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The Survey of Adult Education Paper

Words: 10410, Paragraphs: 86, Pages: 35

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Distance Education

kiransielts. blogspot. com 1 IELTS GRAPHS Cambridge 1 test 1 The charts below show the results of a survey of adult education. The first chart shows the reasons why adults decide to study. The pie chart shows how people think the cost of adult education should be shared. Write a report for a university lecturer, describing the information shown below. How the cost of each course should be shared I am going to describe two graphs. The bar graph shows the reasons why adults choose to study and the pie charts show how the adults think the cost of each course should be shared.

From the bar graph it is clear that the main reasons why adults opted for higher study were because of interest in subject and to gain qualifications. Nearly 40% gave this reason in the survey. Approximately 20% studied further because it was helpful for their present job and to improve their prospects of promotion. The same percentage also studied because they enjoyed studying. Around 12 % chose to study to be able to change jobs and the least 9% studied just to meet new people. From the pie chart we can infer that the individuals themselves wanted to spend only 40% of their fees for higher education.

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They wanted the employer to spend 35% and the taxpayer to spend 25% of their course fees. This ends my report. 9 12 20 20 22 38 40 0 10 20 30 40 To meet people To able to change jobs Enjoy learning / studying To improve prospects of promotion Helpful for current job To gain qualifications Interest in subject % Individual, 40% Taxpayer, 25% Employer, 35% kiransielts. blogspot. com 2 Cambridge 1 test 2 The diagram shows how the Australian Bureau of Meteorology collects up-to-the-minute information on the weather in order to produce reliable forecasts. Write a report for a university lecturer, describing the information shown below.

The given picture graph illustrates the process of latest information on the weather so as to produce dependable forecasts. It is clear from the graph that mainly four steps are involved in the process. The first stage in the process is the collection of the incoming information. This can be done through the satellite, radar and the drifting buoy. The data is collected on the satellite photo, radar screen and the synoptic chart. All this is then analysed for forecasting and fed into the computer. Finally it is broadcast on radio, telecast on TV and communicated as a recorded announcement through the phone.

So, it can be seen that to produce authentic forecasts the data is collected through various sources, analysed and finally broadcast so that we can know beforehand what sort of weather we have to face in the coming time. kiransielts. blogspot. com 3 Cambridge 1 test 3 The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain. The graph shows the trends in consumption of fast foods. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below. Expenditure on fast foods by income groups Consumption of fast foods 1970-1990

Two graphs are given. The column graph depicts the expenditure on fast foods by different income groups in Britain and the line graph shows the trends in consumption of fast foods from 1970 to 1990. The chart shows that high income earners consumed considerably more fast foods than the other income groups. They spent more than twice as much on hamburgers (43 pence per person per week) as on fish and chips or pizza (both under 20 pence). Average income earners spent 33 pence per person per week on hamburgers, which was the maximum they spent on any given fast food.

This was followed by fish and chips at 24 pence, then pizza at 11 pence per person per week. Low income earners spent less than other income groups on fast foods, though fish and chips remains their most popular fast food, followed by hamburgers and then pizza. From the line graph we can see that in 1970, fish and chips were the most popular fast food where as burgers and pizza were the least popular fast food at that time. The consumption of hamburgers and pizza rose steadily over the 20 year period to 1990 while the consumption of fish and chips declined over that same period.

There was a slight increase in popularity from 1985 to 1990. This ends my report. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 High Income Average Income Low Income Pence per person per week Hamburgers Fish and Chips Pizza kiransielts. blogspot. com 4 Cambridge 1 test 4 Chorleywood is a village near London whose population has increased steadily since the middle of the nineteenth century. The map below shows the development of the village. The map shows the development of Chorleywood village in between 1868 and 1994. Chorleywood park and golf coast lies in the centre of layout.

To the south of this is the Chorleywood station. To the south of the Chorleywood Park, the darkly shaded area is developed in between 1922 and 1970. The horizontally shaded area around the station is developed in between 1883 and 1922. It can be seen from the graph that the area north of Chorleywood station and the west of Chorleywood park and the golf course developed in between 1868 and 1883. The north, south and east of the Chorleywood Park, which is the diagonally shaded area, developed in between 1970 and 1994. We can assume from the map that on the west and north of Chorleywood Park and olf course, the dark line represents the main roads which run from north to south and west to east. On the east of Chorleywood Park and the golf course runs the motor way, which was built in 1970. The railway line south of Chorleywood Park and the golf course was built in 1909. It can be seen there has been development around Chorleywood station and along the motorway which runs from south to north. We can arrive at inference that there has been a considerable development in the village Chorleywood during the period of 1970 to 1994. kiransielts. blogspot. com 5 Cambridge 2 test 1

The table below shows the consumer durables (telephone, refrigerator, etc) owned in Britain from 1972 to 1983. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information given below Consumer durables 1972 1974 1976 1978 1979 1981 1982 1983 Percentages of households with Central heating 38 43 48 52 55 59 60 64 Television 93 95 96 96 97 97 97 98 Video 18 Vacuum cleaner 87 89 92 92 93 94 95 Refrigerator 73 81 88 91 92 93 93 94 Washing machine 66 68 71 75 74 78 79 80 Dishwasher 3 3 4 4 5 Telephone 42 50 54 60 67 75 76 77

The given table illustrates the percentage of British households who owned a range of consumer durables between 1972 and 1983. It is clear from the graph that this percentage increased over the years. The greatest increase was in telephone ownership, rising from 42% in 1972 to 77% in 1983. Next was the central heating ownership, rising from 37% of households in 1972 to 64% in 1983. The percentage of households with a refrigerator rose by 21% over the same period and of those with a washing machine by 14%. Households with vacuum-cleaners, televisions and dishwashers increased by 8%, 5% and 2% respectively.

