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Final Paper Paper

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Final Paper

Summary one

In order for leaders to be effective, they need to understand themselves as well as the people that they are leading. This will enable them to understand the people, more, and that will improve their leadership. In the case of the people under governance, they need to understand the various policies that are implemented by their leaders. By knowing the reasons behind their implementation, they will be able to participate more in programs that are put in place in the specific area. Because of the importance of leadership in a community, various methods were developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the leader in question.

These tests were based on the personality of the leaders. All the methods created to evaluate the leadership of a particular individual, six key factors, were considered. Based on these factors, the leaders fit for a position were successfully determined. The first factor was the leadership style of the individual. This factor was very important as the style of leadership that an individual has affects how good a leader he or she is. Therefore, in order to determine if a leader’s personality fits in with his or her current position, the leadership style was a very important factor. Secondly, the leader’s traits and perceptions were analyzed to ensure that s/he was suited for the position that he or she held.

This is crucial because the character of the leader directly affects the efficiency of the leader. For instance, a friendly person was more suited to work directly with the citizens, as opposed to a leader who is not as social. The perceptions of the council are another factor that should be considered when determining how suitable a leader is to the position that they have. This is because the opinions that the council has on the leader may influence how well the leader performs his or her duties. Finally, the last factors to be noted are the demographics of the location in question. Demographics refer to age and gender for instance. Demographics have a crucial role to play on the successful tenure of any leader.

Summary two

Apart from leadership qualities arising from character, managerial positions are one of the most coveted positions in the field of business. This is not only because of the large pay associated with this position, but also because of the respect that one is accorded with when they hold this title. However, there is a notable difference between the managers in companies located in small towns and those from the larger cities. Before the acquisition of this desirable position in a company, most of the people begin from lower ranks, and they work their way up the ladder. In most cases before one becomes a manager he or she must have first been an assistant manager.

Data proves that most of the managers in key cities have some experience from the smaller cities and they have degrees in public administration as well. This experience enables the manager to cope with the challenges that are associated with a larger city and company. However, it is essential to note that a greater majority of the managers in the smaller towns have a remarkably longer tenure while compared to their counterparts from the key cities. For this reason, most of these managers prefer to maintain their positions, as opposed to leaving in search of jobs in the main cities.

This is accredited to the security that is associated with the smaller towns. Positions in the larger and more prestigious company have a lot of competition. This is because the numbers of people who are qualified for the position in question remarkably outweigh the available positions in the companies. For this reason, the companies are able to fire and hire new individuals often. From this information, it is evidenced that most of the managers prefer to remain in the smaller localities in order to enjoy longer tenures, as opposed to going to the larger cities where their tenure is considerably shorter.

Summary three

However, towns are disadvantaged in management, whether small or big due to Municipal term limits that have a great effect on the fiscal policies that are implemented in several cities, in the United States. The issue of limits has been controversial over the years, and no permanent solution has been obtained to put an end to the raging debate. Even with this disagreement, some large cities like Los Angeles have implemented government limits in their city and municipal councils. It is imperative that one understands the policies in order to comprehend the principle of term limits. For instance, the notion that extended term limits are disadvantageous to the constituents since the laws enacted sometimes do not apply to them especially if an older leader represents them. However, some people do not agree with this, and they prefer longer terms on the basis that the leaders get to know their constituents better. In the case of municipalities in Michigan, several factors were determinants of the conflict that they had pertaining to this issue.

Policy conflict was affected by several demographic factors like the race, age and gender of the constituents in question. The leaders of these municipalities created new methods whose inceptions were expected to manage the conflict or even put an end to it. One of the most notable methods that they intended to implement was the creation of cooperation and teamwork in the municipal councils since it would lead to performance that is more effective. Based on an analysis, the effectiveness of the municipal councils was investigated. The study was particularly based on the effects that the interpersonal relationships that the members of the municipal had on their performance. From the study, a hypothesis was created in that the existence of positive interaction subsequently led to increased efficacy of the council in question. This was implemented in a bid to improve the performance of the municipal councils in Michigan.

