The basic principles of reinforcement are complex because
Different people react differently to the same reinforcement, people are unable to repeat the desired behavior, and there are many potential reinforcers that must be considered

Which of the following are guidelines for implementing behavior programs
Consequences should be stated clearly, target behaviors must be defined in observable terms, behaviors should not be recorded

In the study of a team of swimmers by Mckenzie and Rushall,
An attendance board was used to track attendance at swim practice and the swimmers showed a significant increase in attendance after the intervention

Feedback can provide instructional information about
The specific behaviors to be performed, the levels of proficiency to be achieved, and the performers’ current level of proficiency in the desired skills

According to the TARGET acronym, which of the following is not a measure to use to foster a mastery-oriented environment?

Which of the following statements are true?
Every reward has both controlling and informational aspects to it, a negative coaching style (mostly critical in nature) can lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation, and rewarding for mere participation in a sport will typically undermine the participant’s intrinsic motivation

The study by Lepper and Greene investigating the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation of children found that
The type of reward was important regarding its effects on intrinsic motivation and the expected-reward condition had the lowest levels of intrinsic motivation (compared to no reward and unexpected rewards)

According to the results of Komaki and Barnett’s study of a Pop Warner football team,
The team performed three plays more effectively after the intervention

A recent study (Amorose & Horn, 2000) showed that changes in intrinsic motivation occurred primarily because of
Coaching behaviors

What is not a dimension of flow?
High levels of arousal

What is seen as the most extrinsically motivated behavior?
External regulation

Ryan’s studies on the relationship between scholarships and intrinsic motivation revealed that
Wrestlers on scholarship exhibited higher levels of intrinsic motivation than wrestlers not on scholarship and female athletes on scholarship exhibited higher levels of intrinsic motivation than female athletes not on scholarship

A study on reducing inappropriate tennis behaviors using behavior modification techniques revealed that
Inappropriate behaviors were significantly reduced for all 5 players

Which of the following is not true of reinforcement?
The consequences of behavior are not as important as ones personality

In a recent study on the relationship between holding scholarships and levels of intrinsic motivation in collegiate athletes, Amorose, Horn, and Miller found that
Athletes on scholarship had lower levels of intrinsic motivation in general than did athletes not on scholarship

An individual will have a higher level of intrinsic motivation when
The informational aspect is more salient than the controlling aspect

Which of the following is not one of the psychological needs included in self-determination theory?

According to McAuley’s and Tammen’s study on intrinsic motivation and subjective versus objective outcomes,
Subjective perceptions of performance are the most important determinants of intrinsic motivation

Backward chaining (as used by O’Brien and Simek in their golf study) refers to
Pairing the last step in a series of movements with the next-to-last step all the way through the movement until the second step is paired with the first step

Which of the following statements are true regarding flow?
Most athletes feel flow is a controllable state, athletes can learn to get into a flow state, flow is related to improvements in psychological states

Besides rewarding the outcome of a person’s performance (success), other areas that should be rewarded include
Effort, emotional and social skills, and correct performance of the skill itself

In a review of studies investigating the effects of performance feedback, it was found that performance increased approximately

Potential negative side effects of punishment include its
Arousing a fear of failure, acting as a reinforcer, and hindering the learning of skills

The additive approach to the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation suggests that
Intrinsic plus extrinsic motivation equals more motivation

Research by psychologists such as Edward Deci has shown that
Extrinsic rewards undermined intrinsic motivation

Behavioral coaching, behavioral modification, and contigency management have in common the goal of
Structuring practices through the systematic use of reinforcement

According to Weinberg’s study on intrinsic motivation in a competitive setting,
Success produces higher levels of intrinsic motivation than does failure and males exhibit higher levels of intrinsic motivation after success than after failure

Flow is maximized when you are competing against an opponent
Of equal ability

Which of the following factors have been identified in preventing flow from occurring?
Inappropriate focus, lack of confidence, and motivation to perform

Receiving a reward that provides feedback concerning an athletes sense of competence is an example of
The informational aspect of reward