In 1983, the year of their introduction, 18% of households had a video recorder. Over the period the proportion of British houses with central heating doubled and of those with a phone increased from under a half to over three-quarters. There were also big increases in the ownership of washing machines and refrigerators, which suggests rising living standards of the British people over the period. kiransielts. blogspot. com 6 Cambridge 2 Test 2 The chart below shows the amount of leisure time enjoyed by men and women of different employment status.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. Leisure time in a typical week : by sex and employment status, 1989-99 The given column graph illustrates the hours of leisure time enjoyed by men and women in a typical week in 1998-99, according to gender and employment status. Among those employed full-time, men on average had a little less than fifty hours of leisure, whereas women had approximately thirty-eight hours. There were no figures given for male part-time workers, but female part-timers had forty hours of leisure time.

This number was slightly more than women in full-time employment. In the unemployed and retired categories, leisure time showed an increase for both sexes. Here too, men enjoyed more leisure time – approximately eighty hours, compared with seventy two hours for women. Housewives enjoyed approximately fifty-two hours of leisure, on average. There were no figures given for men (househusbands). Overall, the chart demonstrates that in the categories for which statistics on male leisure time were available, men enjoyed at least ten hours of extra leisure time. 47 0 81 80 0 38 40 72 72 52 0. 00 0. 00 40. 00 60. 00 80. 00 100. 00 Hours of leisure time Males Females kiransielts. blogspot. com 7 Cambridge 2 test 3 The first chart below shows the results of a survey which sampled a cross-section of 100,000 people asking if they travelled abroad and why they travelled for the period 1994-98. The second chart shows their destinations over the same period. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. VISITS ABROAD BY UK RESIDENTS BY PURPOSE OF VISIT (1994-98) 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Holiday 15,246 14,898 17,896 19,703 20,700 Business ,155 3,188 3,249 3,639 3,957 Visits to friends and relatives 2,689 2,628 2,774 3,051 3,181 Other reasons 982 896 1,030 1,054 990 TOTAL 22,072 21,610 24,949 27,447 28,828 DESTINATIONS OF VISITS ABROAD BY UK RESIDENTS BY MAIN REGION (1994-98) Western Europe North America Other areas TOTAL 1994 19,371 919 1,782 22,072 1995 18,944 914 1,752 21,610 1996 21,877 1,167 1,905 24,949 1997 23,661 1,559 2,227 27,447 1998 24,519 1,823 2,486 28,828 The given tables illustrate the reasons why U. K. residents visited abroad and the countries they visited between 1994 and 1998.

The data is based on a survey conducted on 100,000 people. According to statistical Information, the main reason for traveling abroad was holidays, business, and visits to friends and relatives. Indeed, there was a steady increase in the number of holiday makers. While in 1996 there were about 17,896 who travelled abroad, in 1998 there were 20,700 of them. Travelling for business also increased from 3155 travellers in 1994 to 3957 travellers in 1994. Traveling abroad for visiting friends and relatives showed a steady Increase over the period.

While there were about 2,628 travellers in 1995, the number increased to 3,181 in 1998. The number of people who travelled for other reasons not mentioned in the graph showed fluctuations. There was also a change in the destinations which people preferred for travelling. Western Europe was the most popular destination. In 1994, only 19,371 of the sample preferred to spend their holiday in that main region. There was an increase to 24,519 in 1998. North America and other areas also appeared favourable. In 1996, there were 1,167 going to North America and 1,905 to other areas.

These numbers increased to 1,823 and 2,486 respectively. This ends my report. kiransielts. blogspot. com 8 Cambridge 2 test 4 The table below shows the figures for imprisonment in five countries between 1930 and 1980. Write a report for a university, lecturer describing the information shown below. The given column graph illustrates the figures for imprisonment in Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, United States and Canada from 1930 to 1980. It is clear from the graph that there is considerable fluctuation in the figures for imprisonment from country to country.

In Great Britain the numbers in prison have increased steadily from 30 000 in 1930 to 80,000 in 1980. On the other hand, in Australia, and particularly in New Zealand the numbers fell markedly from 1930 to 1940. Since then they increased gradually and reached 50,000 and approximately 85,000 for Australia and New Zealand respectively. Canada is the only country in which the numbers in prison decreased over the fifty year period, although there were fluctuations in this trend. The figures for the United States indicate the greatest number of prisoners compared to the other four countries.