Summary four

It has been noted that a very small percentage, less than 5%, of city managers are able to stay in office for at least twenty years. This is attributed to the kind of relationships that the manager has with the other people he or she works with. This especially applies to the politicians as they work very closely with the city managers. A good relationship enables the managers to be aware of all the changes that the politicians intend to make in the area. This is crucial for the long tenure of the city manager as he or she will always know about the new policies and will be able to explain them to the constituents. This will inspire trust among the constituents who will keep re-electing the said city manager to this position. A long serving manager needs to have unwavering commitment to public service, as well as reputable values. This will enable him to stay in power for a longer period.

In some cases, city managers have a big role to play in the development of policies while in some cases they are not as involved. This variation has caused some disagreement but it has been ultimately decided that the respective municipalities were free to involve their city managers or not. Municipalities are often faced with conflict and this affects the decision making process. This occurs because the disagreement leads to bad relationships between the council members and they may not work well together in future instances. It was discovered that the key to a successful council is cooperation. For this reason, it was necessary to avoid all conflicts or to solve the pre-existing ones in order to ensure the smooth running of the municipal council in question. It is for this reason that the council-manager municipalities were determined to have more cooperation than the mayor-council municipalities mainly because of the number of council members that are in each of the councils.

Summary five

Three important articles, which relate to public administration, have been analyzed. The first article was Local Budgeting and Public Participation: Contextual Predictors of State Laws Mandating Public Input by Mitchel N. Herian. It focused on the economic and political facets of public administration. In particular, the article addresses the state laws that allowed the participation of the members of the public as well as their input in the budget. It goes on to explain the effects that public engagement will have on the budget making process. In addition to this, the article evaluates the existence of the state laws, which govern the participation of the members of the public in the creation of a budget. The article offers concise information that is fundamental in the understanding of the processes involved in the budget making process.

The second article was Public Budgeting in 2020: Return to Equilibrium, or Continued Mismatch between Demands and Resources by Philip G. Joyce and Scott Pattison. The article highlights the issue of public budgeting, its advantages and disadvantages as well as the public opinion on this matter. The authors decided to focus on this issue as it has been shrouded in controversy for a while now. The article provides a comparison between the present budgeting trends and the new proposed ones. From this comparison, the authors have been able to obtain the specific advantages and disadvantages of each trend. In addition to this, the authors have included the public’s opinion on this matter. For this reason, the article in question provides vital information that once read leads to the complete understanding of the public budgeting trends both old and new.

The final article was The Great Recession and Compensation Practices: New Rules for Compensation by Bruce J. Perlman. He discusses the occurrence of the great recession that took place and the events that resulted from it. In addition to this, the article has explained the impact that the great recession had on the economy but in particular on the labor force in the country. Perlman goes a step further to explain the effects of the recession on the local and state governments in the country in question. The article explains each of these effects in considerable detail. The author has also used several examples, which enable the readers to understand and identify with the effects that occurred because of the great recession that took place. From this article, one is able to understand the impact of the great recession especially to the local governments and the labor force of the country in question.

Summary six

In public administration, of great importance is the organizational structure of local governments as it is crucial for their continued success. Regional councils are considered the most basic form of organization, as they are multi-service entities with borders that are well defined. They play a supporting role to the governments by providing technical assistance where need be and partaking on the planning processes for instance. It is for this reason that the regional governments are considered very crucial. A study was carried out to determine the capacity of these regional councils and their efficiency in performing the duties allocated to them. Findings showed that the performance of the council was directly related to the level of inter-organizational capacity the regional councils possessed. A council that was very well organized was very productive while the disorganized one performed considerably worse. With this information, the members of the regional councils were expected to embrace high levels of organization to ensure that the council was efficient in all of its duties. The study also explains that by understanding the capacity of the regional councils, they are able to create and implement the appropriate plans for the council in question. Apart from this, the article explains the effects that the capacity of a council has on the extents of planning and development of the region in question. The issue of contracting has also been raised in this article.

Contracting is now the norm in several sectors nut in the case of public administration; most of the people still have inhibitions. However, an instance of a council that has used contracting has been provided. Weston Municipality in Florida is an example of a council that has used contracting to run the affairs of the municipal council. The council is comprised of only three members, the city manager and two assistants. Workers that are hired on a contractual basis perform the rest of the duties. Weston municipality has defied all the odds by taking up this approach. The issue of interlocal cooperation has also been brought up. Increased cooperation leads to improved performance of all the local councils involved in the said program. Local councils are expected to take up such techniques that will subsequently lead to the outstanding performance of the council in question.

