The medicinal use of herbs and spices is believed to be as old as mankind itself. Because herbal medicine is holistic medicine, it is, in fact, able to look beyond the symptoms to the underlying systemic imbalance. Herbs, being organic substances, possess an affinity for the human body and are synthesized effectively. In this e-book I discuss medical properties and benefits of some herbs and spices, as well as provide suggestions on how to use them. Aloe Aloe (Aloe Vera) is a gel like substance procured from the thick cactus-like leaves of the Aloe Vera plant. Benefits?
Aloe gel is known for its anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, sunscreen and healing properties that soothe skin problems like eczema and psoriasis. ? Internal consumption of the gel may heal ulcers, relieve stomach disorders, arthritis, asthma, skin cancer and menopausal troubles. ? It may help control blood sugar in diabetics as well as treat obesity. ? It is particularly known to moisturize and soften the skin and hair. It also encourages hair growth. How to use Aloe ? Apply fresh clear gel from the leaves to wounds, bruises, burns and sunburns etc. It helps them heal faster.
? Apply the gel on your face, hands or any part of the body that is exposed before stepping out in the sun. It serves as a sunscreen lotion protecting your complexion. Moreover, it softens your skin and makes it glow. ? Gently rub the gel on your hair to make it look smooth and shiny. It especially helps manage curly tresses. ? Massage cold Aloe gel in the affected areas to subdue mastitis (inflammation of breasts). Cardamom Cardamom (Elettaria Cardamomum) is a small seedpod with brownish-black aromatic seeds. Benefits ? Cardamom has aphrodisiac, antidote and anti-emetic properties apart from being carminative and anti-spasmodic. ?
It is used in various medicinal preparations to relieve digestive disorders and flatulence. ? Traditionally it has been used to cure infected teeth, gums and sore throat. It also improves bad breath. ? The anti-inflammatory quality of Cardamom helps to cure inflammation of the urinary tract. ? It also alleviates heart burn and skin inflammation. How to use Cardamom ? Simmer Cardamom powder in water and add sugar when cooled. Intake of this decoction helps regain lost appetite and improves digestion and distension of abdomen.
Hot beverage made of roasted Cardamom seeds boiled with betel nuts may also help. ? Mix half a gram of Cardamom powder with an equal amount of dry Ginger and a little honey. It helps in relieving coughs and also alleviates tracheal and bronchial congestion. ? Chewing Cardamom seeds act as an instant mouth freshener. Gargle a mixture of crushed Cardamom and Cinnamon or dry Mint leaves to treat sore throats, mouth ulcers and inflammation. ? Cardamom Seeds and the skin can be added to black or green tea, which is known to reduce stress and depression and acts as a refreshing agent.
Cayenne (Capsicum frutescens) is a red, hot, dried chilly pepper available in ground form. Benefits ? Cayenne is known as an effective blood stimulant that promotes smooth circulation of blood. ? It helps keep high blood pressure and blood cholesterol under control. ? It can also cure gastrointestinal disorders by promoting digestion. ? Capsaicin contained in Cayenne helps alleviate migraine, rheumatic arthritis and skin irritation through external application of ointment containing this element. ?
Cayenne Pepper has a diaphoretic property which promotes sweating and helps cure colds, sinus problems and fever. It acts as an expectorant facilitating mucous flow. How to use Cayenne ? Cayenne extract or tincture is considered to be an effective first aid in emergencies like heart attack and hemorrhage. A teaspoon of this mixed in a glass of warm water should be given to the patient every 15 minutes until the crisis is surmounted. ?
Planned and systematic consumption of Cayenne and Hawthorn berries over a period of time may strengthen the heart and reduce the chances of heart attack. ? Use a Cayenne poultice to get relief from back pains. Topical application of Capsaicin may also soothe skin problems like itching and psoriasis. Cinnamon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) is the fragrant brown bark of the Cinnamon tree, which is available in its dried tubular form known as a quill or as a ground powder. Benefits ?
Essential oil of Cinnamon has anti-coagulating, anti-microbial and antioxidant properties. It can also work as an effective insect repellent. ? Cinnamon may significantly help people with type 2 diabetes improve their ability to respond to insulin, thus normalizing their blood sugar levels. ? Inhaling the warm, spicy and sweet scent of this spice is believed to boost brain activity.
