DNA is organized into genes and stores genetic information. DNA molecules are long, slender molecules that carry the heritable information of organisms on to future generations. Because of their size, it is impossible to see a single DNA molecule with the naked eye. It would take about 300,000 DNA molecules side by side to make a bundle as thick as a human hair. When subjected to certain conditions, it is possible to collect “large” amounts of DNA to make it visible. As part of the chromosomes, the information contained in genes can be transmitted faithfully by parents through gametes to their offspring.
For the gene’s DNA to subsequently influence an inherited trait, the stored genetic information in the DNA in most cases is first transferred to a closely related nuclei acid, RNA or ribonucleic acid. In eukaryotic organisms, RNA most bother carries the genetic information out of the nucleus, where chromosomes reside into the cytoplasm of the cell. In the cytoplasm, the information in RNA is translated into proteins, which serve as the end products of most all genes. The process of transferring information from DNA to RNA is called transcription.
The subsequent conversion of the genetic information contained in RNA into a protein is called translation. DNA molecule exists in cells as a long coiled structure often described as a double helix. Each strand of the helix consists of a linear polymer made up of genetic building blocks called nucleotides. There are four types of nucleotides which vary depending on the four nitrogenous bases of the molecule. The four nitrogenous are A(adenine), G(guanine), T(thymine) and C(cytosine).
These comprise the genetic alphabet which in various combinations, will specify the components of proteins. It was established in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick that the two trends of their proposed double heels are exact complements of one another, such that the rings of the ladder always consists of either A=T, or G=C base pairs. This complementarily between adenine and cytosine nitrogenous base pairs and between guanine and cytosine nitrogenous base passe pairs, attracted to one another by hydrogen bonds, is critical to genetic function.
Complementarily serves as the basis for both the replication of DNA and for the transcription of DNA into RNA. OBJECTIVES * To learn basic DNA extraction processes. * To properly and successfully extract DNA from banana using cell disruption ND separation techniques. * To investigate the effect of temperature on DNA extraction from bananas. * To observe the extraction of genomic DNA from plant cells. * To understand how a buffer solutions disrupts the plasma membrane and releasing cellular components into the solution.
The conical flasks was labeled S and AS. 0. G of salt was added into flask AS. The salt was dissolved by stirring slowly to avoid foaming. (B) Banana Extraction 1 . A water bath was prepared. (60 co) 2. Egg of banana was added into each copilot bag labeled ‘Extraction 1’ and ‘Extraction 2’ 3. Extraction solution ‘S’ was added into copilot ‘Extraction 1’ and extraction solution ‘AS’ into copilot bad ‘Extraction 2’. The bag was closed with minimum content of air. 4. The bananas were meshed carefully to avoid the bag from breaking.
The bananas were mashed for about 5 minutes. 5. The banana mixtures were cooled in the ice chest containing ice for 2 minutes. Then the bananas were meshed more. The banana mixtures were cooled, the meshed again. This process was repeated for 4 times. 6. The mixtures were filtered through cheesecloth. 7. Approximately ml of banana solution were dispensed into each test tube. 8. The test tubes were carefully handled to avoid shaking. Approximately ml of cold 95% ethanol was added into each test tube. 9. The test tubes were then observed.