Rewards typically undermine intrinsic motivation when the reward is
For mere participation, not tied to the quality of one’s performance, and controlling in nature

Which of the following statements are true?
The amount of positive feedback is less important than receiving some type of positive feedback and getting positive feedback produces higher levels of intrinsic motivation than getting no feedback

Most coaches approach reinforcement and punishment by
A combination of positive reinforcement and punishment

Shaping occurs when
Rewards are given to behaviors that approximate the correct response

Which of the following are factors deemed important to achieving flow?
Confidence, maintaining appropriate focus, and optimal environmental conditions

Which of the following is a competitive situation according to Martens’s definition of the objective competitive situation?
A runner competing in a 100-yard dash and a swimmer working out with his coach watching him

Of all the experimental games used by psychologists to study the effects of competition and cooperation, the most often used game is
Prisoner’s Dilemma

The key part of Martens’s definition of competition is
Social Comparison

In Kelley and Stahelski’s study using the prisoner’s dilemma game, they found that
Competitors drew cooperators into competition

Which of the following is NOT a type of competitive orientation measured by the Sport Orientation Questionnaire?
Fear-of-Failure Orientation

Which of the following statements is (are) true?
Varsity athletes are no different from nonathletes in terms of eventual career success outside of competitive sport.

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In the field experiments conducted by Sherif and Sherif, the experimenters first
Created strong group identity

Indicate any principle here that is NOT derived from the psychological studies on competition and cooperation
People are born either competitive or cooperative.

Coakley defines competition as
A social process that occurs when rewards are distributed on the basis of comparative performance

In relation to the subjective competitive situation (stage 2), which of the following is (are) true?
Males score higher than females on win orientation; Females score higher than males on goal orientation; Athletes score higher than nonathletes in competitive orientation.

Team sports of basketball and football are examples of which of the following classification of games?
Cooperative Means–Competitive Ends

Which of the following behaviors would not support a cooperative learning environment?
Extrinsic Rewards Emphasized

According to Coakley, which of the following is (are) characteristic of unstructured youth sport?
Personal involvement in the action is maximized; It provides opportunities to reaffirm friendships; Teams are relatively even.

Which of the following is NOT a stage in Martens’s model of competition?
Social Comparison

In his study of the effects of a 14-week program of cooperative games, Orlick found that
Kids exposed to cooperative games engaged in three times as much cooperative behavior during free play as did kids in the control group and games played by the control group tended to emphasize individualistic concerns

Deutsch’s study on competition and cooperation found that
Communication patterns differed significantly based on whether subjects were given cooperative or competitive instructions; students receiving competitive instructions exhibited closed communication and mistrust; students receiving cooperative instructions communicated openly and shared information

Coakley defines cooperation as
A social process through which performance is rewarded in terms of the collective achievements of the group

Which of the following is (are) characteristic of cooperative games?
They require little equipment or money; They emphasize participation by all players; Players learn from mistakes rather than hide from them.

Cooperative reward structures are more effective in which of the following situations?
During work on tasks that are complex and that involve problem solving

The first experiment investigating the effects of competition on performance was conducted in 1898 by

One athlete looks forward to competition while another dreads the upcoming event. This is an example of
The subjective competitive situation

Which of the following is (are) true?
Competitors cause cooperators to compete.

In Asch’s experiment of line-comparison judgments, _____ of the subjects conformed to the group norm.

One way athletes interpret whether they are being treated fairly is based on
The coach’s manner in communicating her views to the athletes and the degree of compatibility between the coach’s and athlete’s skill assessments of the athlete

Social loafing is increased under which of the following conditions?
A comparison against group standards is not possible

Team climate can be defined as
A representation of how an individual perceives the interrelationships among the team members

The results of a study by Ingham et al. (1974) using rope pulling, in which confederates were thought to be pulling on the rope but in fact were not, indicated that differences between actual and potential performances were due to
a decrease in motivation

In the pendulum example of the Indiana basketball team, which of the following is (are) a stage of group development?
Orientation; differentiation and conflict; resolution and cohesion

According to Christian Buys, there are several negative aspects of group formation. These negative aspects include
Conformity; Social Loafing; Deindividuation

The phenomenon in which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the group increases is known as the
Ringlemann Effect

Which of the following is (are) true?
Pendular models emphasize shifts in interpersonal relationships during growth of groups and Life cycle models emphasize the birth and death of groups.