? Traditionally, Cinnamon is considered as a warming remedy to help alleviate colds, cough and flu. How to use Cinnamon ? Simmer Cinnamon sticks with milk or soymilk and honey for a deliciously warming beverage. ? Mix 1 to 3 teaspoons of ground Cinnamon powder in 1 cup of hot water. Let it steep for 15 minutes. Strain and drink this potion to cure diarrhea. ? Dab a little powdered Cinnamon on minor cuts or wounds. ? Sprinkle some Cinnamon on chicken noodle soup for an instant pick-me-up, particularly to recover from colds or fever.
Cloves Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) are the dark brown aromatic flower buds of the clove tree, which are available in dried form. Benefits ? Essential oil of Cloves acts as an antiseptic and germicide which helps cure tooth decay and bad breath. It kills intestinal worms and helps treat digestive ailments. ? Its expectorant quality aids in asthma and bronchial problems. ? The anti-inflammatory property of Eugenol contained in Cloves helps in the treatment of arthritis and rheumatism. ?
Skin disorders such as acne, ulcers and sores can also be cured by Cloves. How to use Cloves ? Intake of Clove infusion or powder mixed with honey provides relief in vomiting, nausea, flatulence and indigestion.
? Chew Cloves or apply Clove oil on decayed teeth to alleviate toothache. ? Apply Clove oil in the form of a poultice to allay muscular cramps and sprains. ? Fry a few Cloves in a teaspoon of sesame oil, remove the cloves and put 3-4 drops of this warm oil into the ear to alleviate earache. ? Make a paste of 2-3 Cloves and a little bit of salt in milk and apply this over the forehead to subdue headaches. Cumin Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is small, pale green or yellowish-brown, and dry aromatic seeds, which is available in whole or ground form. Benefits ? Cumin is an effective remedy for a wide range of digestion problems and improves appetite.
? Pregnant and nursing women can benefit in terms of reduced nausea and increased lactation. ? Cumin may help treat insomnia, colds, and fever. It also enhances liver functioning. ? Essential oil of Cumin is antibacterial and helps kill larval pests. How to use Cumin ? A beverage made of Cumin, black pepper and honey serves as an aphrodisiac. ? Simmer the seeds in boiling water and then infuse it for 8-10 minutes to make a warm and soothing tea. ? Apply paste of Cumin powder and onion juice on scorpion bites. ? A Cumin poultice helps palliate general swelling of the breasts.
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules) is an intensely fragrant oil from the leaves of the Eucalyptus tree. Benefits ? Eucalyptus oil has anti-septic, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. It is extensively used to provide relief in respiratory and skin disorders. ? The oil is used as an inhalant to clear catarrh and used externally to ease laryngitis and throat troubles. ? Internal consumption of the fluid extracts (approx. 1/8 oz), may help in treatment of scarlet fever, intermittent fever, typhoid and pulmonary tuberculosis. ? Inhaling the refreshingly aromatic Eucalyptus oil raises the spirits and energy levels.
It is also known to reduce stress. ? It can also be used as an insect repellent. How to use Eucalyptus ? Put a few drops of Eucalyptus oil on a tissue/handkerchief. Breathe in frequently through this by holding it next to your nasal passage when you breathe. It will ease the breathing process thus providing relief from asthma, sinus, bronchitis and common colds and cough. ? Boil water in a saucepan and put a couple of drops of Eucalyptus oil in it. Turn off the stove and inhale the steam emanating from this water to get immediate relief from blocked nose, common colds or difficulty in breathing.
? Make an effective mouth rinse by mixing a drop or two of Eucalyptus oil with water. ? Apply the oil (mixed with olive oil, if necessary) on affected parts of the body to alleviate arthritis, muscle pains and swelling. Garlic Garlic (Allium sativum) is strongly aromatic with a white ‘head’ with a cluster of small bulblets (also referred to as cloves or pods) attached to it. Benefits ? Essential oil of Garlic has antibiotic and antiviral qualities which help in curing common colds, bronchial infections and fight plague. It may also help in treating cancer and other diseases like spinal meningitis and poliomyelitis.
