Three different purposes for giving a speech (p. 25). Do you want them to learn something? If so, your general purpose is to inform. -Do you want them to respond by believing or doing something? Then, your general purpose is to persuade. -Do you want them simply to laugh and enjoy themselves? Your purpose is to entertain. 4 different ways to introduce a topic (p. 27) -orient the audience by drawing their attention to subject. -motivate them to listen by relating the topic to their concerns.
Monster that you are credible speaker on the subject by linking yourself with the topic. -preview the major point of the speech by stating the central idea. 4 ways of memorable conclusion (p. 27) -transition to the conclusion -summary of the major ideas -sense of psychological closure final memorable statement 4 types of speech delivery (p. 28. Know the definitions). -memorized delivery: learning the speech by heart, then reciting It. -manuscript delivery: reading the speech. -impromptu delivery: speaking with little advanced preparation.
Extemporaneous livery: preparing a speech carefully in advance, but choosing the exact wording during the speech Itself. Fight-or-flight mechanism – definition Fight-for-flight mechanism: physiological mechanism when your body automatically activates when threatened to enable you to fight or flee. How to deal with psychological anxiety? (up. 30-32) Control your Internal monologue: -by cognitive modification: identifying negative thoughts and replacing them with 1 OFF visualization: form of positive self-talk or mental straightening in which you see yourself successfully performing a complex task.
Two key elements accompany successful visualization: you must create vivid images and you most control the images you generate) -Rehearse: out loud, with friends in front who could provide feedback.
Chapter 3 ethics and diversity Know ideological theory (p. 45). Dialog theory: theory that conversation is the foundation for all communication; speakers and listeners work together actively to co-create meaning. (The first conversation or dialogues formed the foundation pattern for all your other communication, even public speaking) 4 traits of a ideological attitude (p. 47). OTOH you and your listeners value and build mutuality; that is, you all realize that you have much to learn from one another. -you are actively involved with one another. You, of course, prepare and deliver the speech. But they actively listen, evaluate, and form their own conclusions. -you are all genuine, authentic, open-minded and willing to change. -you believe in synergy (the whole is greater than the sum of its parts). What you generate together is greater than what you or your listeners could produce alone. Chapter 15 telling narratives Narrative functions (up. 294-300)
Narrative functions: Storytelling is an oral art form we use to preserve and transmit commonly held ideas, images, motives and emotions. Here we look at three functions of stories: to inform, to persuade and to entertain. Informative narratives (to inform): -explaining nature: why dogs and cats are enemies? -explaining society and institutions: -explaining ultimate things: philosophical and religious stories attempting to explain ultimate reality (who are we? ) Persuasive Narratives (to persuade, motivate): -motivational narratives: exemplary narratives-provide examples or models of laterally appropriate or inappropriate ways to live. Deliberative (vasomotor) speaking: form of speaking that gives people the information and motivation they need to make wise decisions regarding future courses of action. -visionary narratives: Entertaining narratives (to entertain): Jokes, scary…. Guidelines for narratives (up. 301-303). Five important elements of a good story: -The purpose: what function to u want the narrative to fulfill? -develop your characters: -sequence: -plot: the story action -language: select vivid language