Apply coupling gel to the scanning surface. 2. Position the transducer above the vertical plane target and perpendicular to the wires. Do not apply excessive pressure as this may temporarily compress the target and skew the measurement. 3. Adjust the instrument setting as for a “normal” liver technique. Record these settings for used on subsequence testing. . Align this probe so all the vertical targets are displayed at their maximum intensity level. 5. Freeze the image and obtain a hard copy. 6. Using electronic calipers measurement the distance between two wire at various depth or align the echoes to the display markers for comparison. 7. Record these measurements. 8. Compare the measurement values with the recorded baseline distances. 6. Analyze the function of valves in the selected image and compared the valves in the left and right side of the heart. Mode B Dual 1 To display an image only on the left side of monitor.
Mode B Dual 2 To display an image only on the right side of the monitor. 7. Explain the effect of Merman syndrome. (15 marks) Many affected individuals are tall, slender and loose-jointed. Arms, legs, fingers and toes often are unusually long. Some people with Merman syndrome have low foot arches (flat feet), and others have high arches. Individuals with Merman syndrome usually have long, narrow faces, and their teeth are generally crowded. Individuals with Merman syndrome can have one or more of the problems described below. The severity of the effects of Merman syndrome varies greatly, even within the same family.
Heart and blood vessel problems: The most serious problem associated with Merman syndrome is weakness of the wall of the aorta. The aorta is the body’s largest artery, which carries oxygen-rich blood from the left side of the heart to the rest of the body. In Merman syndrome, the wall of the aorta gradually weakens and stretches (aortic dilation). Eventually, this can cause a tear (dissection) in the lining of the aorta. Blood can leak out through the tear into the aortic wall, sometimes causing a rupture that allows blood to leak into the chest or abdomen. If not detected and treated, these complications can cause sudden death.
Abnormal heart valves: Heart valves are tiny flaps or gates that keep the blood flowing in one direction through the heart. With Merman syndrome, the heart’s material valve tends to be large and floppy (material valve prolapsed). An abnormal material valve can allow blood to briefly flow backwards during a heartbeat. Sometimes this creates an abnormal sound (heart murmur) that a health care provider may hear through a stethoscope. Material valve prolapsed can sometimes be associated with irregular or rapid heartbeat and shortness of breath. Skeletal abnormalities: Many affected individuals have a lateral (sideways) curve of the spine called scoliosis.
Sometimes there is a sharp, forward curvature called syphilis. Many individuals have a breastbone that protrudes outward (called upsets carination) or sinks inward (called upsets excavated). These chest abnormalities can sometimes affect heart or lung function. Sometimes the connective tissue that surrounds the spinal cord loosens and stretches out. This condition is called durra ecstasies and can cause pain in the lower back or legs and numbness or weakness in the legs. Lung problems: Persons with Merman syndrome sometimes develop breathing problems, such as shortness of breath.
Breathing problems may result from skeletal abnormalities that do not allow the chest to fully expand or from sudden lapse of the lungs (called spontaneous pneumonia). Adults with Merman syndrome are at increased risk for early emphysema, a breathing disorder usually associated with smoking, even if they don’t smoke. Individuals with Merman syndrome also may have short pauses in breathing during sleep, called sleep apneas. Eye problems: The lens of one or both eyes is off-center in more than 60 percent of persons with Merman syndrome (1, 3). This is called octopi lentils.
Most affected individuals are nearsighted and have astigmatism (the eyes cannot focus clearly). 8. Why some people with Merman syndrome also have material valve prolapsed? Merman syndrome can cause problems with any of the four heart valves, often it affects the heart material valve, which controls blood flow between the spaces above and below the left side of the heart. Material valve can slip-condition in which the material valve flaps are floppy, not closed and allow blood to flow back in a heartbeat. Depending on the condition, surgery may be needed to repair the valve.
If your child has material valve prolapsed (MAP), the doctor may hear a heart murmur (an extra or unusual sound heard during a heartbeat). But it is important to note that having a MAP or inconclusive heart murmur mean that our child has Merman syndrome. 9. Are there physical traits in people with merman syndrome? ( 10 marks) More than 30 of the signs and symptoms that differ variably associated with Merman syndrome. The most famous of these, involving the skeletal system, available in a variety of other diseases (see Differential Diagnosis, below).
