Abstract Hand, foot and mouth disease is a viral infection, usually caused by Coxsackievirus A. It’s highly contagious and spreads through coughing, sneezing, sneezes, and even contact with infected stools. Hand, foot and mouth disease is common in children but rare in healthy adults. Most adults are immune to the virus because they had contact with it as a child. Early symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease include a fever and sore throat, followed by sores or blisters in your mouth and on your hands and feet. The incubation period is three to six days. During this time, the virus can be passed on.
There’s no specific treatment for hand, foot and mouth disease, but there are steps that you can take to ease your symptoms. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral infection caused by a strain of Coxsackie virus. Hand foot and mouth disease is a common infection in children three to ten years of age. Hand, foot and mouth disease can sometimes be confused with strep throat at first until the test results for strep come back negative. The virus in the hand, foot and mouth disease cannot be destroyed by the acid in the stomach, and can live on surfaces for several hours.
Once a person gets the virus, it takes an average of one to two days for the symptoms to develop. People are most contagious in the first week of illness, but the virus may still be present up to one week after symptoms go away. The virus itself in hand, foot and mouth disease may be present longer in children and those whose immune system are weak. There is no vaccine available, and there is no drug that specifically kills the virus. However, symptomatic treatment would be acetaminophen that reduces fever and discomfort is currently recommended. Mouthwashes and sprays may lessen the oral discomfort.
Fluids are also suggested to prevent dehydration. Do not drink acidic juices which may irritate the mouth ulcers. Also, some physicians may also recommend Benadryl containing get or liquids to treat the hand and foot discomfort. The key to preventing hand, foot and mouth disease is good hand washing and covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing. Hand foot and mouth disease infections are mild and may not even cause any symptoms. It is common for the virus to cause an upper respiratory tract infection with sore throat and/or runny nose, as well as having a fever.
By day two, the patient may get small tender blisters and red spots on the palms, soles of the feet,inside the mouth, and sometimes on the buttocks as well. In the mouth, sores occur on the tongue, gums, and cheeks. In some cases the patient will get a skin rash before the blister. The blister will then break open and crust over which usually goes away within a week or so. Hand, foot and mouth disease is rare in healthy adults, so the risk of infection during pregnancy is very low. If a pregnant woman gets hand, foot and mouth disease, the risk of complications is also very low.
There is some limited evidence that catching hand, foot and mouth disease during pregnancy may result in miscarriage in very rare cases. There’s normally no risk to your unborn baby if you catch hand, foot and mouth disease. However, newborns may also obtain the virus from infected adults or children. This can usually happen in the nurseries or be transmitted during pregnancy at the time of delivery. During delivery, the infant can come into contact with the mother’s secretions. Some infected babies will have a mild illness, but infants are at higher risk.
Hand, foot and mouth disease is spread from person to person. The virus may be spread by coming in contact with respiratory secretions from infected persons. If an infected person was to rub their runny noses and then touch a surface, that surface can harbor the virus and become a source of infection. The infection is spread when another person touches the contaminated surface and then touches his or her mouth or nose. Hand, foot and mouth disease can also be spread if you are in contact with infected stool, such as changing a diaper.
The virus can be spread if unwashed hands get contaminated with fecal matters and you touch your face. This usually happens within day care centers or nurseries. The hand, foot and mouth disease is not a new infectious disease, it is a global epidemic. In 1981 Shanghai, China was the first to discover the disease after more than a dozen provinces and cities have reported the incidence. (WordPress, 2010)The following is outbreaks of the hand, foot and mouth disease for its following year. 1997- Thirty-one children died in an outbreak.
1998- There was an outbreak in Taiwan, affecting mainly children. There were four hundred and five severe complications, and seventy-eight children died. The total number of cases in that epidemic was estimated to have been 1. 5 million. 2006- There were cased of the hand, foot and mouth disease that were reported in some western parts of India. 2007- The largest outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease in India occurred in the eastern part of the country in West Bengal. Authors found thirty-eight cases of hand, foot and mouth disease in and around Kolkata.
2008- An outbreak in China, beginning in March in Fuyang led to twenty-five thousand infections, and forty-two deaths by May 13. Similar outbreaks were reported in Singapore, more than two thousand six hundred cases as of April 20, 2008. 2009- Seventeen children died in an outbreak during March and April 2009 in China’s eastern Shandong Province. Eighteen children died in the neighboring Henan Province. Out of one hundred fifteen thousand reported cases in China from January to April, seven hundred seventy three were severe and fifty were fatal.
In Indonesia, where the disease is often called Singaporen influenza, the disease was reported in Jakarta area starting with eight young children. By late April, health agencies in Jakarta were warning community health centers and encouraging preventive steps, including the use of thermal scanners in airports and avoiding travel to Singapore. 2010- In China, an outbreak occurred in southern China. Until March, seventy thousand, seven hundred fifty-six children existed infected and forty died from the disease.
In conclusion, I had decided to do my research on Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease because my daughter who is two years old had been diagnosed with this viral disease just recently. I was surprised to know that it even existed. When my daughter was seen by a doctor and I heard the name of the infection, I honestly got it mixed with mad cow disease which has a similar name. After doing much research, I am glad that I learned more about what was going on with my daughter. Yes, it was true she did have all the symptoms and rashes as stated. At this moment, my daughter attends a preschool which is where I believe she caught the virus infection.
I would like to take more precaution knowing what I know being that I also have another daughter at home. In general my goal is just to be sure my children maintains good health, good hygiene, and be precautious of any other virus that can be passed on unknowingly. References A. D. A. M. , I. (1997-2011). Hand-Foot-Mouth-Disease. Retrieved July 2011, from Medline Plus: http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000965. htm Board, B. C. (1997-2011). Baby Rashes and Skin Conditions.
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