? The diluting property of Garlic helps keep blood cholesterol levels under control. Garlic also helps in lowering blood pressure. ? It cleanses the blood, promotes blood circulation, helps in eliminating congestion and prevents heart attack. This is due to its anti-coagulative properties. ? It acts as a stomach stimulant relieving several stomach and digestion problems. How to use Garlic ? If your loved ones are willing to deal with potent Garlic breath, consider chewing a couple of raw cloves of Garlic everyday to prevent colds, cough and bronchial infections. Raw Garlic juice can also be effective in curing sinus and flu.
? Garlic tea can provide relief for sore throats. ? Intake of infusion made of crushed Garlic cloves leads to the secretion of digestive juices thus helping in digestive disorders. ? If you can get past the smell of raw Garlic, consider rubbing freshly peeled raw Garlic on acne afflicted areas 3 or 4 times a day. ? Briefly fry a few slices of Garlic cloves in extra virgin olive oil. Let it cool down and then instill a drop or two into the ear to alleviate earache. Ginger Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is the fragrant, whitish-brown, rhizome of the plant which can be used fresh as well as dried. Benefits
? It is known to be effective in curing digestive system disorders. ? Ginger has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It helps with nausea, morning sickness, vomiting and stomach-ache. ? It is used to cure colds, cough, respiratory problems and arthritis. ? The warming effect of Ginger promotes blood circulation. It may also help in coronary artery disease and other heart problems. How to use Ginger ? Simmer freshly grated Ginger, let it steep for around 10 minutes, strain it into a cup and add a teaspoon of honey. This tea is an effective remedy for sore throats, colds, flu and mucus.
You can also use dry Ginger powder to make this. ? Ginger tea, if taken after meals, stimulates digestion. ? Make a compress of Ginger to alleviate joint pains. ? Add Ginger infusion into bath water, it aids in colds and flu. Ginseng Ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) is the root of the Ginseng plant which is usually available in dried form, either whole or sliced. Benefits ? Ginseng can benefit diabetics, especially those suffering from type 2 diabetes, as it may help keep blood and uric sugar levels under control. ? This herb boosts the immunity and is believed to add more years to a person’s life.
It is believed to work well against fatigue, old age and its infirmities. ? The Adaptogenic property of Ginseng improves blood circulation, energy levels; controls cholesterol and hypertension; and fights against infections. ? Traditionally, it is known to have aphrodisiac properties that encourage the production of sex hormones and sexual desire. How to use Ginseng ? Prepare Ginseng tea by simmering a few slices in hot water. Honey can be added to sweeten. This tea acts as a health restorer for the sick by enhancing blood circulation, blood quantity and speeding up the recovery process.
? Ginseng powder can be added to juices or water to get the benefit of its various medicinal properties. ? Massage your body with Ginseng oil to nourish and moisturize your skin. Other beauty therapies may include a Ginseng facial, Ginseng body glow, body detoxifying, etc. Jojoba Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is the oil, also known as liquid wax or ester, obtained from the fragrant, hard, dark brown seeds of the Jojoba plant. Benefits ? Jojoba oil is a low-calorie, cholesterol-free oil which makes it preferred over other edible oils. ? It is reputed to be a good tonic for the skin and hair.
It acts as a moisturizer, cleanser, softener and conditioner and is used in a wide variety of cosmetic products. ? Jojoba oil controls sebum production and helps prevent acne. This anti-bacterial oil also helps in treating other skin diseases like eczema and psoriasis. ? The minerals and proteins of the oil improve brain and pituitary functioning. How to use Jojoba ? Use Jojoba oil as a relaxing and refreshing body massage. A mixture of a few herbal oils along with Jojoba oil may also be used for massage as well as in bath water. ? Apply Jojoba oil on your hair around half an hour before you shampoo your hair to get soft
and glossy hair. Jojoba oil mixed with water and sprayed onto dry hair serves as a healthy conditioner and has an instant moisturizing effect. ? Rub the oil to soothe skin irritations, burns, cuts, bruises and scars. It also helps reduce stretch marks and wrinkles by reducing epidermal water loss. Juniper Juniper (Juniperus communis) is the black ripe fruit (berries) of the Juniper shrub. The berries may be available fresh or in a powder form. Benefits ? Juniper is a detoxification agent that clears uric acid. It aids in the treatment of urinary infections, water retention problems and gout.
