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Exam 3

The capacity to influence others
In organizational settings, power is defined as

Potential
Power is the ___ to change someone’s attitudes and behavior.

Power requires independence in the relationship
Which of the following statements about power is true?

Countervailing power is the weaker party’s power to maintain the stronger party’s continued participation in the relationship
Which of the following statements about countervailing power in organizational relationships is true?

countervailing power
in order to maintain the exchange relationship, the dependent party has ____ over the dominant party.

it is agreed that people in certain roles can request behaviors of others
legitimate power exists when ____.

employees have a high power distance value
employees are more likely to comply with a supervisor’s legitimate power when the ____.

reward power
____ is the formal authority that gives managers the power over the distribution of pay, promotions, time off, vacation schedules, and work assignments.

reward
employees have ___ power over their bosses through their feedback and ratings in 360-degree feedback systems

coercive power
employees have ___, ranging from sarcasm to ostracism, to ensure that coworkers conform to team norms.

expert power
which source of power originates from the powerholder’s own abilities?

Prevention, forecasting, and absorption
The three general strategies for coping with uncertainty are ___.

referent power
Employees have ___ when others identify with them, like them, or otherwise respect them.

Referent power
Which of these sources of power originates mainly from the person rather than the position?

Charisma
Referent power is typically associated with ___.

Substitutability
Which of the following refers to the availability of alternatives?

When a person avoids documenting unique knowledge organizational processes
Which of the following would potentially increase a person’ power through non-substitutability?

Centrality
Which of these refers to the degree and nature of interdependence between the powerholder and others?

Centrality
By going on strike at a critical time in the company’s business cycle, unions are mainly applying which contingency of power?

Increasing the person’s referent power
Networking potentially increases a person’s power by ___ within each network.

By providing valuable information
How does networking increase a person’s expert power?

Networking is a skill, not a personality trait
Which of the following statements about networking is true?

Centrality
___ is your importance in a network.

Degree centrality
The number of or percentage of connections you have to others in a network is called

People with power are more likely to rely on stereotypes
Which of the following is a consequence of power?

Any behavior that attempts to alter someone’s attitudes or behaviors
Influence is ______.

Upward appeal
Which of the following is a hard influence tactic?

Silent authority
Which of these is the most common form of influence tactic in high power distance cultures?

Also known as vocal authority because it involves actively applying legitimate and coercive power by applying pressure or threats
Assertiveness is ___.

Assertiveness
___ involves actively applying legitimate and coercive power to influence others.

Assertiveness
Extreme forms of __ include blackmailing colleagues, such as by threatening to reveal the other person’s previously unknown failures unless he or she complies with your request.

Information control
____ involves explicitly manipulating others’ access to information for the purpose of changing their attitudes and/or behavior.

Controlling information
When employees keep co-workers in the dark about work issues to help their own cause, they are using what type of influence tactic?

The vice-president of marketing deliberately places an issue that she dislikes near the bottom of next meeting’s agenda (rather than near the top) so there is less change the meeting will have time to address that issue
Which of the following is an example of influence tactic of controlling information?

Increases the legitimacy of the desired outcome
Forming a coalition ___.

Employees get together to show management that they collectively demand that the company purchase new computer equipment.
Which of the following is an example of the influence tactic of forming coalitions?

Upward appeal
___ involves calling upon higher authority or expertise, or symbolically relying on these sources to support the influencer’s position.

Persuasion
Which of the following is a form of soft influence tactics?

Persuasion
The effectiveness of ___ as an influence tactic depends on characteristics of the powerholder, message content, communication medium, and the audience.

Causes listeners to generate counterarguments to the anticipated persuasion attempts, making opponents’ subsequent persuasion attempts less effective
The inoculation effect ___.

Flattering a boss
Ingratiation includes ____.

Ingratiation; impression management
___ is part of a larger influence tactic called ____.

Often, individuals carry impression management beyond ethical boundaries by exaggerating their credentials and accomplishments on their resumes.
Which of the following holds true for impression management?

Impression management
Many job applicants falsify information on their resume. This is an example of which influence tactic?

Exchange
The norm of reciprocity is a central and explicit theme in ___ strategies.

