Air Pollution Observation between Hong Kong and Cocooning part 1 General Picture of Hong Kong and Cocooning and Meaning of Comparing A whole host of similarities between Hong Kong and Cocooning make this thesis’s aiming to exploit air pollution and approaches governments take more pragmatic and meaningful. Among the aforementioned similarities, the geographical ones could be treated as lurking causes of air pollution and other relative issues. Hence, this part is intended to showcase a general delineation Of this aspect of things in common.
The cities Of Cocooning and Hong Kong are both located at hilly areas that are highly populated, with alluding and major highways located very close to slopes and earth-retaining structures. Landslides and rockroses are very common in both cities, and large expenditures are being incurred by both Governments on the investigation, design and implementation of mitigation and preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of the loss of life and economic losses due to landslides. Both Hong Kong and Cocooning have a humid subtropical climate.
Summer is hot and humid with occasional showers and thunderstorms, and warm air coming from the southwest. Summer is when typhoons are most likely, sometimes resulting in flooding or landslides. Winters are mild and usually start sunny, becoming cloudier towards February; the occasional cold front brings strong cooling winds from the north. The most temperate seasons are spring, which can be changeable, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. Hong Kong averages 1,948 hours of sunshine per year, while the highest and lowest ever recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are 36. Co (97. 0 OF) and 0. 0 Co (32. 0 OF), respectively. On the other hand, known as one of the “Three Furnaces” of the Yanking River, Cocooning has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, and for most of the year experiences very humid conditions. Besides, its summers are long and among the hottest and most humid in China, with highs of 33 to 34 Co (91 to 93 ‘F) in July and August in the urban area. Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. Because the city’s location is in the Chuan Basin, Cocooning has one of the lowest annual sunshine nationally.
The figure is only 1 ,055 hours, which is much lower than some nations of Northern Europe. (Wisped: Cocooning) Cocooning is adjacent to northeast part of Chuan province, and the area of this city is over 23,000 km with 1 million population. Cocooning is one of the most polluted cities in China: from 1 981 to 1 996, SIS (Sulfur Dioxide) emissions were about 800,000 tons, and TTS (Total Suspended Particulates) emissions were about 200,000 tons per year. The daily concentration of SIS reached to 0. 26-0. MGM/mm, which is 3-7 times higher than the Class II national standard of air quality (0. OMG/mm). Cocooning, with more than 1 00 days of fog per year, is also commonly known as the ‘Fog City’ (Wide, *B), and a thick layer fog shrouds it for 68 days per year during the spring and autumn. Another famous case in the world is London, which accelerated its development and status during Industrial Evolution. London was also endowed with a different city appearance during that time: full of fog. More explanations will be introduced to correlate these two cities in later parts. In a generic sense, three segmented climate types will attribute to the shaping of Choosing ‘Fog City’.
First and foremost, haze. Treated as atmospheric brown clouds, it is defined as a turbid air phenomenon caused by a large number of very fine particles, which is floating in the air evenly and diminishing the meteorological visibility to less Han 10 km. Secondly, fog. It is a type of stratus cloud, distinguished from the more generic term ‘cloud’ in that fog is low-lying, and the moisture in the fog is often generated locally. Similarly, mist consist of liquid or solid water and hygroscopic condensation nuclei, so the air is often humid with high humidity.
When the number Of atmospheric aerosol is up to a certain extent, and then makes the meteorological visibility less than 10 km, it becomes a haze day. (Fan et al 2009) This explains the root cause of why Cocooning possesses amazing amount of fog. Besides, both cities were officially established in 1997, which can give more explanation to the track of social and economic development. More details can be located in the following table. Table 1. 1 Comparable Similarities between Hong Kong and Cocooning Name & Index Hong Kong SARA Cocooning Municipal Official Establishment Time 1997 Area (kilo mm) 1104 1200 Population (million) 7. 3 7. 95 (9 urban districts) Famous for Finance, system, pearl river and mountains, night scene Hotpot, beauties, fog city and mountains, night scene Climate Type humid subtropical climate Us m mere Hot and humid (36. 1 C) Hot and humid(44 C) Winter Moderate temperature above 10 C; sunny Moderate temperature above 10 C; cloudy part 2 Analysis on Hong Songs Air Pollution There are two challenges for air pollution in Hong Kong: Street level pollution and regional smog. The former is mainly contributed by motor vehicles, such as trucks, buses and light buses.