? It stimulates menstruation, regulates periods and alleviates menstrual cramps. ? It is also known to aid in digestion disorders, kidney and bladder diseases. ? The essential oil is widely used in aromatherapy to reduce stress, depression and cure sleep problems. It is also a good tonic for the skin. How to use Juniper ? Chew Juniper berries to cure inflamed and infected gums. ? Consume Juniper berry tea to treat dyspeptic, flatulence and colic. The tea is a diuretic and is considered to be an excellent remedy for hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels associated with diabetes).
? Apply tea on pains, infections or snake bites as an antiseptic. Juniper oil mixed with lard can also be applied. ? Use a Juniper compress to treat skin inflammations and problems like acne, athlete’s foot, eczema and psoriasis. It can also cure dandruff. ? Decoction of the leaves can be used as a poultice to alleviate arthritis and rheumatism. Kava Kava Kava Kava (Piper methysticum) is the rootstalk of the plant which is available whole, ground, extract or a supplemental drink. Benefits ? Kava Kava has sedative properties and is known to treat nervousness, anxiety, depression and insomnia.
It sharpens the memory and concentration of people experiencing anxiety and induces peaceful sleep. ? The relaxant properties of Kava Kava helps relax the muscles and alleviates cramps. It is considered to be a good substitute for aspirin and other pain relieving drugs. ? Diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic and anti-pathogenic properties enable it to help cure gout, congestion, cystitis and prostatitis. It also acts as a disinfectant for urinary and reproductive infections. How to use Kava Kava ? Hot Kava Kava tea acts as a diaphoretic and reduces fever and colds.
? Mix ground rootstalk with water or coconut milk. This infusion makes a good beverage and overall tonic. ? It is a good remedy for insomnia and anxiety when mixed with Valerian root and a little honey. ? Keep the chewed rootstalk in the mouth to alleviate toothache. ? Applying it as an ointment acts as a mild anesthetic and will help heal sore muscles. Mustard Mustard (Brassica nigra/juncea) is the tiny, black, brown or yellow seeds of the mustard plant which are available in dried form. Benefits ? Mustard oil stimulates circulation which helps palliate muscular pains and ease stiff
muscles. ? The oil does not contain a high amount of saturated fatty acids and thus reduces the risk of coronary heart diseases. ? Bronchitis and other respiratory problems can be cured with the help of Mustard seeds. ? It is an effective remedy against scorpion stings and snake bites. ? Also toothache, colic, rheumatism and epilepsy can be treated with mustard. How to use Mustard ? Infuse the seeds in water and let it cool down for 5 minutes. Take this tea three times a day to cure bronchitis. It can also be an effective remedy for colds and fever.
? Intake of Mustard oil combined with Turmeric or Garlic will help in relieving muscular and joint pains. ? Rub the oil or apply it as a poultice to soothe skin irritation. ? Use Mustard oil as a bath oil to reduce the effect of colds. Myrrh Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) is the aromatic yellow or reddish-brown resinous gum of the Myrrh tree, which may be used dried or ground, in the form of a tincture or capsule. The essential oil is extracted from the dried sap and is widely used for various medicinal benefits. Benefits ? Myrrh oil is anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antiseptic and anti-microbial.
It also helps get rid of intestinal worms. ? It enhances blood circulation and mucous flow which aids in curing colds and respiratory infections. It is believed to treat bronchorrhea and leucorrhoea. ? Myrrh is stomachic and carminative and stimulates the appetite and the production of gastric juices which helps with gastric troubles. How to use Myrrh ? Myrrh tincture can be used as an effective mouthwash to treat sore throats, gums, foul breath and to strengthen weak teeth. Owing to these benefits Myrrh is also used in toothpowders. ? Topical application of the tincture on teeth can allay toothache.