The prison population in the United States increased very rapidly from 1970 to 1980. This ends my report. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 in thousands Great Britain Australia New Zealand United States Canada kiransielts. blogspot. com 9 Cambridge 3 task 1 ( Same in Official materials ) The charts below show the number of Japanese tourists travelling abroad between 1985 and 1995 and Australia’s share of the Japanese tourist market. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. In this report I am going to describe a column graph and a line graph.

The column graph shows the number, in millions, of Japanese tourists visiting other countries from 1985 to 1995 and the line graph shows the percentage of those Japanese tourists visiting Australia over the same period. The column graph clearly shows an upward trend in the number of Japanese tourists. This number was approximately 5 million in the year 1985 and reached 15 million by the year 1995. This number trebled over the decade. There were, however, minor fluctuations over the period. It is clear from the line graph that Australia got 2% share of Japan’s tourist market. This umber also grew three times and by 1995, reached 6% with some minor ups and downs in between. It can be concluded that Australia’s share of Japan’s tourist market grew comparably over the period. kiransielts. blogspot. com 10 Cambridge 3 Test 2 The chart below shows the amount spent on six consumer goods in four European countries. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. The given bar graph shows the amount of money the Germans, Italians, French and the British spend on consumer goods such as personal stereos, tennis racquets, perfumes, CDs, toys and photographic films.

It is clear from the graph that Britain spends most heavily on the range of consumer goods included. In every case, British spend more than other countries. However, in the case of tennis racquets another country, Italy, spends almost the same. In contrast, Germany is generally the lowest spender. This is most evident in photographic film, where Germany spends much less than Britain. However, in tennis racquets and perfumes, Germany spends more than France. Meanwhile, France and Italy generally maintain middle positions. France spends more on CDs and photographic film but less on tennis racquets than Italy does.

Italy’s spending on personal stereos is only marginally greater than that of France, while spending on toys is equal between the two. It is clear from the data given that there are some significant differences in spending habits within Europe. 100 120 140 160 180 Photographic film Toys CDs Perfume Tennis racquets Personal stereos Thousand pounds sterling Germany Italy France Britain kiransielts. blogspot. com 11 Cambridge 3 test 3 The charts below show the levels of participation in education and science in developing and industrialised countries in 1980 and 1990.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. Average years of schooling Scientists and technicians per thousand people Spending on research and development The three column graphs illustrate the average years of schooling, numbers of scientists and technicians, and the spending on research and development in developing and developed countries. Figures are given for 1980 and 1990. It is clear from the charts that the figures for developed countries are much higher than those for developing nations. Also, the charts show an overall increase in participation in education and science from 1980 to 1990.

People in developing nations attended school for an average of around 3 years, with only a slight increase in years of schooling from 1980 to 1990. On the other hand, the figure for industrialised countries rose from nearly 9 years of schooling in 1980 to nearly 11 years in 1990. From 1980 to 1990, the number of scientists and technicians in industrialised countries almost doubled from a little over 40 to about 70 per 1000 people. Spending on research and development also saw rapid growth in these countries, reaching $350 billion in 1990. By contrast, the number of science workers in eveloping countries remained below 20 per 1000 people, and research spending fell from about $50 billion to only $25 billion. This ends my report. 0 2 4 6 8 10 1980 1990 Years of schooling Developing countries Industrialised countries 0 20 40 60 80 1980 1990 Per thousand people Developing countries Industrialised countries 0 100 200 300 400 1980 1990 US $ billions Developing countries Industrialised countries kiransielts. blogspot. com 12 Cambridge 3 Test 4 The graph below shows the unemployment rates in the US and Japan between March 1993 and March 1999.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below The given line graph compares the unemployment rates between U. S. and Japan from March 93 to March 99. It can be seen from the graph that the unemployment rates in Japan increased over the period whereas that of America decreased over the period. In March, 1993, United States had seven percent of unemployed workforce which was three times more than that of Japan, where 2. 5% were unemployed. However, the unemployment rate in United States began declining slowly since March 1993, and reached 5% mark in the middle of 1996.

Japan’s unemployment rate, however, doubled in three years. From then on, the percentage of unemployed workforce in United States remained roughly the same at about 5% until March 99, although there were minor fluctuations in the unemployment rate. As for Japan, the percentage of unemployed grew steadily but with fluctuations to reach 5. 0% in March 1999. The major conclusion that can be drawn using the graph, is that number of unemployed in USA decreased by about 2. 0% in the course of six years, while in Japan it actually increased by 2. 5% percent. As a result, in March 99, both Japan and U. S. ad about 5% of their work force unemployed. This ends my report. kiransielts. blogspot. com 13 Cambridge 4 AC Task 1 The graph below shows the demand for electricity in England during typical days in winter and summer. The pie chart shows how electricity is used in an average English home. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. The given line graph illustrates the daily demand for electricity in England during typical days in winter and summer while the pie chart outlines how electricity is taken into use in an average English household.