The latter is caused by diesel vehicles and industrial plants in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRO) In Hong Kong, the dominance of transportation tools is mainly contributed by the diesel vehicles, which have the diesel engines that release some major air pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SIS), resalable suspended particulates (RSVP), trigger dioxide (NON) and carbon monoxide (CO). Table 2. 1 lists the concentration of these four pollutants in detail and compares the two locations: Shah Tin (a general station) and Mongo Kook (a roadside station).
The CO data for Shah Tin station was unavailable because traffic is low in this kind Of residential area. Overall, this figure clearly suggests that the concentration of these air pollutants at roadside stations is higher than the general station. Besides, figure 2. 2 shows that the average yearly variations of these four major air pollutants levels at general station and road station are both lower urine June, July and August and higher in October, November, December and January.
There is more rainfall during the summer season and it will wash the particles from the air, having low levels of pollutants in atmosphere. Although the Hong Kong Government has implemented lots of measure to control the emission of pollutants from diesel vehicles, the visibility and the pollution index are sometimes higher than the standard established by the World Health Organization (WHO). For the numerous high rise building in Hong Kong, once having traffic congestion in a high dense urban environment, it will create a “canyon effect” trapping local pollutants.
Meanwhile, some pollutants with wind transport from China contribute to pollution level in Hong Kong. In other words, air pollution problems In Hong Kong are the collective problems, and cannot be solved by one region’s environmental policies. Studies by Fens Ixia, Victor Bracer (2006) find evidence to suggest that the levels of PM O (particulate matter with less than 10 micrometers in diameter) in Hong Kong appear to be significantly related to the air pollution index in Sheehan, with a one-point increase in Sheen’s pollution index causing a 0. In Hong Kong. In addition, the particulate levels are significantly correlated with the distance from Southern China. Specifically, one percent of distance (which measured at the mean, is equivalent to 2. Km) farther away from China reduces the local PM O level by 17%. Moreover, the IMO level increases between 3% and 4% if the wind blows directly from China and also if one percent increases in wind speed can lead to an increase of 12% in Hong Songs particulates.
Nitrogen dioxide in Hong Kong is also significantly related to the pollution index in Sheehan (SOAPS). A one-point rise in SOAPS leads to a 0. 6% or a 0. % increase in Hong Gong’s NON levels. Nitrogen dioxide is affected by the distance from Southern China, which will have much lower concentration in long distance from South China. Even though some regions in Hong Kong are farther away from Southern China, it still has higher concentration of nitrogen dioxide in densely populated urban areas. With 1% more density leads to over 20% more NON.
This result can explain nitrogen dioxide is a traffic-based pollutant and the concentration in air is usually much higher in urban areas with more traffic activity. The data in report studied by Fens Ixia, Victor Bracer (2006) shows hat no statistically significant impact on NON according to the amount of rainfalls and wind speed. In other words, the driving force behind NON pollutant levels is mostly based on population density and related human activities. Part 3 Causes of “Fog City’ Formation Cocooning has been seeing a tremendous speed of both economic and social progress.
It keeps maintaining a high ranking of GAP growth rate and attracts a great deal of both domestic and oversea investors in recent years, since the State pours enough much and magnificent attention into Choosing strategic development with great sums of national financial fund. Cocooning belongs to one of four municipalities, while it is the newest and most vibrant one. It spares no effort to catch this opportunity to and stimulate diversified industries, such as tourism, manufacturing, off-shore finance and electronics.
With all these programs being under highly fast construction, Cocooning may not escape the common development track of suffering from pollutions, just like other advanced industrial cities. It is reported that 16 of the world’s 20 most air-polluted cities AR in mainland China (source: State of the World 2006), under which circumstances, China suffered SIS$38 billion in costs elated to sulfur dioxide emissions in 2005. (source: State Environmental Protection Agency 3-8-06).
Till ending part of last century, ambient concentrations of particulates and sulfur dioxide in many Chinese cities are among the highest in the world and are significantly above World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and Chinese air quality standards. An article released in 1998 by the WHO noted that seven of the ten most polluted cities in the world can be found in China (Green Nature, 2004). When in light of energy consumption, coal consumption is the major one, and accounts for about 62. 5% of total energy consumption.