? Apply the essential oil on wounds, bruises and ulcers for quick healing. ? It can also be useful in curing bronchitis by rubbing it on the chest. ? Skin disorders like ringworm, athlete’s foot, itching etc can be treated by applying the oil directly onto the affected area. It may also help prevent your skin from developing a harsh and cracked surface. ? Burned as incense, Myrrh helps expel mosquitoes and other insects. Nutmeg Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) is the brown, slightly egg-shaped seed concealed in the fruit of the Nutmeg tree, and is available in a dried form.
? Nutmeg is an antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and expectorant. It relieves painful muscles and rheumatism. ? Inhaling the aromatic essential oil, which is slightly hallucinogenic, soothes the nerves and stimulates the brain. It helps in reducing stress, anxiety and treats insomnia. ? The oil aids in relieving toothache and gum problems. How to use Nutmeg ? Mix it with milk or sprinkle on desserts to improve digestion and to help with nausea. ? Make a paste of a pinch of nutmeg powder and cold water. Mix it in an 8 oz. glass of water that has been boiled and cooled down.
Intake of this potion helps in kidney problems, indigestion, vomiting and nausea. ? 1 teaspoon of powder is enough to raise your spirits for 6 to 24 hours! Saffron Saffron (Crocus sativus) is the bright red stigma of the Saffron Crocus flower which is available in a dried thread-like form. Benefits ? Saffron is anti-allergic and is a natural skin care remedy. It tones the skin and can cure skin problems like acne. ? Its calming effect helps infants to calm down when they are teething. It also alleviates toothaches and prevents tooth decay. ? It relieves flatulence and improves digestion and functioning of the stomach.
? Saffron prevents accumulation of free radicals and defends the body against tumors and cancers. It improves the overall resistance power of the body against infections. ? The aphrodisiac properties of Saffron promote sexual desire and extenuates impotence and infertility. How to use Saffron ? Steep 4-5 threads of Saffron in warm milk to make a good beverage as well as a general tonic. Drink this milk to treat digestion problems, headache and colds. Regular intake of saffron infused in milk improves skin complexion. ? Infuse Saffron threads in boiled water and instill it into the nose.
It helps treat insomnia as well as a pounding headache. ? Make a face mask of Saffron paste to treat pimples and rashes. St. John’s Wort St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is the bright yellow flower of the plant and is available fresh or as an extract. Benefits ? St. John’s Wort is traditionally known to treat neural disorders like depression, anxiety and insomnia. ? Hypericin and other flavonoid compounds in the flowers helps in the treatment of varicose veins. It also heals inflammation. ? The essential oil can effectively heal ulcers, wounds, burns, bruises and insect bites. ? The herb is particularly beneficial to women.
It also helps them deal with menopausal problems such as mood swings, emotional disturbances, depression etc. It also helps prevent stretch marks, treat hemorrhoids and pains during pregnancy. How to use St. John’s Wort ? Use the flowering tops, leaves or extracts to prepare tea. Tea reduces anxiety, treats insomnia, acts as a relaxing agent and lifts the mood. ? The infusion or tea improves urinary flow and also helps in treating pulmonary consumption, infected bowels or urinary passage and chronic catarrh. ?
Oils can be extracted from the leaves and the buds for topical application to alleviate sprains, strains, inflammation, bruises, ulcers etc. Tea Tree Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) is the oil obtained from the leaves of the Melaleuca alternifolia plant. Benefits ? Tea Tree is anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, antiseptic and an insecticide. It is believed to cure vaginitis, paronychia (nail infection), yeast infection, and athlete’s foot. It also strengthens the immune system. ?
Various skin disorders like acne, eczema, black heads, ringworm and scabies can be treated effectively with Tea Tree. ? It is also used extensively in aromatherapy to cure respiratory disorders such as asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis and tuberculosis. How to use Tea Tree ? Add a few drops of essential Tea Tree oil to warm water. Use this refreshing gargle to heal mouth ulcers, sore throats and other dental problems. ? Rub the oil on minor wounds, sores, cuts, burns, insect bites and plantar warts to enable quick healing. ? Get rid of dandruff and head lice by applying the oil to the scalp. ?
Make a poultice to alleviate a headache. ? Rub the oil onto the nose or inhale it at regular intervals to cure colds and a running nose. ? Mix a little Tea Tree oil with water in a spray bottle and spritz it in a room as a disinfectant and room freshener.