Negotiation
___ is an integral part of exchange.

Resistance
Occurs when people or work units oppose the behavior desired by the influencer and consequently refuse, argue, or delay engaging in the behavior.

People identify with the influencer’s request and are highly motivated to implement it even when extrinsic sources of motivation are no longer present
Commitment occurs when ____.

Assertiveness
Which of these tactics tend to generate resistance—or at best compliance—from people?

Persuasion; silent authority
People with expertise tend to have more influence using ___, whereas those with a strong legitimate power base are usually more successful applying ____.

Attempts to influence others to promote personal objective
Organizational politics typically involves:

Based on complex and ambiguous rules
Organizational politics is more common where decisions are ___.

Reducing organizational politics regarding that decision
Introducing clear rules for resource allocation is one way of ___.

Encouraging leaders to become role models of organizational citizens instead of symbols of successful organizational politicians
Organizational politics may be reduced by ___.

Are comfortable using power to manipulate others toward their own personal goals
People with high Machiavellian values ___.

Strong Machiavellian values
People who seldom trust coworkers and tend to use cruder influence tactic have __.

A process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.
Conflict is best defined as:

Conflict
The process in which one party perceives that his or her interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party is called

Perceptions of people
Conflict is ultimately based on the

Increased organizational politics
___ is a negatively outcome associated with organizational conflict.

It energizes people to evaluate alternatives
Which of the following is an advantage of having moderate levels of organizational conflict?

Increased organizational politics
Identify a negative outcome associated with organizational conflict

Moderate levels of conflict are necessary and produce favorable outcomes
The current perspective on organizational conflict is that

More responsiveness to changing business environment
Which of the following is a major advantage of having moderate levels of organizational conflict?

Is a positive application of conflict in organizations
According to the literature on organizational conflict, constructive conflict:

Encourages employees re-examine their basic assumptions about a problem and its possible
Constructive conflict

Keep the debate focused on the issue
Which of the following would help create constructive conflict during a debate?

The conflict episodes are viewed as personal attacks rather than attempts to resolve the problem
Which of the following best describes relationship conflict?

Reduce communication and information sharing with the other party
Relationship conflict usually causes people to:

Minimize the relationship conflict that exists in the organization
Effective managers should

Relationship conflict is less likely to occur if emotional intelligence is high
What is the relationship between emotional intelligence and relationship conflict?

Relationship conflict is suppressed when the conflict occurs
Which of the following statements is true of relationship conflict in a highly cohesive team?

Openness
When team norms encourage ____, team members learn to appreciate honest dialogue without personally reacting to any emotional display during the disagreements.

Overt behaviors
Which of the following is a manifestation of conflict?

Politics
Which of the following is a conflict outcome?

Conflict zone
Which of the following is not explicitly included in the conflict process model?

Sources of potential conflict
Incompatible goals, differentiation, and ambiguous rules are:

Differentiation
Employees in engineering and marketing often disagree with each other mainly because they have unique backgrounds, experience, and training. The most apparent source of conflict here is:

Differentiation
Which of the following sources of conflict is typically associated with mergers and acquisitions?

Reciprocal interdependence
The potential for conflict between two employees would be highest under conditions of:

A source of conflict
In organizational conflict, scarce resources are typically identified as

Low levels of communication
Which of the following is a factor that leads to relational conflict in teams?

High assertiveness and high cooperativeness
The problem-solving interpersonal style of conflict has

Problem solving
Which of the following interpersonal conflict management styles represents a purely win-win orientation?

Avoiding
Which conflict management style is associated with low cooperativeness and low assertiveness?

Forcing
Which conflict management style may be necessary when it is apparent that the other party will take advantage of information sharing and other cooperative strategies?

Compromising
You have resolved a conflict with another department by offsetting your losses with equally valued gains. Which of the following conflict handling styles was used here?

The issue is much less important to you than to the other party
The yielding conflict management style should be used if:

Superordinate goals
_____ are higher-order aspirations, such as an organization’s vision or mission.

Reducing reliance on stereotyping about the other party
Direct communication minimizes conflict by:

Reducing task interdependence
Increasing inventories between sequential work units tends to reduce potential conflict by:

Reducing interdependence
Which of the following is the most important function of an integrator in an organization?

