A kidney stone is described as “hard, crystalline mineral” that is developed within the kidneys or urinary tract. The crystals are developed from the separation of crystals from urine. This condition may arise when “inhibitors” which prevent the urine from separation do not work. These inhibitors work for some people while in some people they do not work and thus formation of kidney stones becomes inevitable.
However, there can arise a situation in which these kidney stones remain very tiny and thus they have the ability to travel with ease through the urinary tract and out of the body and thus in this situation they are not likely to cause any sought of harm or discomfort. These kidney stones may have a number of various chemicals with oxalate or phosphate which combine with calcium being the most common. Some of the common types of kidney stones include “struvite, ulric acid stones or crystalline stones” (Krapp, 2002).
The formation of kidney stones is likely to be caused when there is as decrease in the normal levels of urine or the existence of stone forming chemicals in the urine. Individuals who are generally dehydrated due to reduced fluid intake are also at a higher risk of acquiring kidney stones. Going through strenuous exercises without adequately replacing the fluids has also been described as one of the causes of kidney stones (Krapp, 2002). Conditions may also arise when the urinary tract is infected and this will in one way or another lead to formation of kidney stones since the inhibitor will be infected by any urinary infection.
It has also been discovered that a number of various medical conditions such as gout which increases ulric acid, hypercalciuria which increases calcium in the urine or some medications may also be a great contributor to formation of kidney stones. Most of the kidney stone symptoms may seem complicated since some forms of this condition may not produce any symptoms at all. The most common symptoms however, include cramping pains, pain in various areas such as the back, groin and abdomen areas.
Sudden onsets of excruciations are also pretty common. The severity of this condition may also be such that its symptoms may also be accompanied by nausea of vomiting and in some instances blood may be evident in the urine. Difficulty in urinating, pain in the testicles, fever or chills may also be a warning sign of the existence of kidney stones in a patient. Kidney stones are diagnosed by exclusion of all other causes that may be typical of abdominal pain (Dahm & Dmochowski, 2010).
The methodology used in the treatment of kidney stones usually uses the principle of relieving the pain since most of the kidney stones will actually pass through the urinary tract on their own when ample fluid is taken. This thus implies that if the patient can take ample fluids and relieve the pain by using medications, then the effects of the condition will be greatly reduced. The types of medications will however be determined by the severity of the condition with surgery also being an option in more severe cases.
Other types of medications also use the methodology of increasing the ease of passage of these kidney stones. Some of the factors that may affect the success of the medications include the size of the individual, size of the kidney stones and in women, pregnancy (Dahm & Dmochowski, 2010).. References: Dahm, P. & Dmochowski, R. (2010). Evidence-based Urology. West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons Krapp, K. M. (2002). The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health: 1-0. New York: Gale Group.