From the graph, it is evident that the daily demand for electricity is generally more in winter than in summer. The consumption of electricity fluctuates at an average level of 40,000 units in winter. The least demand for electricity is at about 7 am and after that, it increases steadily and peaks at nearly 10 pm after which it again falls at midnight. As for summer, the demand for electricity is just under 20,000 units throughout the day. It gets to its peak at 2 pm 10 pm and bottoms at 9 am. The pie chart illustrates that 52. % of electricity is used for heating rooms and water. Around 17. 5% of electricity is provided for ovens, kettles, washing machines. 15% each is used for lighting, TV, radio and for vacuum cleaners, food mixers and electric tools. This ends my report. kiransielts. blogspot. com 14 Cambridge 4 AC task 2 The table below shows the proportion of different categories of families living in poverty in Australia in 1999. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

Family type Proportion of people from each household type living in poverty single aged person 6% (54,000) aged couple 4% (48,000) single, no children 19% (359,000) couple, no children 7% (211,000) sole parent 21% (232,000) couple with children 12% (933,000) all households 11% (1,837,000) The given table illustrates the breakdown of the different type of families who were living in poverty in Australia in 1999. On average, 11% of all households, comprising almost two million people, were in this position.

However, those consisting of only one parent or a single adult had almost double this proportion of poor people, with 21% and 19% respectively. Couples without children generally tended to be better off with only 7% in poverty whereas those with children were 12% . It is noticeable that for both types of household with children, a higher than average proportion were living in poverty at this time. Older people were generally less likely to be poor, though once again the trend favoured elderly couples (only 4%) rather than single elderly people (6%).

Overall the table suggests that households of single adults and those with children were more likely to be living in poverty than those consisting of couples. kiransielts. blogspot. com 15 Cambridge 4 AC task 3 The chart below shows the different levels of post-school qualifications in Australia and the proportion of men and women who held them in 1999. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Post-school qualifications in Australia according to gender 1999 The given bar graph gives information about the percentage of men and women ho held different levels of post-school qualifications in Australia in 1999. It is clear that gender differences were more pronounced in some fields than others. We can see immediately that there were substantial differences in the proportion of men and women at different levels. The biggest difference was at the lowest post-school level, where 90% men held a skilled vocational diploma compared with only 10% women. By contrast, more women held undergraduate diplomas (70%) and marginally more women reached degree level (55%).

At the higher levels of education, men with postgraduate diplomas clearly outnumbered their female counterparts (70% and 30%, respectively), and also constituted 60% of Master’s graduates. Thus we can see that more men than women hold qualifications at the lower and higher levels of education, while more women reach undergraduate diploma level than men. The gender difference is smallest at the level of Bachelor’s degree, however. This ends my report. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Masters degree Postgraduate diploma Bachelor’s degree Undergraduate diploma Skilled vocational diploma % Females Males iransielts. blogspot. com 16 Cambridge 4 test 4 The charts below give information about travel to and from the UK, and about the most popular countries for UK residents to visit. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Visits to and from the UK Most popular countries visited by UK residents 1999 Two graphs are given. The line graph shows data on the number of visits abroad by British people and visits from overseas residents to the UK, while the bar chart provides the figures of the popular countries chosen by UK residents to travel to.

It is clear from the graph that the visits made by UK residents are more than the visits made to the UK by overseas residents. The trend for overseas visitors climbed steadily over the period of 20 years, from 10 million visits in 1979 to over 25 million in 1999. On the other hand, the visits made by the British had a significant increase of 41 million trips in the same period, from 11 million to 52 million. In 1999, over 12 million UK residents visited France, which was the most popular country of all, while a lesser number (9 million) of travellers went to Spain.

Visitors from other countries such as the USA, Greece, and Turkey had approximately 9 million visitors altogether. 0 5 10 15 Franc e Spain USA Greec e Turke y Millions of UK visitors kiransielts. blogspot. com 17 Cambridge 5 Test 1 The map below is of the town of Garlsdon. A new supermarket (S) is planned for the town. The map shows two possible sites for the supermarket. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. The given picture graph shows two potential sites for a supermarket that is planned there.

Both sites have their pros and cons. The first potential location (S1) is outside the town itself, and is sited just off the main road to the town of Hindon which is 12 kms to the north-west. This site is in the countryside and so would be able to accommodate a lot of car parking. This would make it accessible to shoppers from both Hindon and Garlsdon who could travel by car. As it is also close to the railway line linking the two towns to Cransdon (25 km to the south-east), a potentially large number of shoppers would also be able to travel by train.

In contrast, the suggested location, S2, is right in the town centre, which would be good for local residents. Theoretically the store could be accessed by road or rail from the surrounding towns, including Bransdon, but as the central area is a no-traffic zone, cars would be unable to park and access would be difficult. Overall, neither site is appropriate for all the towns, but for customers in Cransdon, Hindon and Garlsdon, the out-of town site (S1) would probably offer more advantages. This ends my report. kiransielts. blogspot. com 18 Cambridge 5 test 2

The table below gives information about the underground railway systems in six cities. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Underground Railway systems City Date opened Kilometres of route Passengers per year (in millions) London 1863 394 775 Paris 1900 199 1191 Tokyo 1927 155 1927 Washington DC 1976 126 144 Kyoto 1981 11 45 Los Angeles 2001 28 50 The given table illustrates data about the underground railway systems in six cities which are London, Paris, Tokyo, Washington DC, Kyoto and Los Angeles.

