The following academic paper highlights the up-to-date issues and questions of Empirical Formula Of Copper Chloride Hydrate. This sample provides just some ideas on how this topic can be analyzed and discussed.
In this experiment, we used the law of definite proportions to find the chemical formula for a hydrated compound containing copper, chlorine, and water molecules locked in the crystal structure of the solid compound of Copper Chloride Hydrate. First we will gently heat a sample of the compound to drive off he water of hydration.
By measuring the mass of the sample before and after heating we can determine the amount of water in the sample. Second, we will conduct a chemical reaction with the dried sample, which will produce elemental copper.
By measuring the mass of copper that forms, we will have the necessary information to determine the moles of copper and chlorine in our sample, and we will be able to establish the proper chemical formula. Objectives: Determine the water of hydration in a copper chloride hydrate sample.
Conduct a reaction between a solution of copper chloride and solid aluminum. Use the results of the reaction to determine the mass and moles of Cue and CHI in the reaction. Calculate the empirical formula of the copper chloride compound.
Material: crucible with cover unknown solid copper chloride hydrate crucible tongs aluminum wire, 20 gauge spatula 6 M hydrochloric acid, HCI, solution ring stand, ring, and clay triangle 95% ethanol solution lab burner distilled water 50 ml beaker wash bottle Bјcaner funnel and filter flask balance filter paper to fit Boucher funnel glass stirring rod watch glass or drying oven C] Procedure 1.
Wear goggles for Safety purposes. Heat lamp 2. Measure and record the mass of a clean, dry crucible without cover.
Obtain about 1 g of the unknown copper chloride hydrate and place it in the crucible. Use a spatula to break up any large pieces of the substance by pressing the pieces against the wall of the crucible. Measure and record the mass of the crucible with compound. 3. Set up a ring stand, ring, and clay triangle for heating the sample. Rest the crucible on the clay triangle. Set up a lab burner and ignite the burner away from the crucible. Adjust the burner to get a small flame. 4. Hold the burner in your hand and move the flame slowly back and forth underneath the crucible to gently heat the sample.
Do not overheat the compound. Note the color change, from blue-green to brownish, as the water of hydration is driven out of the crystals. When the sample has turned brown, gently heat the crucible for two more minutes. 5. Remove and turn off the burner. Cover the crucible and allow the sample to cool for about ten minutes. 6. Remove the crucible cover and inspect your sample. If you see any blue-green crystals, reheat the sample until the crystals have turned brown. 7. Measure and record he mass of the cool crucible of your copper chloride sample. 8. Transfer the brown solid to a clean and empty 50 ml beaker.
Rinse out the crucible with two 8 ml aliquots of distilled water and pour the water into the 50 ml beaker. Gently swirl the beaker to completely dissolve the solid. Note that the color of the solution is green as the copper ions are reheated. 9. Measure out about 20 CM of aluminum wire, coil the wire, and place the wire in the beaker of solution so that it is completely immersed in the copper chloride solution. Note that the reaction produces a gas, elemental copper is forming on the surface of the aluminum wire, and the color of the solution is fading. The reaction will take about 30 minutes to complete. 0. When the reaction is done, the solution will be colorless. Most of the elemental copper will be on the aluminum wire. Add 5 drops of 6 M HCI solution to dissolve any insoluble aluminum salts in the mixture, which should make the solution clear. CAUTION: Handle the hydrochloric acid with care. It can cause painful burns if it comes in contact with the skin. 11. Use a glass stirring rod to scrape off as much copper as possible from the AY wire. Slide the wire up the wall of the beaker and out of the solution tit the glass stirrer and rinse off any remaining copper with distilled water.
If any of the copper refuses to wash off the aluminum wire, wash it with one or two drops of 6 M HCI solution. Put the AY wire aside. 12. Collect and wash the copper produced in the reaction. A) Set up a Bјcaner funnel for vacuum filtration. B) Obtain a piece of filter paper. Measure and record its mass, and then place the filter paper on the funnel. Start the vacuum filtration. C) Use small amounts of distilled water to wash all of the copper onto the filter paper on the Bјcaner funnel. Use the glass stirring rod to break up the larger pieces of copper. D) Wash the copper twice more with small amounts of distilled water. 3. Turn off the suction on the vacuum filtration apparatus. Add 10 ml of 95% ethanol to the copper on the filter paper and let it sit for about 1 minute. Turn the suction back on and let the vacuum filtration run for about five minutes. 14. Measure and record the mass of a clean, dry watch glass. Transfer the copper to the watch glass. Make sure that you have scraped all of the copper onto the watch glass. 15. Dry the watch glass of copper under a heat lamp or in a drying oven for five minutes. When the watch glass is cool enough to touch, measure the mass of the attach glass plus copper.
Repeat the drying and weighing of the copper until you are sure that it is completely dry. 16. Dispose of the copper, aluminum wire, and filtered liquid as directed. C] Data: Mass of crucible (g) 21. 807 grams Mass of crucible and hydrated sample (g) 22. 807 grams Mass of hydrated sample (g) 1 gram Mass of crucible and dehydrated sample (g) 22. 539 grams Mass of dehydrated sample (g) . 732 grams Mass of water evolved (g). 268 grams Mass of empty watch glass (g) 8. 122 grams Mass of watch glass and copper (g) AN- said we didn’t need it. Mass of copper (g) . 36 grams C] Data Analysis: 1.
How many moles of water were in your sample of copper chloride hydrate? – . 268 grams of H2O((1 Mole of H2O)/(18 grams of H2O))= . 0148 z . 015 Moles 2. How many moles of copper were in your sample of copper chloride? – . 36 grams of copper ((1 Mole Cue)/(egg))= . 005625 = . 0056 3. How many moles of chlorine were in your sample of copper chloride? – (. 732-. 36) grams of Chloride ((1 Mole C’)/ (egg))= . 01062 z . 011 4. Write the proper chemical formula for the compound that you tested. – . 0056/. 0056= 1 and . 011/. 0056= 1. 96 z 2 therefore it’s a 1 to 2 ratio and the chemical formula of Copper Chloride is Chuck when its dehydrated.