Integrators
___ are employees who coordinate the activities of differentiated work unites toward the competition of a common task.

Inquisition
Which of the following third-party conflict resolution strategies is characterized by high process control and high outcome control?

Level of process control and level of decision control
Third-party dispute resolution activities are classified in terms of their

Arbitration
Which of the following is a third-party conflict resolution strategy with low process control and high decision control?

Arbitration
The third party conflict resolution intervention that has a high level of control over the final outcome but little control over the process in known as:

Mediation
Which third-party conflict resolution strategy manages the process and context of interaction between the disputing parties but does not impose a solution on the parties?

Inquisition
Managers tend to prefer which of the following types of third-party intervention whereby they dominate the intervention process as well as make a binding decision?

Mediation
For everyday disputes between two employees, managers should use ____ as a third-party intervention.

Both you and your opponent’s resistance points
In the bargaining zone model, the area of potential agreement contains:

Claiming value
___ involves trying to obtain the best possible outcomes for yourself and your constituents.

BATNA
Involves calculating the cost of walking away from the negotiating relationship.

Leadership is influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations.
Which of the following is the most accurate definition of leadership?

Shared leadership
Leadership should not be restricted to the executive suite. Which of the following concepts supports this thought?

Leadership of an organization is broadly distributed rather than assigned to one person.
Which of the following statements is most consistent with the view of shared leadership?

Competency perspective
Which leadership perspective takes the view that leadership is a personal characteristic of the person?

Leadership is a personal characteristic of the person
The competency (trait) perspective takes the view that:

Self-concept
Successful leaders should have a positive evaluation about their own leadership skills and abilities to achieve objectives. This refers to the leaders’ ___.

Drive
Which of these characteristics addresses leaders’ high need for achievement?

Competencies of effective leaders
Drive, integrity, and emotional intelligence are identified by the competency perspective of leadership as:

Leadership motivation
Effective leaders have a strong need for socialized power, meaning that they want power as a means to accomplish organizational objectives and similar good deeds. This behavior of leaders refers to:

Emotional intelligence is one of the desired competencies of effective leaders.
What is the relevance of emotional intelligence in leadership?

Authentic
___ leadership refers to how well leaders are aware of, feel comfortable with, and act consistently with their self-concepts.

Authenticity
____ is knowing yourself and being yourself.

It views leadership as something within a person
Which of the following is a limitation of the competency perspective of leadership?

Potential
According to the competency perspective of leadership, competencies indicate leadership:

Leadership behaviors are clustered on the employee’s behaviors at the time of interaction
According to the behavioral perspective of leadership,

Task-oriented and people-oriented
The behavioral perspective of leadership identifies which two clusters of leadership behaviors?

Establish challenging goals
According to research on the behavioral perspective of leadership, task-oriented leaders:

People orientation
According to research on the behavioral perspective of leadership, which of these leader behaviors include showing mutual trust and respect for subordinates and having a desire to look out for their welfare?

Task-orientation
According to research on the behavioral perspective of leadership, which of these behaviors include defining and structuring work roles, clarifying employees work duties and procedures, and pushing employees to reach their performance capacity?

Leaders serve followers, rather than vice versa
Servant leadership emphasizes the notation that:

It is an extension of the people-centered leadership style
Which of the following is true about servant leadership?

Path-goal theory
Which leadership theory specifically highlights four leadership styles, including the participative style?

Achievement-oriented
Which of the following is a leadership style identified in path-goal theory?

Directive
Which leadership style in path-goal theory is the same as the task-oriented leadership style as describes in the behavioral perspective of leadership?

Supportive
Which leadership style in path-goal theory is the same as the people-oriented style as described in the behavioral perspective of leadership?

Achievement-oriented
Which leadership style in path-goal theory is most closely associated with goal setting and positive self-fulfilling prophecy?

To be effective, leaders should select the most appropriate behavior based on the situation
Path-goal theory argues that:

Directive
on the situation
According to path-goal theory, if employees are highly skilled and have plenty of experience, ___ style(s) should NOT be used.