Which of the following can help reduce the occurrence of social loafing?
increasing identifiability and breaking down the team into smaller units

Research has indicated that social support can have a positive impact on which of the following?
Recovery from injury; Coping with stress; Team cohesion

Role acceptance depends on
autonomy; feedback and role recognition; role significance

If a rookie tried to take charge and exert leadership in critical games despite the fact that there was a veteran leader on the team, this would be considered a violation of
Group Norms

Team building is considered part of which stage of team development?

Which of the following is not a key defining characteristic of a group?
Having individual goals

One effective method for establishing positive group norms is to
Enlist the formal and informal leaders of a team to set positive examples

Which of the following is (are) part of the norming stage?
role acceptance; increase in cooperation and solidarity; conflict resolution

A level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief that is formally or informally established as appropriate by a group is called a

Which of the following can facilitate team transition when an athlete disengages from a team?
clarifying role differentiations and increasing an individual’s awareness of disengagement

Having athletes eat together or live together is an example of which factor that is important in developing an effective team climate?

Formal roles, in contrast to informal roles, are a set of behaviors that are required or expected of persons in a group and
are dictated by the nature and structure of an organization and include such roles as team captain, coach, and athletic trainer

Which of the following is NOT one of the principles underlying the team-building model developed by Carron and colleagues?
Autocratic Leadership Style

Which of the following statements about cohesion is (are) true?
Higher normative expectations are associated with higher levels of cohesion and More sacrifices are made by players when cohesion is high.

Using the Group Environmental Questionnaire, research has revealed that group cohesion is related to which of the following?
reduced absenteeism; increased member satisfaction; attributions for responsibility for performance outcomes

The number of athletes holding scholarships and the eligibility requirements are examples of which antecedent of cohesion?
Environmental Factors

Which of the following statements about building cohesion is (are) true?
Set goals that are easy to accomplish to keep up spirit and Encourage team identity.

From an athlete perspective, to help build team cohesion you should
give teammates positive reinforcement and be responsible for yourself

Michael Jordan spoke about everyone on the team coming together (cohesion) when they “stepped between the lines.” This belief in one another is known as
Collective Efficacy

Which of the following statements is (are) true?
There is a positive relationship between task cohesion and performance.

Task and affiliation motivation are examples of which antecedent of cohesion?
Personal Factors

Which of the following statements best represents the relationship between cohesion and performance?

Which of the following statements is true?
The cohesion-performance relationship is positive for interactive sports.

Which of the following tips can build team cohesion?
Develop pride within subunits and Avoid excessive turnover.

Which of the following is NOT a construct identified in the Group Environment Questionnaire?
Group Attraction-Environmental

According to Carron and Dennis, the most important personal factor regarding the development of social and task cohesion i
Individual Satisfaction

A sociogram is
An illustration of affiliation and attraction among team members

In setting up a team goal-setting program, which of the following guidelines should be followed?
Involve all team members in establishing goals; Set specific and challenging goals; Reward progress toward team goals.