London has the oldest underground railway systems among the six cities. It was opened in the year 1863, and it is already 147 years old. Paris is the second oldest, which was opened in the year 1900. This was then followed by the opening of the railway systems in Tokyo, Washington DC and Kyoto. Los Angeles has the newest underground railway system, and was only opened in the year 2001. In terms of the size, London has the largest underground railway systems. It has 394 kilometres of route in total, which is nearly twice as large as the system in Paris. Kyoto, in contrast, has the smallest system.

It only has 11 kilometres of route, which is more than 30 times less than that of London. Interestingly, Tokyo, which only has 155 kilometres of route, serves the greatest number of passengers per year, at 1927 million passengers. The system in Paris has the second greatest number of passengers, at 1191 million passengers per year. The smallest underground railway system, Kyoto, serves the smallest number of passengers per year. Overall it can be seen that, the underground railway systems in different cities vary a lot in the site of the system, the number of passengers served per year and in the age of the system. iransielts. blogspot. com 19 Cambridge 5 test 3 The graph below shows the proportion of population aged 65 and over between 1940 1nd 2040 in three different countries. Summarise the information …….. The given line graph illustrates the proportion of 65+ year olds in Japan, Sweden and U. S. A. from 1940 to the present time with a prediction till 2040. Overall, it can be seen from the graph that in all three countries, the percentage of elderly people is expected to increase by the year 2040. In 1940, the proportion of people aged 65 or more stood at only 5% in Japan, approximately 7% in Sweden and 9% in the U.

S. However, while the figures for U. S. A. and Sweden grew to about 15% in 1990, the figure for Japan dipped to only 2. 5% for much of this period before rising to almost 5% again at the present time. It is expected that, the proportion of the elderly will continue to increase in the next two decades in the three countries. A most dramatic increase is predicted between 2030 and 2040 in Japan, by which time it is projected that the proportion of the elderly will be similar to all the three countries. This ends my report. kiransielts. blogspot. com 20 Cambridge 5 test 4

The charts below show the main reasons for study among students of different age groups and the amount of support they received from their employers. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant. Two column graphs are given. The first column graph shows the proportion of people of different age groups who studied for career or for interest. The second graph shows the amount of support they got from their employers in terms of time off or fees. From the first graph it is clear that there is a gradual decrease in study for career reasons with age.

Nearly 80% of students under 26 years, study for their career. This percentage gradually declines by 10-20% every decade. Only 40% of 40-49yr olds and 18% of over 49yr olds study for career reasons. In contrast, the study because of interest increases with age. There are only 10% of under 26yr olds studying out of interest. The percentage increases slowly till the beginning of the fourth decade, and increases dramatically in late adulthood. Nearly same number of 40-49yr olds study for career and interest. However 70% of over 49yr olds study for interest in comparison to 18% studying for career reasons in that age group.

The second graph shows that employer support is maximum (approximately 60%) for the under 26yr students. It drops rapidly to 32% up to the third decade of life, and then increases in late adulthood up to about 44%. It is unclear whether employer support is only for career-focused study, but the highest level is for those students who mainly study for career purposes. This ends my report. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 under 26 26-29 30-39 40-49 over 49 % Age Reasons for study according to age of student For career For interest 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 under 26 26-29 30-39 40-49 over 49 % Age

Employer support, by age group (Time off and help with fees) kiransielts. blogspot. com 21 Cambridge 6 Test 1 The graph and table below give information about water use worldwide and water consumption in two different countries. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Water consumption in Brazil and Congo in 2000 Country Population Irrigated land Water consumption per person Brazil 176 million 26,500 km 2 359 m 3 Democratic Republic of Congo 5. 2 million 100 km 2 8 m 3 A line graph and a table are given.

The line graph shows the water used worldwide in industries, agriculture and in households from 1900 to 2000. The table shows the water consumption in Brazil and Congo in 2000. It is clear from the line graph that throughout the century, the largest quantity of water was used for agricultural Purposes, and this increased dramatically from about 500 km? to around 3,000 km? in the year 2000. Water used in the industrial and domestic sectors also increased, but consumption was minimal until mid-century. From 1950 onwards, industrial use grew steadily to just over 1,000 km? , while domestic use rose more slowly to only 300 km? both far below the levels of consumption by agriculture. The table illustrates the differences in agriculture consumption in Brazil and the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2000. The amount of irrigated land in Brazil was 26,500 km? whereas that in the D. R. C. was only 100 km?. This means that a huge amount of water was used in agriculture in Brazil, and this is reflected in the figures for water consumption per person: 359 m? compared with only 8 m? in the Congo. With a population of 176 million, the figures for Brazil indicate how high agriculture water consumption can be in some countries.