Summary seven

Based on the article “Elements of Strategic Planning and Management in Municipal Government: Status after Two Decades,” some very important information with relation to public administration may be obtained. The article focuses on the how planning and management are implemented in municipal councils. Surveys that were carried out showed that strategic planning was not used in most of the councils. Furthermore, the few types of council, which implemented strategic planning, did not apply it effectively. This is considered the reason behind the poor performance of the said municipal councils. From the article, it is clear that the use of strategic planning is one of the main ways that the municipal councils may implement to ensure their continued advancement.

Another article, “Effects of Economic Development Strategies in Local Municipalities” by Robbie Waters provides additional information that pertains to the effects of economic development planning in municipalities. The author suggests that the most appropriate and reliable solution to the economic crisis that faces several municipalities is economic planning. The problems that face the said municipalities include unemployment for instance. With proper economic planning, the localities will be able to avoid unemployment and this will result in economic growth in the municipality. For this reason, effective economic planning is required in local governments. This is because it will alleviate the existing problems that the people face as well as resulting in economic development.

In “Competing and Cooperating across State Borders in Economic Development: A Call for Co-operation’’ by Jon Lombard and John Morris, the importance of cooperation in the local governments is highlighted. From the article, competition is considered good but the effects that it may have may not be appealing. For this reason, the best option for the local governments to embrace is co-operation. Cooperation refers to working together with the same aim in mind, if various municipal councils cooperate in various matters; the localities in question are expected to thrive. This cooperation is necessary for economic development, which is ultimately required for a successful municipality. To achieve cooperation, the councils are expected to make some agreements that all the parties involved are required to adhere. This will result in the avoidance of any disagreements. For this reason, the article presupposes that cooperation is the key to a flourishing local government.

Summary eight

These details were based on a study carried out by Ann Bowman and Richard Kearney. Their research was focused on the changes that have plagued the local authorities and the associated changes. In the past few decades, the authority of the local government has been undermined by the state governments. This has resulted in the loss of the power that the local governments had initially. The decision making process now heavily relies on the state governments as opposed to the local government. The study was conducted to determine how truthful this is and the effect it has had on the development of these municipalities. The results of the study showed that there has been a steady decentralization of power from the local governments to the state governments. Apart from this, this transference has been beneficial since it hassled to the development of the localities in question. The study also determined that the local powers had lost all the power that they possessed initially to the state government and this has greatly undermined them.

An article written by Mary M Edwards and Yu Xiao talked of the effects that annexation had on the local governments. Annexation involves the consolidation of land in an economical way. This practice was very common in the 1800’s and it continued to be practiced in the years that followed. This article explains the effects that annexation has had on government spending over the years. They achieved this by carrying out a study on the people who has undergone annexation in the past decade. Results from the study showed that the annexation inversely affected police spending and the rate of growth of the per capita incomes. For this reason, they concluded that the effect that annexation had on a particular area was dependant on the population and strengths in variances of the land area. This is to mean that areas with lower densities had higher rates of annexation while the reverse is true. From the article, it can be deduced that annexation may only be beneficial if implemented wisely.

Summary nine

This article by was written in order to ascertain the opinions of the citizens with regard to the provision of public services. Both authors conducted a study that included the fire services and the police department. The study intended to investigate the perception that the citizens had on the provision of the services by these two groups of people. Findings from this study showed that the opinions of the citizens were influenced by both direct and mediated experiences. The greater majority of these citizens considered the services that were provided to be substandard and unreliable. Fire services and the local policies were considered the most important services that were provided by the government but in this case, they were not satisfactory. For this reason, the citizens felt vulnerable to danger rather than protected from it. Donahue and Mille through their study found it unsurprising that the citizens had this perception since the services offered were of low quality. For this reason, this article serves as a notice to the local authorities, which should improve on the kind of services that they offer to their constituents.

Thom Reilly and Mark B. Reed explained the issue of budget shortfalls, compensation and collective bargaining in local governments. These very important matters were important for the success of the people involved. The two authors also conducted a study, which investigated these three aspects of local authorities. The study was aimed to examine the relationship between the three elements and the effects that each has on the economy of the municipality in question. Results indicated that the municipalities encountered the said three problems often and this led to their poor performance. In order to have reputable development in the municipalities, it is necessary that these three elements be considered carefully.

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