Therefore, it is not possible to make a diagnosis of Merman syndrome only with one’s appearance. Instead, Merman syndrome distinguish it from other “nonrandom” syndrome (without the use of DNA testing) requires the evaluation of clinical and laboratory endings not bone, especially the eyes, aorta, and heart. Complicating the person’s physical assessment, a large clinical variability occurs in families that similar DNA variants. Skeletal system Most of the signs are conspicuously related to the skeletal system. Many individuals with Merman syndrome grow to a height above average.
There is a long, slender legs (delimitation’s) with long fingers and toes (archaically). Hands of an individual may be disproportionately long, with thin, weak wrists. In addition to affecting height and parts of the body, Merman syndrome can produce other skeletal anomalies. Abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis), abnormal indentation (upsets excavated) or protrusion (upsets carination) of the sternum is not unusual. Other signs include unusual joint flexibility, a high palate, malocclusion, flat feet, hammer toe, hunched shoulders, and unexplained stretch marks on the skin.
It can also cause pain in the joints, bones and muscles in some patients. Some people with Merman speech disorders resulting from symptoms high tastes and a small jaw. Early osteoarthritis can occur. Eyes Merman syndrome can also seriously affect the eyes and vision. Nearsightedness ND astigmatism are common, but farsightedness can also occur. Sublimation (dislocation) crystalline lens in one or both eyes (octopi lentils) (in of patients) also occur and can be detected by an ophthalmologist or optometrist using a slit-lamp biomorphic.
In Merman dislocations typically supernormal whereas in the similar condition humanitarians, dislocation is inferential. Sometimes eye problems appear only after the weakness of connective tissue has caused detachment of the retina. Cardiovascular system The symptoms of the most serious and the symptoms associated with Merman yeomen involve the cardiovascular system: improper fatigue, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, racing heartbeat, or angina vectors with pain radiating to the back, shoulders, or arms.
Cold hands, arms and legs can also be associated with Merman syndrome because of inadequate circulation. A heart murmur, abnormal reading on the EGG, or symptoms of angina can indicate further investigation. Signs of material regurgitation from prolapsed or aortic valve (which controls blood flow through the heart) result from cystic degeneration of the heart valves, which are usually associated with Merman syndrome (see atria valve prolapsed, aortic regurgitation). However, the main signs that will lead doctors to consider the underlying condition is dilated aorta or aortic aneurysms.
Sometimes, no heart problems are apparent until the weakness of connective tissue (central cystic degeneration) in the ascending aorta causes an aortic aneurysm or aortic surgery, emergency surgery. An aortic dissection is most often fatal and presents with pain radiating to the back, giving a sense of tearing. Because connective tissue abnormalities underlying cause Merman syndrome, there is an increased incidence of dissidence of the material valve false. Care must be taken to try to repair a damaged heart valves rather than replacement.
During pregnancy, even in the absence of normal cardiovascular assumptions, women with Merman syndrome greater risk for aortic dissection, which is often fatal even if treated quickly. Women with Merman syndrome, then, should receive a thorough assessment prior to conception, and chromatography should be performed every six to 10 weeks of pregnancy, to assess the aortic root diameter. For many women, safe vaginal delivery is possible. Lungs Pulmonary symptoms are not features of Merman syndrome, but spontaneous pneumonia is common.
In spontaneous unilateral pneumonia, air escapes from the lung and occupies the pleural space between the chest wall and lungs. The lungs become partially compressed or collapsed. This can cause pain, shortness of breath, cyanogens, and, if left untreated, it can cause death. Other pulmonary manifestations of Merman syndrome may include sleep apneas and idiopathic obstructive lung disease. [Citation needed medical] of pathological changes in the lung has been described as changes in fibrosis, emphysema, pneumonia, bronchitis’s, bubble, apical fibrosis and congenital anomalies such as the middle lobe hyperplasia The central nervous system
Durra ecstasies, connective tissue weakness Durra sac encasing the spinal cord, although not life threatening, can reduce an individual’s quality of life. It may be present for a long time without producing any noticeable symptoms. Symptoms that can occur are lower back pain, leg pain, abdominal pain, other neurological symptoms in the lower extremities, or headaches. The symptoms usually diminish when the individual lies flat on or back. These types of symptoms may lead a doctor to order an X-ray of the lower spine. Durra ecstasies is usually not visible on X-rays in the initial phase.