Which of the following was (were) found to be a barrier to cohesion?
Members’ struggling for power

According to the latest definition provided by Carron, Widmeyer, and Brawley, cohesion is seen to be

Which of the following sports requires the highest level of task cohesion?
Basketball and Ice Hockey

Individuals holding stronger beliefs about the cohesiveness of exercise classes are
more likely to attend more classes and more resistant to group disruption

The dimensions of the Multidimensional Sport Cohesion Instrument include
attraction to the group; unity of purpose; quality of teamwork

What are the two major categories of behavior from the Coaching Behavior Assessment System?
Reactive and Spontaneous

Which of the following is (are) FALSE concerning findings from studies of the antecedent conditions that affect leader behavior?
Females prefer an autocratic style more than males do

Which of the following statements is (are) true?
Athletes high on internal locus of control prefer training and instruction coaching behaviors

Smith and Smoll’s studies on coaching behaviors and Little League coaches found that
Coaches can change their behaviors to become more positive

According to Fiedler’s contingency model, a relationship-oriented leader would be most effective under which type of situation?
Moderately Favorable

When coaches obtain the necessary information from relevant players and then come to a decision, what type of decision style are they using?

According to the Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership, performance and satisfaction are a function of the degree of congruence among
3 types of leadership behavior

Regardless of age, athletes preferred coaches who
Gave positive feedback and gave technical instruction

The study using interviews of elite gymnastic coaches (Cote, Salmela, & Russell) showed that expert coaches most often exhibited which of the following behaviors?
Pushed gymnasts by constantly issuing threats and yelling

According to results obtained in studies using the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, successful leaders tend to score
High on both consideration and initiating structure

Which of the following is (are) a guideline put forth based on 25 years of Smith and Smoll’s research?
maintain clear expectations; reinforce effort as much as results; give encouragement and corrective instructional feedback immediately after a mistake

The two major categories of behavior found using the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire are
Consideration and Initiating Structure

The Leadership Scale for Sports identifies which coaching behaviors?
social support; democratic; autocratic

“Great leaders are made, not born.” This statement is an example of which approach to leadership?

In most organized sport teams, leaders and coaches
are appointed

In their classic study of the coaching (leadership) behaviors of legendary basketball coach John Wooden, Tharp and Gallimore found that his most often used coaching behavior was
Verbal instructions on what to do and how to do it

“Great leaders are born, not made.” This statement is an example of which approach to leadership?

Fiedler’s research has identified which two types of leadership styles?
Relationship Oriented and Task Oriented

Which of the following results from Smith and Smoll’s studies on coaching behaviors is (are) true?
Players for coaches who displayed high levels of general technical instruction evaluated their teammates and sport more positively

According to successful professional football coach Bill Parcells, which of the following is NOT a quality of successful leadership?

The definition of leadership usually seen in the literature is
The behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups toward set goals

Supportive listening behaviors
are empathetic and remain open to new ideas

Intrapersonal communication is communication with

Which of the following would you NOT suggest for communicating with empathy?
Make sure the other person understands your point of view

What percentage of the time during communication is spent listening?

When there is a communication breakdown, most people believe that the problem resides with
the other person

Which of the following would you NOT suggest for communicating with consistency?
Show more compassion in competition than in practices

Which of the following general guidelines is (are) helpful to follow when facing confrontations?
understand and be tentative

Which of the following things should you NOT do during a confrontation?
stop communicating; communicate the solution; rely on nonverbal cues to communicate

After taking Sullivan’s communication training, athletes had the following reactions to the workshop:
it helps to know the goals of my teammates and it is scary to open up, but this makes things easier

The “sandwich approach” consists of which of the following elements?
a positive statement and future-oriented instructions

Proxemics is the study of how we communicate
by the way we use space

Supportive language has which of the following characteristics?

Breakdowns in communication can occur because
the receiver fails to listen; the receiver misinterprets the message;the messages are inconsistent

Sullivan devised seven communication exercises to promote more effective communication.
Athletes said they would try to practice the following communication skills
not interrupt others when they are speaking and confront issues right away

Which of the following is NOT a type of communication?
Introspective Communication

Which of the following is NOT an element of communication?
Paraphrasing the message

Which of the following would you suggest for expressing anger in a positive manner?
Try to attack the person’s character to make your point

Nonverbal behaviors that communicate interest and attention include which of the following?
Maintaining eye contact

Which of the following is (are) NOT a principle of communication when setting up team meetings?
What is discussed in the meeting is open to others outside the meeting

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