This kind of energy using led to the deteriorating of air quality. Since 1997, the year Of Cocooning municipal establishment, the ‘Fog City becomes more and more foggy. The air pollution resulted from diverse ways, namely houses’ everyday cooking factories’ emission and vehicles’ gas exhausting. However, the floating dust may stem largely from the building of construction sites, a host of high roads and flyovers. The problem remains serious, along with inhale particles, which even took place of floating dust and became Choosing primary pollutant.
Even under this scenario, before 2005 launched ‘Action Blue Sky Campaign’, Cocooning was not aware of the severity and did not take steps to prevent the prevailing use of high-sulfur coal in factories, which were the primary source of letting out the sulfur dioxide, which will definitely result in the widespread acid rains. Many citizens in Cocooning complained the atmospheric issues and acid rains. They declared acid rain should be responsible for their losing hair and skin diseases.
Long before, the scholars have already asserted the acid rain mainly concentrated in the region: south region to the Yanking River, east to Chuan and Yuan, including Sneezing, Fijian, Axing, most of Human and Cocooning as well as the Yanking River delta and Pearl River delta. This phenomenon means the acid rain issue is not just regional one, but a national issue worth every individual’s attention. The power sector, with its widespread use of tall smoke-stacks, is probably the main contributor to long-range transport of sulfur and nitrogen oxides.
Based on large amount of files, coal consumption is still the major source of air pollution in Cocooning. About 62% of total smoke and dust emissions and 95% of sulfur dioxide (SIS) come from coal combustion (In and See, 1998). However, some studies suggest that a sizable portion Of long-distance sulfur deposition can come from non-power sector, or areas and sources too. PM (particulate matter), or particulates, is another vital term making a negative influence on the air quality and belongs to particle pollution scope. They can adversely affect human health and also have impacts on climate and precipitation.
Subtypes of atmospheric particle matter include suspended particulate matter (SUMP), resalable suspended particle (RSVP; particularities diameter of 10 micrometers or less), fine particles (diameter of 2. 5 micrometers or less, ultramarine particles, and soot). PM. 5 at present is catching more attention, since Beijing suffers a great deal of misty days, which mostly resulted from PM. 5. In addition, the direct aerosol effect consists of any direct interaction of radiation with atmospheric aerosol, such as absorption or scattering.
It affects both short and long wave radiation to produce a net negative irradiative forcing. (Carlson, R. J et al. , 1992) The magnitude of the resultant irradiative forcing due to the direct effect of an aerosol is dependent on the lobed of the underlying surface, as this affects the net amount of radiation absorbed or scattered to space. Haywood et al. , 2000) The Direct aerosol effect is a first order effect and is therefore classified as a irradiative forcing by the EPIC. (Foresters, Piers et al. , 2007) Luckily, Choosing problem with PM. Is not as ill as that in Beijing. According to report released on the State of Environment in China (Jiao and Cocooning Environmental Monitoring Center (hanging Jeannine,I¶ *ENJOY), during 2001 and 2003, the sever misty days occurred in Cocooning were around 120-130 per year, and what is horrible is that such days were more than 150 days per year after 2004. The severity of such a problem has exceeded greatly than the same issue in Pearl River delta, if we measure by the criteria of happening frequency.
Though Cocooning belongs to one of the 6 key cities (Sanctimoniousness’s, the terrifying environmental problems, particularly the air pollution, never attract enough attention from no matter central governments or municipal governments. To summarize, diverse versions of reasons should be responsible for the formation of Choosing unique weather and the shaping of air pollution. Notwithstanding, the most prior issue should lie in that the governments did not take enough attention and measures to keep the city’s development sustainable during the enormously fast industry acceleration.
Hence, various levels of governments are ought to burden the responsibilities voluntarily and as efficiently as they can. Part 4 Approaches Hong Kong and Cocooning Governments Take to Solve the Air Problems To improve the air pollution problems in Hong Kong, the Government set the emission reduction target for the four major air pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SIS), Knox, RSVP and volatile organic compounds (VOCE) by 40%, 20%, 55% and 55% respectively in the region by 2010, using 1997 as the base year.