The employee lacks experience in the job
According to path-goal theory, a combination of directive and supportive leadership is most appropriate when

Directive and supportive
People with an external locus of control tend to be more satisfied with ___ leadership styles.

Some elements of the theory have not yet been studied
One problem associated with path-goal theory is that:

Supportive
When team cohesiveness is low, leaders should use which of these styles?

The ability and motivation of followers
Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model states that the best leadership style depends on:

Situational leadership theory
Telling, selling, participating, and delegating are the four leadership styles identified in the:

Leader effectiveness depends on whether the person’s natural leadership style is appropriately matched to the situation
According to Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership,

Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership
Which leadership theory explicitly argues that people have a preferred leadership style based on their personality, so organizations should move leaders into situations that fit their preferred style?

Level of situational control
Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership states that the best leadership style depends on the:

Suggests that organizations need to engineer the situation to fit the leader’s preferred style, rather than vice versa
Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership has made an important and lasting contribution to the study of leadership because it

Leadership substitutes
____ theory identifies conditions that either limit the leader’s ability to influence subordinates or make a particular leadership style unnecessary.

Transformational
Which leadership theory adopts the view that leaders are agents of change?

Influence subordinates by using rewards
Transactional leaders:

Changing the organization’s strategies and culture
Transformational leadership is about:

The personal traits that provide referent power over others.
Charisma refers to:

Empowered, dependent
Organizational behavior research indicates that transformational leaders produce ___ followers. Whereas charismatic leaders produce ___ followers.

Shared strategic vision
___ represents the substance of transformational leadership.

Communicating the vision
If vision is the substance of transformational leadership, then ___ is the process.

The leader steps out and behaves in ways that symbolize the vision.
“Walking the talk” refers to which of the following?

It is typically presented as a universal rather than contingency perspective
Which of the following is a limitation of the transformational perspective of leadership?

Everyone has preconceived beliefs about leaders
Implicit leadership theory states that:

Implicit leadership perspective
Which of the following leadership approaches directly supports the idea that the romance of leadership is important in leadership?

Implicit leadership theory
The concept of leadership prototypes is a main part in which leadership theory?

Preconceived beliefs about the features and behaviors of effective leaders
Leadership prototypes refer to:

Believe that leaders are effective only if they behave consistently with their own preconceptions of how an effective leadership should act.
When people have leadership prototypes, they

Culture
___ shapes leaders’ values, norms and the expectations that followers have of their leaders.

Male and female leaders generally do not differ in the use of task-oriented and people-oriented leadership
Which of the following statements about leadership and gender is true?

Women tend to use more of the participative leadership styles than men do
How do women differ from men in their use of leadership styles?

People tend to rely on gender stereotypes and prototypes of leaders
People tend to evaluate female leaders slightly less favorably than men leaders because:

Shared assumptions beliefs and values that subconsciously guide employee thoughts and actions
Organizational culture is best described as the basic pattern of ___.

Values
____ are stable, evaluative beliefs that guide or preferences for outcomes or courses of action in a variety of situations and are conscious perceptions about what is good or bad, right or wrong.

Shared assumptions
___ are unconscious, taken-for-granted perceptions or ideal prototypes of behavior that are considered the correct way to think and act toward problems and opportunities.

They are so deeply embedded they probably cannot be discovered by surveying employees
Which of these statements about shared assumptions is true?

Determine what the organization’s enacted values are
The best way to determine an organization’s culture is to ___.

Precision
The organizational culture dimensions of attention to detail is characterized by ___.

Aggressiveness
Which organizational culture dimension is characterized competitiveness and a low emphasis on social responsibility?

The organization’s dominant culture
The values and assumptions shared most widely by employees represent ___.

A subculture
One of the functions of ___ is that it is a spawning ground for emerging balues that keep the firm aligned with the needs of customers, suppliers, society, and other stakeholders.

They maintain surveillance over and critically review the company’s dominant culture
Which of the following is true about countercultures?

Artifacts
Which of the following are the observable indicators of organizational culture?

Artifacts
While it is suggested that ___ are the essence of organizational culture, many view it as symbols or indicators of culture.

Artifacts represent the directly observable symbols and signs of an organization’s culture
What is the significance of artifacts in organizational culture?