A worsening of symptoms and the lack of ending any other reasons that will eventually lead a doctor to order an upright MR.. Of the lower spine. Durra ecstasies that has progressed to the point of causing these symptoms would appear in an upright MR.. Image as a dilated pouch wearing away at the lumbar spine. Other spinal issues associated with Merman syndrome include degenerative disc disease, spinal cysts and disputations. D) Conclusion (5 marks) For the conclusion for this test, student will understand and learn more about ultrasound. Ultrasound is cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing.
Although this limit varies from person to errors, it is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults and thus, 20 kHz serves as a useful lower limit in describing ultrasound. The production of ultrasound is used in many different fields, typically to penetrate a medium and measure the reflection signature or supply focused energy. The reflection signature can reveal details about the inner structure of the medium, a property also used by animals such as bats for hunting. The most well known application of ultrasound is its use in iconography to produce pictures of fetus in the human womb.
Student also will learn that an ultrasound-based diagnostic deiced imaging technique used to visualize muscles, tendons, and many internal organs, to capture their size, structure and any pathological lesions with real time demographic images. Ultrasound has been used by oceanographers to image the human body for at least 50 years and has become one of the most widely used diagnostic tools in modern medicine. The technology is relatively inexpensive and portable, especially when compared with other techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MR..) and computed tomography (CT).
Ultrasound is also used to visualize fetus during routine and emergency prenatal care. Such diagnostic applications used during pregnancy are referred to as obstetric iconography. Discussion Ultrasound is cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing. Although this limit varies from person to person, it is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults and thus, 20 kHz serves as a useful lower limit in describing ultrasound. The production of ultrasound is used in many different fields, typically to penetrate a medium and measure the reflection signature or supply focused energy.
The reflection signature can reveal details about the inner structure of the tedium, a property also used by animals such as bats for hunting. The most well known application of ultrasound is its use in iconography to produce pictures of fetus in the human womb. There are a vast number of other applications as well. Ultrasonic range A common use of ultrasound is in range finding; this use is also called SONAR, (sound navigation and ranging). This works similarly to RADAR (radio detection and ranging): An ultrasonic pulse is generated in a particular direction.
If there is an object in the path of this pulse, part or all of the pulse will be reflected back o the transmitter as an echo and can be detected through the receiver path. By measuring the difference in time between the pulse being transmitted and the echo being received, it is possible to determine how far away the object is. The measured travel time of SONAR pulses in water is strongly dependent on the temperature and the salinity of the water. Ultrasonic ranging is also applied for measurement in air and for short distances.
Such method is capable for easily and rapidly measuring the layout of rooms. Although range finding underwater is performed at both sub-audible and audible frequencies for great distances (1 to several kilometers), ultrasonic range finding is used when distances are shorter and the accuracy of the distance measurement is desired to be finer. Ultrasonic measurements may be limited through barrier layers with large salinity, temperature or vortex differentials. Ranging in water varies from about hundreds to thousands of meters, but can be performed with centimeters to meters accuracy.
So in our study indicate that ultrasound can be used in different mod. From this mod can be generate more effective and as the result the producing a better image. Ultrasound scanners insist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that is used to scan the body and blood vessels. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached to the scanner by a cord. The transducer sends out high frequency sound waves into the body and then listens for the returning echoes from the tissues in the body.
The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible on a nearby screen that looks much like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude strength), frequency and time it takes for the sound signal to return from the patient to the transducer. Common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound: Gallbladder Ultrasound: Kidney Ultrasound: Liver Ultrasound examinations can help to diagnose a variety of conditions and to assess organ damage following illness.
Ultrasound is used to help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is a useful way of examining many of the body’s internal organs, including but not limited to the: heart and blood vessels, including the abdominal aorta and its major branches liver gallbladder spleen pancreas kidneys ladder uterus, ovaries, and unborn child (fetus) in pregnant patients eyes thyroid and parathyroid glands scrotum (testicles) Ultrasound is also used to : Guide procedures such as needle biopsies, in which needles are used to extract sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing.
Image the breasts and to guide biopsy of breast cancer (see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page). Diagnose a variety of heart conditions and to assess damage after a heart attack or diagnose for uvular heart disease. Doppler ultrasound images can help the physician to see and evaluate: Blockages to blood flow (such as clots). Narrowing of vessels (which may be caused by plaque). Tumors and congenital malformation.