This ends my report. kiransielts. blogspot. com 22 Cambridge 6 test 2 The table below gives information about changes in modes of travel in England between 1985 and 2000. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Average distance in miles travelled per person per year by mode of travel 1985 2000 Walking 255 237 Bicycle 51 41 Car 3,199 4,806 Local bus 429 274 Long distance bus 54 124 Train 289 366 Taxi 13 42 Other 450 585 All modes 4,740 6,475

The given table demonstrates the different modes of travel in England in 15 years from 1985 to 2000. In general, some modes gained popularity while the others became less popular. The travel modes which gained popularity in the period included cars, long distance buses, trains, taxis and others. Cars remained top among the modes in the 15 years, with their average miles increasing considerably from 3,199 in 1985 to 4,806 in 2000. The average miles covered by distance buses and taxis trebled over the period. Travelling on foot, by bicycles and by local buses lost popularity in the one and a half decade.

Average travelling distance by local buses suffered the biggest decrease, dropping from 429 to 274, whilst the number of miles covered on foot and bikes fell mildly from 255 to 237 and from 51 to 41 respectively. Despite the decreases, however, the total miles travelled grew from 4,740 to 6,475. Overall, the total travelling distance in the country grew in 15 years. Cars, long distance buses, trains, taxis and other modes of travel were more popular and walking, bicycling and local transportation less popular. kiransielts. blogspot. com 23 Cambridge 6 test 3

The diagrams below show the life cycle of the silkworm and the stages in the production of silk cloth. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Two processes are given. The cyclical process shows the lifecycle of the silkworm. The linear process shows the production of silk cloth. It can be seen from the first diagram that there are four main stages in the life of the silkworm. First of all, eggs are produced by the moth and it takes ten days for each egg to become a silkworm larva that feeds on mulberry leaves.

This stage lasts for up to six weeks until the larva produces a cocoon of silk thread around itself. After a period of about three weeks, the adult moths eventually emerge from these cocoons and the life cycle begins again. The cocoons are used for the production of silk cloth. First of all, they are boiled in water and the threads can be separated by unwinding them. Each thread is between 300 and 900 metres long. The threads are then twisted together, dyed and finally used to produce cloth in the weaving stage.

Overall, the diagrams show that the cocoon stage of the silkworm can be used to produce silk cloth through a very simple process. kiransielts. blogspot. com 24 CAMBRIDGE 6 TEST 4 The charts below give information about USA marriage and divorce rates between 1970 and 2000, and the marital status of adult Americans in two of the years. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Number of marriages and divorces in the U. S. A. 1970-2000 Marital status of adult Americans, 1970 and 2000

The two bar charts compare the number of married and divorced people in USA over a span of 30 years from 1970 to 2000 and the overall marital status of US adults in 1970 and 2000. As can be seen from the first chart, over the period of 30 years, the number of marriages experienced a steady fall while the number of divorces fluctuated. To begin with, in 1970 and 1980, the number of marriages in USA stood at 2. 5 million. However, divorces were 1 million in 1970 and increased to 1. 4 million in 1980. There was a steady fall in the numbers of marriages after 1980 and the number reached 2 million by 2000. Divorces decreased slightly from 1. million in 1990 to 1 million in 2000. The year 1980 witnessed the greatest number of divorces and meanwhile, the number of divorces in 2000 drew even with that in 1970. As we look at the other chart, we see that the percentages of those who were never married increased from 14% to 20% and those who chose to end their marriages by divorce increased from 1% to 9% by 2000. In terms of the other two categories, namely, married and widowed, the figures for 1970 were higher than those for 2000. The percentage of married decreased from 70% to 60% and those widowed decreased from 6% to 5% over the years. This ends my report. 0. 5 1 1. 5 2 2. 5 3 1970 1980 1990 2000 millions Marriages Divorces 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Never married MarriedWidowedDivorced Percentage of adults 1970 2000 kiransielts. blogspot. com 25 Cambridge 7 test 1 The table below gives information on consumer spending on different items in five different countries in 2002. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Percentage of national consumer expenditure by category – 2002 Country Food/Drinks/tobacco Clothing/Footwear Leisure/Education Ireland 28. 91% 6. 43% 2. 21% Italy 16. 6% 9. 00% 3. 20% Spain 18. 80% 6. 51% 1. 98% Sweden 15. 77% 5. 40% 3. 22% Turkey 32. 14% 6. 63% 4. 35% The given table illustrates the amount of money spent by the Irish, Italians, Spanish, Swedes and Turks on different items in 2002. Overall, it can be seen that people of all countries spent the maximum on food/drinks and tobacco and the minimum on leisure and education. The people of Turkey spent approximately a third of their income (32. 14%) on food, drink and tobacco which was closely followed by the people of Ireland at 28. 91%. The Italians, Spanish and Swedes spent 15-20 % on these items.