Stories are most effective at communicating organization culture when they describe real events with real people
Which of these statements about organizational stories is true?

Describe real people and are assumed to be true
Organizational stories are most effective at communicating organizational culture only when they ___.

Programmed routines of daily organizational life that dramatize the organization’s culture
Rituals are ___.

Organizational language
Which of the following is a verbal symbol of cultural values?

Corporate cult
Which of the following is an artifact rather than an element of organizational culture?

Companies have strong cultures when the dominant values are held mainly by a few people at the top of the organization.
Which of the following holds true for organizational culture?

Interact with other employees who know an believe in it
A strong corporate culture ensures that employees ___.

They lock people into mental models, which can blind them to new opportunities and unique problems
Which of the following is true of corporate cults?

Encourage constructive conflict, which improves creative thinking
Organizations that tolerate or encourage subcultures with dissenting values ___.

Some subcultures enhance the organization’s dominant culture.
Which of these statements about organizational subcultures is true?

Organizations with strong cultures tend to perform better than those with weak cultures when the culture content fits the external environment.
Which of these statements about the strength of organizational culture and organizational performance is true?

The organization has more difficulty anticipating and responding to stakeholder needs
What tends to happen when an organization’s culture is misaligned with its external environment?

Makes it more difficult for decision makers to identify problems or opportunities outside the mental model of that culture.
As an organization’s culture gets stronger, it __.

Are focused outwardly on customers and other stakeholders outside the organization.
Organizations with an adaptive corporate culture __.

Employees tend to be more reactive
Which of the following is a characteristics of an adaptive corporate culture?

An external focus on the needs of customers and other stakeholders
If an organization has an adaptive culture, it likely has ___.

Identify an diagnose differences in the corporate cultures of merging organizations
The main purpose of a bicultural audit is to ___.

Conduct a bicultural audit
One of the first steps to maintain cultural clashes is a merger is to ___.

Assimilation
When the acquired firm has a weak culture, it is best to use the ___ merger strategy.

Assimilation
___ occurs when employees at the acquired company willing embrace the cultural values of the acquiring organization.

Deculturation
In which strategy does the acquiring company impose its culture and business practices on the acquired organization?

When employees in the acquired firm want to hold on to the firm’s culture even though it does not fit the external environment
A deculturation strategy of merging two corporate cultures should be applied ___.

Integration
Which strategy for merging two distinct cultures is most effective when the two companies have relatively weak cultures with overlapping values?

Separation
Which strategy for merging two distinct cultures is most effective when the two companies are in unrelated industries and have cultures that seem to work well for them?

The two organizations operate in distinct industries
When merging two organizations, a separation strategy is most commonly applied when ___.

Founders
An organization’s culture begins with its ___.

Organizations have a natural tendency to attract, select, and retain people with values that are consistent with the organization’s own culture.
Which of the following statements is true for the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) theory?

Avoid employment in companies whose values seem incompatible with their own values
According to the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) theory, job applicants’ ___.

Learning and adjustment
Organizational socialization is best described as a process of ___.

Newcomers with diverse work experience
In the context of organizational socialization, the adjustment process is better for ___.

Long before the first day of work for the organization
The process of organizational socialization begins ___.

Pre-employment, encounter, role management
The three stages of organizational socialization, in order, are ___.

Pre-employment
During what stage of socialization do people learn about the organization and job?

Employees form expectations (a psychological contract) about working at the organization
Which of the following happens during the pre-employment stage of organizational socialization?

Newcomers test how well their pre-employment expectations fit reality and many companies fail this test.
Many employees get a reality shock on their first day at work because ___.

A perceived discrepancy between employee expectations and reality
Reality shock is ___.

Role management
____, the third stage of organizational socialization, is most active as employees make the transition from newcomers to insiders.

Role management
Resolving conflicts between work and nonwork mainly occurs during ___ stage of socialization.

Employers and job applicants gave and received accurate information about each other
The pre-employment stage of organizational socialization would be effective if ___.

Socialization agents
Most employees would say that ___ helped them adjust to their new job most.

Buddy system
A (n) ___ is a system whereby newcomers are assigned to coworkers for sources of information and social support.

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