Turmeric Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is the yellowish-orange rhizome of the Turmeric plant which is available fresh or dried, whole or ground. Benefits ? Turmeric is a natural antibiotic and antiseptic. It is traditionally used for healing wounds, cuts, sprains and swelling in joints or ankles. It also treats various skin diseases like eczema, acne and psoriasis. ? Turmeric is believed to prevent various types of cancer as it restricts the growth of cancerous cells in the body. It is also used in the treatment of skin cancer. ?
It purifies the blood, unblocks arteries and ensures smooth circulation reducing the chances for heart attack. It also helps lower the LDL cholesterol level. ? Turmeric is excellent for the skin and hair. The plant extracts promote hair growth, cure dandruff and serve as a coloring agent. How to use Turmeric ? Turmeric and honey paste or Turmeric mixed in a cup of warm milk is an effective remedy for common colds, cough and flu. ? Regular usage of Turmeric in food, as an extract or bitters, helps in a wide range of digestion problems. It improves liver functioning and treats jaundice, hepatitis and cirrhosis. ?
Women experiencing menstrual cramps may consume Turmeric extract or bitters twice a day for two weeks preceding expected menstruation. It smoothes muscles and alleviates menstrual pains. ? A paste of Turmeric powder and milk, when applied onto the skin, tones the skin, improves complexion and prevents wrinkles. Fresh rhizome juice, paste or decoction may also help in dealing with skin diseases. Vanilla Vanilla (Vanilla fragrans) is the dark brown aromatic seed pod or ‘bean’ of the Vanilla plant which is available in dried form as whole or ground and also as an extract. Benefits ?
Vanilla’s heady fragrance makes it ideal for aromatherapy. It reduces anxiety, nervousness and frustration and relaxes the mind. ? The aphrodisiac properties of Vanilla helps in treating impotence. ? It can be used to cure fever and stimulate the digestive system. ? Some other benefits include weight loss, improved blood circulation, curing respiratory problems, alleviating joint pains and improved alertness. ? It reduces morning sickness and nausea among pregnant women. How to use Vanilla ?
Add a little amount of pure Vanilla extract to mineral water, milk or juice to cure upset stomach. It can also alleviate such problems among teething babies. ?
Put a few drops of Vanilla onto the tongue to palliate burning sensations after consuming too hot or spicy foods. ? Put a squeezed cotton ball soaked in Vanilla extract, under the tongue to sedate someone suffering from hysteria or convulsion. Ylang–Ylang Ylang-Ylang (Cananga odorata) is the beautiful greenish-yellow flower of the Cananga tree and which releases an aromatic oil. Benefits ? Ylang-Ylang has aphrodisiac properties that help in curing impotence and frigidity.
Also, it effectively deals with PMS and hormonal imbalances. ? It is known to regulate heartbeats, breathing and keeps blood pressure levels in check. ? Widely used in aromatherapy, it relaxes body and mind with its beautiful aroma.
It also helps cure anxiety and insomnia. ? Ylang-Ylang is suitable for all skin types. It is used to tone the skin and alleviate skin problems. It moisturizes the skin whilst reducing excessive oil content. How to use Ylang –Ylang ? Rub the oil on the scalp. It acts as a conditioner and helps with hair growth. An effective remedy for split ends is to apply Ylang-Ylang oil before shampooing. ? Applying oil on the skin may soothe irritation from eczema, insect bites and treat blemishes. ?
Ylang-Ylang bath or massage oil and inhaler can act as a relaxing agent reducing stress and depression. It raises the spirits and rejuvenates the individual. ? Add a few drops of Ylang–Ylang oil to your face mask. It can contribute as a skin softener and promote smoother skin. ? Essential oil of Ylang–Ylang, Lavender and Roman Chamomile can be spritzed on the bed to cure sleeplessness. © Simone McGrath-2007 17 of 23 Table of Contents Healing with Herbs and Spices Aloe Cardamom Cayenne Cinnamon Cloves Cumin Eucalyptus Garlic Ginger Ginseng Jojoba Juniper Kava Kava Mustard Myrrh Nutmeg Saffron St. John’s Wort Tea Tree Turmeric Vanilla.