The Italians outstripped all others in spending on clothing and footwear. They spent 9% on these items whereas all others spent between 5% and 7% on these items. All the countries spent the least amount on leisure and education (less than 5%). However the Spanish spent below 2% on these which was the lowest among all. It can be said that in 2002, the consumer expenditure on various items had some similarities and some differences. kiransielts. blogspot. com 26 Cambridge 7 test 2 The graph below shows the consumption of fish and some different kinds of meat in a European country between 1979 and 2004.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. The given line graph illustrates the changes in the amounts of beef, lamb, chicken and fish consumed in a particular European country between 1979 and 2004. In 1979 beef was by far the most popular of these foods, with about 225 grams consumed per person per week. Lamb and chicken were eaten in similar quantities (around 150 grams), while much less fish was consumed (just over 50 grams). However, during this 25-year period the consumption of beef and lamb fell dramatically to approximately 100 grams and 55 grams respectively.

The consumption of fish also declined, but much less significantly to just below 50 grams. Therefore, although it remained the least popular food, consumption levels were the most stable. The consumption of chicken, on the other hand, showed an upward trend, overtaking that of lamb in 1980 and that of beef in 1989. By 2004 it had soared to almost 250 grams per person per week. Overall, the graph shows how the consumption of chicken increased dramatically while the popularity of these other foods decreased over the period. kiransielts. blogspot. com 27 Cambridge 7 test 3

The chart below shows information about changes in average house prices in five different cities between 1990 and 2002 compared with the average house prices in 1989. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Percentage change in average house prices in five cities 1990-2002 compared with 1989 The given column graph illustrates the changes in average house prices in five different cities located in five different countries from 1990 to 2002 as compared to the prices in 1989. There were considerable variations in the average house prices over the period.

During the period from 1990 to 1995, the average house prices fell significantly by 5% in New York(U. S. A. ), 7. 5% each in Tokyo(Japan) and London(U. K. ) whereas the average house prices increased slightly by 2% and 2. 5% in Madrid (Spain) and Frankfurt(Germany) respectively. In the next seven year period, the average house prices fell only in Tokyo by 5% whereas the prices increased in all other four cities. The increase was most pronounced in London, where it was 12%. In all other cities it was below 5%, the least (2%) being in Frankfurt.

It is clear that the average house prices picked up most in the latter seven years of this 12 year period. kiransielts. blogspot. com 28 Cambridge 7 test 4 The pie charts below show units of electricity production by fuel source in Australia and France in 1980 and 2000. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. The given pie charts compare the sources of electricity in Australia and France in the years 1980 and 2000. Between these years electricity production almost doubled, rising from 100 units to 170 in Australia, and from 90 to 180 units in France.

In 1980 in Australia, a total of 100 units of electricity were produced out of which half the amount of electricity was produced from coal and the rest was produced from natural gas, hydro power (each producing 20 units) and oil (which produced only 10 units). By 2000, coal was used to produce more than 75% of electricity and only hydro continued to be another significant source supplying approximately 20%. A negligible amount (2 units each) was produced from oil and natural gas. In contrast, France used coal as a source for only 25 units of electricity in 1980, which was matched by natural gas.

The remaining 40 units were produced largely from oil and nuclear power, with hydro contributing only 5 units. But by 2000, nuclear power, which was not used at all in Australia, had developed into the main source, producing almost 75% of electricity, at 126 units, while coal and oil together produced only 50 units. Other sources were no longer significant. Overall, it is clear that by 2000 these two countries relied on different principal fuel sources: Australia relied on coal and France on nuclear power. kiransielts. blogspot. com 29 GRAPHS FROM IELTS BOOKS Step up to IELTS

The pictures below show how someone can be tracked using an electronic tracking device. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown. The diagram illustrates how an electronic tracking device can be fitted to someone’s clothing or hidden in a bag, in order to allow that person to be tracked and located. There are three basic stages to the process. The first stage in the tracking process is to hide the device (the tracker) in an appropriate place such as a bag or the person’s clothing. The location of the device is monitored by satellite. A message is transmitted from the device to a transmission tower.

It is received and then re-transmitted as a text message to a mobile phone indicating exactly where the person is. His or her location can also be picked up on a computer / internet website. The device is able to provide details such as the name of the street or pinpoint a specific place on a map/screen. A device of this nature could be very effective as a means of tracking and locating someone such as a school child. kiransielts. blogspot. com 30 Step up to IELTS The diagram below contains information about distribution of water usage in Australia and the average household water usage in Australia.

Write a report for a university lecturer……….. A. Distribution of water usage in Australia B. Average household water usage in Australia The given column graph and pie chart relate to different aspects of water consumption in Australia. The column graph provides an overview of how water is used generally, whereas the pie chart gives a breakdown of household water usage. From the column graph we can see that a slightly higher percentage of water goes on irrigation than on urban usage, 45 per cent in fact, while the proportion of water used in industry is approximately 10 per cent, is far smaller than in either of these other areas.

