided by an interview protocol he will gather data and the flow of the interview will largely depend on his skill in asking the right questions, probing for depth and eliciting the necessary responses from the participants. Validity of the Research Instrument As suggested by Creswell (2007), the following validation techniques will be utilized: Firstly, the use of external audits (Erlanson et al. 1993; Lincoln and Guba, 1985; Merriam, 1988; Miles and Huberman, 1994 cited in Creswell, 2007) allows an external consultant, the auditor, to examine both process and the product of the account, assessing their accuracy. The auditor should have no connection to the study. This means that the open-ended questions for the in-depth interview will be subjected to face and content validity by seeking the expert suggestion of research practitioners engaging in qualitative research in order to ensure that the questions would gather the true essence and meaning of the participants’ experiences.
Secondly, the use of the commonest forms of triangulation is to combine interviews with observation. Observation will test and fill out accounts given in interviews, and vice versa (Pratt, 2006). Thirdly, considerable effort was made in order to establish trust by building rapport with the participants through prolonged engagement, immersion and persistent observation. It also involves checking for misinformation that stems from distortions introduced by the researcher or informants (Ely, et al, 1991; Erlandson, Harris, Skipper and Allen, 1993; Glesne and Peskin, 1992; Lincoln and Guba, 1995; Merriam, 1998, cited in Creswell, 2007).
Fourthly, clarifying researcher bias from the outset of the study is important so that the reader understands the researcher’s position and any biases or assumptions that impact the inquiry (Merriam, 1998, cited in Creswell, 2007). In this clarification, the researcher comments on pass experiences, biases, prejudices, and orientations that have likely shape the interpretation and approach t the study. Reliability of Research Instruments In qualitative research, reliability or consistency of responses of the participants is established using a good quality recorder in order to capture the details of the in-depth interview.
In this case the researcher will use the recording function of a cellular phone. The recorded responses will be transcribed in order to see the nuances of the responses, the significant verbal and nonverbal cues, including the respondents’ tone and volume, the variations, pauses and the nuances of their responses. The stability of these responses will be the hallmark of a reliable instrument. The researcher will also use a detailed field notes to indicate of a good reliability index in qualitative research.
This can be achieved by a good and competent way of transcribing the data gathered during the interview, to be conducted several times until the necessary information related to the inquiry is saturated. Data Gathering Procedure The following procedures will be observed during data gathering. The researcher will conduct a pre-survey to determine who are willing to participate in the study. Those who will agree to be participants of the study will be ask to refer others who are members of fraternity. Statistical Treatment of Data
The study will use simple percentage to show the participants profile like gender, age, year level, family background and the recruitment procedure. Other findings will be in a descriptive type. Bibliography Baquilid, A. U. (2010, June). Being A Fraternity Member: Advantages and Disadvantages. http://arseniobaquilid23. blog. com/ Baumeister, R. F. , & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human emotion. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529. Bleecker, T. E. , & Murnen, S. K. 2005, October). Fraternity Membership, the Display of Degrading Sexual Images of Women, and Rape Myth Acceptance. Sex Role; Vol. 53 Issue 7/8, p487-493, 7p. Dela Cruz, J. (2008, October). Life of a Fratman in the Philippines: From Heaven Down to Hell. http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/1079233/life_of_a_fratman_in_the_philippines. html? cat=7 Foubert, J. D. , Garner, D. N. & Thaxter, P. J. (2006, June). An Exploration of Fraternity Culture: Implications for Programs to Address Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault. College Student Journal; Vol. 0 Issue 2, p361-373, 13p. Gibbons, M. T. (2006). The Idea of Fraternity Revised. Perspective on Political Science; Vol. 35 Issue 4, p205-209, 5p. Kolb, C. (2008, November). Frat Boys. New Orleans Magazines; Vol. 43 Issue 2, p188-189, 2p. Marcus, J. (2011, June). Schools for Scandal: Can Fraternities shed their image? The Times Higher Education Supplement; Issue 2004, p20. Microsoft® Encarta® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Newman, M. (2002, August). High School Group’s Hazing Was Open Secret, Some Say.
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