Add drop of water to aqueous solution that you plan to discard. Make SUre water dissolves then discard. Add ml MM HOSTS to remaining solution and shake. Again, remove the aqueous layer on bottom and discard. Add ml of water to solution and shake. Organic layer on bottom, transfer bottom layer to clean ml vial. Add saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate a little at a time while stirring. Shake and allow layers to separate. Transfer lower alkyl halide layer in ml conical vial using pipette.
Dry solution over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Distill dry solution using Hickman still.
When distillation complete, weigh the vial and calculate percent yield. Determine the infrared spectrum of product using salt plate. Day 1: First I weighed an empty ml flask with lid = 15. Egg. Then I added the n-butyl alcohol into the flask and weighed that weight = 17. Egg. I can subtract the two values to determine the exact weight of n-butyl alcohol added 17.
Egg-15. Egg = 1. Egg n-butyl alcohol. I then added 2. Ml of water and about 2. Egg of sodium bromide to the flask and put it in an ice bath. I slowly added sulfuric acid drop by drop to the solution.
Then I removed the flask from the ice bath and placed it in the assembled reflux apparatus and began the heating process for 60 min. After the heating process was complete, I observed that the organic layer of the mixture turned bright red. I extracted the organic layer by removing and discarding the aqueous bottom layer using a pipette.
To make sure I had no organic solution in the aqueous extract, I added a drop of water and it dissolved proving that my aqueous extract was just aqueous. I put the remaining solution in a clean ml vial and put it in the freezer.
Day 2: After freezing the solution overnight, the organic layer turned a copper/brown color. I added ml of HOSTS to the vial and the two layers formed with the organic layer on top. Removed and discarded the aqueous solution using a pipette. I then added ml of H2O and two layers formed with the organic layer on the bottom. Using a pipette I transferred the bottom layer too clean ml vial. Then added ml of sodium bicarbonate a little at a time, shaking and venting frequently. After the layers separated I transferred the lower alkyl halide layer to dry ml vial and dried this solution with granular anhydrous sodium sulfate. Id not have enough alkyl halide layer left to distill, so I weighed it and then performed the IR spectrum with it. Mechanism of Product Synthesis: Results: As previously stated, I did not have enough ending product to perform the distillation so this is the mass of my product without distillation involved. Mass of final product: Mass of product + vial = 21. Egg Mass of vial only = 20. Egg Mass of product, alkyl layer = 21. Egg-20. Egg The appearance of my product was clear Percent Yield = actual/theoretical x 100 Conclusion: = 0. Egg During this experiment, there were many chances for mistakes. With every extraction of one layer from another, product could have easily been left behind and discarded in the aqueous solution. The opposite could have occurred too. Some of the aqueous solution could have ended up in the ending product, which would have prevented accuracy in the weights. Both of these errors could explain why my percent yield is so low. Every time you transfer the product into another container you risk losing some of it behind in the process.