This sample of an academic paper on Hypothetical Essay reveals arguments and important aspects of this topic. Read this essay’s introduction, body paragraphs and the conclusion below.
Optimum temperature for the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase ranges from ICC to 37 co and its optimum H ranges from 6 to 7. Graph of the time reciprocal against temperature and pH both produced bell-shaped curves. Introduction The chemical reactions occurring in living things are controlled by enzymes. An enzyme is a protein in the cell which lowers the activation energy off catcalled reaction, thus increasing the rate of the reaction. (http://www. Chem.. . Purdue. Du/teacher/table_of_contents /spectroscopic educationally. Duff Enzymes are very efficient catalysts for biochemical reactions. They speed up reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy. (http://www. Reconfigurations (Teachers/Resources/cybercafés. Themes activity of an enzyme is affected by its environmental conditions. Changing these alter the rate of reaction caused by the enzyme. In nature, organisms adjust the conditions of their enzymes to produce an optimum rate of reaction, where necessary, or they may have enzymes which are adapted to function well in extreme conditions where they live. Http/alelevationscoComactors-affecting -Enzyme-Activity/146 ) pH measures the acidity and basilicas a solution. It is a measure of the Hydrogen Ion (H+) concentration, and therefore a good indicator f the Hydroxide Ion (OH-) concentration. It ranges from PHI to peepholes pH values mean higher H+ concentrations and lower OH- concentrations. Different enzymes have different pH value. The purpose of the study is to prove that pH has an effect on the enzyme activity. Materials and Methods This section describes how the present investigation was carried out.
It should include, a description and location of the study area, the equipment used for the experiment, the details of the experimental procedure, special precautions taken, the date and time of the study, methods of analysis etc. The researcher gather he data and information needed at specific time and place. The following is the safety precautions needed before the start of the experiment : 1. Follow your professor’s instructions for handling the solutions. 2. Wear eye protection when handling the iodine solution.
The experiment has been performed inside the laboratory at the university. Materials were gathered at specific time and was placed in appropriate laboratory equipment. Results The results shows that each enzyme functions best within a certain pH range. For example, the enzyme pepsin, which works in your stomach, functions best in a strongly acidic environment. Lipase, an enzyme found in your small intestine, works best in a basic environment. When the pH changes, the active site progressively distorts and affects enzyme function.
In the presence of either excess H+ or excess OH- ions, the globular protein’s shape is altered. The active site is distorted and the enzyme cannot stratifications. Enzymes are affected by changes in PH. The most favorable pH value – the point where the enzyme is most active – is known as the optimum PH. This is graphically illustrated in Figure 14. Extremely high or low pH values generally result in complete loss of activity or most enzymes. PHs also a factor in the stability of enzymes. As with activity, for each enzyme there is also a region of pH optimal stability.
The optimum pH value will vary greatly from one enzyme to another, as Table II shows: In addition to temperature and pH there are other factors, such as ionic strength, which can affect the enzymatic reaction. Each of these physical and chemical parameters must be considered and optimized in order for an enzymatic reaction to be accurate and reproducible. (h http/www. woWorthingtonibiochipcoComnintroductionfeffectshtHTMLDiscussion Effect of pH Most enzymes are active only over a narrow pH range and have an optimal pH, at which reaction is the fastest.
An increase or decrease in pH also causes denominations enzymes, thereby affecting their activity. Table 2 shows the results obtained on how enzyme activity of salivary amylase is affected by PH. Table 2. Results for the effect of pH on salivary amylase activity Figure 2 shows the graph of the reciprocal of time against pH based on the data from Table 2. The graph produced a bell-shaped curve and the highest peak should indicate the optimum pH for enzymatic activity. Figure 2. Plot of the reciprocal of time against pH for the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase At pH 4, the salivary amylase is in a too acidic environment to function.
As pH decreases, certain amino acids like separated glutamate are prognostications them to lose their net negative charge which consequently denatures the enzyme. The optimum pH for the action of salivary amylase ranges from 5. 6 to 6. 9 (Taller Assertiveness). This is consistent with the peak found between pH 4 and 6 in Figure 2. However, the curved peaked highest at pH 10. Inconsistencies with the results obtained can be attributed to human rerecorded as inaccuracies in measurement and timing during the experiment. Ideally at pH 10, salivary amylase is denatured due to high alkalinity.
As pH increases, certain amino acids such as lysine and Argentinean diversification’s them to lose their net positive charge which also results to enzyme denominational activity of enzymes may be markedly changed by any alteration in pH, which in turn, alters electrical charges on the enzyme. Changes in charge affect the ionic bonds that contribute to the enzymes tertiary and quaternary structure, thereby changing the proteins conformation and activity. Thus, pH-activity relationship of enzymes is dependent on the amino acid side chains present in the enzyme. Readmission’s, et. All, Effect of temperature and pH on the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase) Effect of pH on amylase activity and stability To determine the optimum pH, amylase activity was measured at different pH values for 5 min at 30 coffer pH stability, the enzyme solution at a desired pH, was kept at 4 occur 24 h, and then activity was measured at the optimum temperature. Conclusion Several factors affect the activity of enzymes. Among these are the temperature and PH. At optimum levels of these factors, enzymes perform their function best.
Optimum temperature and pH differ from one enzyme to another. Salivary amylase is an enzyme found in human saliva which functions to break down starch to simpler compounds. Through the experiment, it was found out that the optimum temperature of salivary amylase ranges from Cisco Cindy its optimum pH ranges from 5. 6 to 6. 9. Inconsistencies of the results obtained with literature on the topic were met. These errors can be attributed to o inaccuracies in measurement and timing. Due to time constraints, the experiment was not repeated to be able to compare maintain more accurate results.