Meanwhile, Hong Kong Government noticed that the milestones of air pollution. In December 2003, the “Pearl River Delta (PROD) Air Quality Management and Monitoring Special Panel” was set up under the Hong Kong/Conditioning Working Group to follow up on the tasks under the Management Plan To control the emission of pollutants from motor vehicles, the Hong Kong Government implemented a comprehensive motor vehicle emission control programmer. From 1st January 2005, the Hong Kong Government tightened the motor petrol standard to Euro IV.
Meanwhile, the Government required the installation of vapor recovery systems for vehicles refueling at petrol filing stations from 31 March 2005. In 2005, the Gudgeon Provincial Government was inclined to focus on controlling pollutants from industrial plants. The Government constructed four large natural gas power plants and required all coal-fired power plants must retrofit with Low-Knox burner (LEN). Furthermore, the Government evaluated the numerous industrial plants in relation to processes and facilities, and closed those industrial plants with high SIS and dust emissions. Compared with Table 4. 1 , Table 4. Shows that the change in emission level during 1997-2006 for four pollutants had a bigger improvement, especially the SIS, which was reduced hang in emission from 31% to 12%. This implies that the measures carried out by both governments were really effective. To further control the emission reduction from diesel vehicles, the Chief Executive announced a series of new initiatives in his 2006 Policy Address. On 1 April 2007, the Hong Kong Government launched a one-off granted scheme with 33. 2 billion to subsidize the car owners to replace their pre-Euro and Euro I commercial diesel vehicles with Euro IV models.
Meanwhile, the Government extended the mandatory requirement of installing emission reduction devices to long idling pre-Euro diesel vehicles from 1 April 2007. Since then, all pre-Euro diesel vehicles are required to install emission reduction devices. In order to control the SIS emission, the Government imposed emission caps on power plants and tightened them progressively. In August 2007, the two governments signed the “Cooperation Agreement to Promote Energy Efficiency, Cleaner Production and Comprehensive Utilization of Resources to Enterprises in Hong Kong and Gudgeon’.
They also jointly conducted demonstration projects on cleaner production by industrial enterprises and launched a five-year “Cleaner Production Partnership Programmer” starting room April 2008 to encourage Hong Kong-owned factories operating in the PROD region to adopt cleaner production technologies and practices. Starting from July 2009, the Gudgeon Provincial Government implemented comprehensive measures focused on three parts: a) Controlling Emissions from Power Generation b) Controlling Emissions from Road Transport c) Controlling Emissions from Industrial Sector.
For power generation, the Gudgeon Government prohibited the new development of power plants with coal-fired or oil-fired in the PROD region. The Government required that all newly vehicles in Provinces must fulfill the National Ill vehicle emission tankard and provide “clean” motor fuels to all cities in the PROD Region by the end of this year so as to control the emission of pollutants from road transport. Industrial sector is encouraged the use of clean energy at industrial boilers and kilns and installed dust removal, desertification and low KNOX combustion technologies at industrial boilers and kilns.
The figures of 2009 show that with the implementation of local control measures and Gudgeon Provincial Government co-operation, the emission of the four major air pollutants has decreased by 24% to 58% from 1 997 to 2009. Even though the hang in emission level during 1997-2009 for KNOX, RSVP and VOCE has reached the 2010 emission reduction target, the SIS was far away from the reduction target, as shown in Table 4. 3. In fact, air quality in districts with heavy traffic has already improved after 1999.
Compared with 1 999, the roadside concentration of pollutants released from vehicles, such as suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, has been reduced by 34%, 60% and 30% respectively in 201 0, as shown in Figure 4. 1 . As a result of the introduction of ultra-low sulfur diesel for vehicle fleet in late 000 and the subsequent introduction of Euro V motor diesel in Deck 2007, the average SIS concentration at roadside in 201 2 (Oops/mm) dropped by 63% as compared with the 1999 (peg/mm), as shown in Figure 4. 2. Besides, High level of roadside RSVP has long been a major air pollution concern in Hong Kong.
