Essentials of Management Information Systems
Essentials of Management Information Systems
Q1. Identify the principal problem-solving steps for developing new information systems or enhancing existing ones. What different considerations are necessary when designing for public sector stakeholders as opposed to local or state government stakeholders? How do these steps support effective IT design?
The steps in the development of a new information system include planning where the group in charge of the system creation gathers information on the requirements for the project and of the system. In this step, the task of the information technology program is determined including data sources and the output of the computer leading to the solution of an existing problem (Gh. Dodescu, 2005). The second step is the analysis where the feasibility and the availability of resource is analyzed, taking into account the existing system and how the improvement or introduction of a new one will affect the company. The design phase being the next phase involves the actual creation of the system including creation of computer programs and software to enable the system to perform its duty. The fourth phase is the implementation phase that that involves the installation of the system and initialization and continuation of operation of the system through maintenance (Gh. Dodescu, 2005).
Different considerations that differ for the public and government stakeholders are taken when coming up with a new information system for a company. The public sector involves a wide range of people including shareholders, communities and customers hence their diverse requirements and expectation need consideration in the implementation of the new information system to ensure that they are all well addressed. The value of the different categories of stakeholders is also another consideration made in creation of the information system. When it comes to government stakeholders the different responsibilities of the company to the different government agencies is considered, for example government regulatory agencies, legislative bodies and tax collecting agencies. By putting these considerations into effect, the information system implemented eases the process or ability of the company to interact with these bodies and enable smooth and transparent transactions.
Q2. Describe the four phases of the systems development lifecycle and at least one alternative to designing and building an effective IT system. What are some advantages and disadvantages inherent in each of the phases? How do they support overall IT effectiveness?Answer
Information systems undergo a life cycle that involves creation, start up, maturity and decline (Gh. Dodescu, 2005). In the creation phase, there is conceptualization of the idea that involves planning, analyzing and design. A disadvantage of this phase is that it is time consuming without immediate results but the advantage is that it is the platform for the evolution of an effective and relevant information system. After this phase, the start-up phase follows, where the idea is implemented in the company setting to implement problem solution. An advantage experienced is that due to the research conducted in the creation phase, it will address the issues relevant to that company leading to increase in quality in decision-making and services (Sprague and McNurlin, 1986). A disadvantage will be that being original system with no prior implementation in an actual setting before, it is bound to have some errors. Updates and expansions occur with rectifications arising until the system is perfected hence it enters the maturity stage where it is capable of dealing with any problems posed in the company’s running. At this stage, the advantage is that the staff has adapted to the system hence they are capable of running it without errors arising but due to this same reason, a disadvantage may arise, as they fully understand the system so will know its weak points and may use them to defraud the company. After some time the effectiveness of the system begins diminishing as it get obsolete with the passage of time and evolution and advancement of procedures hence it enters the decline phase. At this period, the system requires enhancement or a new system adapted by the company for it to be able to render quality service (Sprague and McNurlin, 1986). An alternative to designing would be purchase of ready-made packaged applications that may take less time in installation and creation hence proving to be time saving.
Q3. Compare and contrast at least two customized and packaged applications. How may these applications be utilized to meet the demands of public sector stakeholders?
Packaged applications may include application software packages that are designed to perform specific tasks for example graphics or accounting. They deal with tasks that do not differ with location hence can be installed in any setting dealing with the stakeholders and perform their task effectively. Outsourcing services being another packaged solution in information technology helps take the burden of system creation from a company allowing them to focus on other issues affecting the stakeholders hence maximizing on the time spared (Magalhaes, 2004). When it comes to customized solutions, there is the rapid application development that involves coming up with a system for the company in the shortest period. It is applicable in system used in environments that change fast and often enabling the company to keep up with the changing stakeholders needs. It may compromise functionality and performance though as it focuses on taking the shortest possible time (Magalhaes, 2004). The other customized solution is the joint application design that involves collection of diverse business requirements while at the same time creating an information system hence the system created is able to cover the requirements of all the involved departments enabling an all-rounded service provision to stakeholders.
Gh. Dodescu, V. A. (2005). Informatics: Operations Systems and Application Software. Bucuresti. Print.
Magalhaes, R. (2004). Organizational knowledge and technology: an action-oriented perspective on organization and information systems. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub. Print.Sprague, R. H. & McNurlin, B. C. (1986). Information systems management in practice. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Print.