The annual average of RSVP concentration at roadside in 2012 had reduced by 42% when compared with 1999 value as a result of the implementation of various vehicle emission control measures in recent years (Figure 4. 3). The annual average of Knox in urban areas exhibited a gradual decline inning trend over the past decade. During the same period, the roadside KNOX concentration showed a more distinct decreasing trend, reflecting a reduction in vehicular KNOX emission as a result of vehicle emission control measures implemented in the past decade. The roadside KNOX concentration in 2012 was 31 % lower than that in 1999 (Figure 4. ). Simultaneously, to make compensations to the aforementioned deteriorating of air quality, the Cocooning Government did not hesitate to take moves. In 2005 had decided to launch a municipal program called ‘Action Blue Sky Campaign’. The campaign was anticipated gradually to maintaining the high level of air laity, conceiving a favorable living environment for citizens and gradually removing all the root causes stem from air pollution that can lead the citizens to suffer. All this campaign was planned to be implemented around six years, at the cost 3. Billion Yuan in the first three years and primarily focused on the nine main urban districts (Chemung, covering 2737 Square kilometers. Almost in the mean time, Hong Kong also set up a campaign to prevent air pollution. What is funny and coincident is that the action name is exactly the same with Choosing campaign: The Action Blue Sky Campaign. This environmental campaign was organized by the Environmental Protection Department to clean up the city’s air pollution. It was officially launched by Chief Executive Donald Teasing on July 25, 2006.
According to a press release of the Hong Kong government, its campaign slogan in Chinese is , (All of the city participate to fight for a blue sky), while its campaign slogan in English is “Clean Air for a Cool Hong Kong! ” Many activities are planned to reach the environmental goals of the Action Blue Sky Campaign, such as exhibitions with quiz booths are set up in 18 districts, educating the public about air pollution, the Environmental Campaign Committee will reinforce green messages to the public, encouraging people to take various measures to save energy and improve air quality and so on.
Before this universally conducted program, a series of similar programs were already launched since 2000, such as ‘Energy Sanitation’ and ‘Action Purified Air. Fortunately, these programs effectively hold back the expansion of air pollution. Some sever and quite harmful pollutions, like PM O (particles with diameters Of 1 Urn or less) and sulfur dioxide pollution have been eased Step y step. Under this circumstance, some may claim that no more actions need be initiated since the air is getting better and better and the sound of citizens’ complaining is weakening.
However, due to the scientific criteria, the effect was not comprehensive in every sector and the airy problem still remained serious and much worse compared to other cities in China. The general ranking of air quality keeps floating from 30-42 among all the 47 environmentally key cities (Hanging Ghanaian bayou during these decades and only showcases Choosing air quality and retention level belong to or below the intermediate echelon nationally. The municipal government aimed to design the blueprint by different periods of stages and implement the ‘Action Blue Sky Campaign’ in a long term.
Three air-related aspects stem from the aforementioned pollution causes were highlighted: Flowing dust pollution, coal and powder pollution, vehicles- related pollution. Not only pollution, but the relevant safeguard mechanism shall be on the agenda and look forward to a further comprehensive construction. More actions must be taken to protect and optimize the urban ecological environment. Moreover, the government cannot neglect the building of strict environment supervision from interrelated municipal offices.
This program also aimed at guaranteeing the days meeting Class II standard can reach and stick around eighty percent of all days counted. In 2006, two years of official conduction of ‘Campaign Blue Skies Action’, articles on mass media announced the appealing news from the Cocooning executive meetings that the satisfying and acceptable days in this very year reached 287 days, which implied residents in Cocooning can enjoy nearly more 1 00 fine says (reaching the Class II) than 2000.
Thanks to the ‘Action Blue Sky Campaign’, more thrilling results manifested: 54 relative manufacture factories were forced to relocate because of their equipment’s’ characters: high energy consumption and heavy pollution; API (Air Pollution Index) in nine main urban districts fell to 3. 0 firstly, which implied Cocooning was no longer a polluted city; Morbidity of citizens’ disease of respiratory system was 17% less than last year’s figure. Furthermore, first half year of 201 3 has seen that the situation is quite joyful since a great deal of improvement has occurred in he aforementioned aspects.
The ranking of Choosing environment, especially air pollution field, was not embarrassing among all the first batch of cities with new criteria nationwide for air quality. In contrast, though worse than Shanghai, the overall level still remains above Beijing, Tannin and a host of surrounding geographically cities, such as Asian, Changed, and Changes. Consequently, more stages were elaborated to fulfill the original goals. 2008-2012 was a period with a fund over 5. 9 billion Yuan and a much higher figure of days meeting the satisfying standard.