From the chart we can see that by far the largest proportion of domestic water, well over 50% in fact, goes into gardens and swimming pools. Drinking and cooking account for a smaller volume of water consumption than personal hygiene and clothes washing, which together make up about 25%. A very small percentage of water is used for other purposes which are not identified in the chart. When read together, the two charts provide a useful overview of water use in Australia. 0 10 20 30 40 50 Urban usage Irrigation Industry Other Purposes for which water is used ( is shown as percentage of total) Gardens / wimming pools personal hygeine washing clothes drinking / cooking Other Gardens / swimming pools personal hygeine washing clothes drinking / cooking Other kiransielts. blogspot. com 31 Step up to IELTS The diagrams below contain information about land and light penetration under the ocean. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. The two diagrams illustrate the shape and formation of the land under the sea. The first profile provides a cross section of the coast of a continent beneath the surface of the sea, and illustrates that the continental shelf oes to a depth of approximately 200 metres below sea level. The land then drops abruptly to the bottom of the ocean, which is known as the sea floor. The second diagram focuses on the depth of the ocean and the amount of light that penetrates to the bottom. Sea level is shown as 0 m and the first 200 m below the surface is referred to as the sunlight zone. This is where the continental shelf ends. Below this is the twilight zone, which descends for 800 m. The water temperature shown is approximately 5°C in this zone. The area between 1000 m and 4000 m is known as the dark zone, with a water temperature of I-2°C.

Almost no light can penetrate this far down. Profile across the sea coast of a continent (not to scale) Depth zones of the ocean kiransielts. blogspot. com 32 Step up to IELTS The chart and graph below give information about sales and share prices for Coca-Cola. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. Two graphs are given. The pie chart shows the worldwide distribution of sales of Coca-Cola in the year 2000 and the line graph shows the change in share prices between 1996 and 2001. In the year 2000, Coca-Cola sold a total of 17. 1 billion cases of their fizzy drink product worldwide.

The largest consumer was North America, where 30. 4 per cent of the total volume was purchased. The second largest consumer was Latin America. Europe and Asia purchased 20. 5 and 16. 4 per cent of the total volume respectively, while Africa and the Middle East remained fairly small consumers at 7 per cent of the total volume of sales. Form the line graph it is clear that since 1996, share prices for Coca-Cola have fluctuated. In that year, shares were valued at approximately $35. Between 1996 and 1997, however, prices rose significantly to $70 per share. They dipped a little in mid-1997 and then peaked at $80 per share in mid-98.

From then until 2000 their value fell consistently but there was a slight rise in mid-2000. This ends my report. North America , 30. 4 Latin America, 25. 7 Europe, 20. 5 Asia, 16. 4 Africa and Middle East, 7 A lot of bottles -Coca-Cola’s unit case volume by region, 2000, % of total ( Total -17. 1 bn) kiransielts. blogspot. com 33 Step up to IELTS The chart below gives information about global sales of games software, CDs and DVD or video. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information. ? You should write at least 150 words. ? You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The given column graph shows the sales of video material / DVDs, games software and CDs around the world in billions of dollars from 2000 to 2003. It can be seen that the sales of videos / DVDs and games software increasedconsiderably, while the sales of CDs went down slightly over the three year period. Between 2000 and 2003, the sale of videos and DVDs rose by approximately 13 billion dollars. In 2000, just under 20 billion dollars worth of these items were sold, but in 2003, this figure had risen to a little over 30 billion dollars. The sales of games software also rose during this period, but less sharply.

Sales increased from about 13 billion dollars in 2000 to just under 20 billion dollars three years later. By contrast, during the same time period, the sale of CDs fell from 35 billion dollars in 2000 to about 32. 5 billion dollars in 2003. kiransielts. blogspot. com 34 Step up to IELTS The tables below show average yearly temperatures and rainfall for two cities in Australia. Describe the charts and make comparisons where relevant. Average yearly temperatures and rainfall for Brisbane and Melbourne in Australia Brisbane climate Jan. Apr. July Oct. Max° C 29 27 21 26 Min° C 21 17 11 16

Rainfall mm 169 86 66 102 Rainy days 14 11 7 10 Melbourne climate Jan. Apr. July Oct. Max° C 26 20 13 20 Min° C 14 11 4 9 Rainfall mm 48 57 49 67 Rainy days 8 12 15 14 The given tables compare the average annual temperatures and rainfall for two cities Brisbane and Melbourne in Australia. It can be seen from the tables that there are some similarities and some differences in the climates. Brisbane and Melbourne have similar climates. However, we can see from the information provided that Brisbane is warmer than Melbourne although the differences in temperature are not huge.

One interesting point is that the temperature in Brisbane never falls below 11° C, even in winter in July. Melbourne on the other hand experiences colder winters with average minimum temperatures as low as 4°. Both Melbourne and Brisbane have good annual rainfall. Brisbane, however, receives almost twice as much rain as Melbourne, while it has fewer wetter days. The wettest months in both cities are January and October, although neither city has a totally dry season, according to the data. So we can see that the climates of both cities have some similarities and some variations. iransielts. blogspot. com 35 Step up to IELTS The graph below shows the world oil production since 1980 with a forecast till 2020. Write a report ……. The graph gives the past, present and future data concerning the production of the world’s oil in OPEC and non-OPEC countries. The figures show that while the production of oil in Middle Eastern OPEC countries is predicted to increase considerably, oil production elsewhere is likely to fall. Between 1980 and 2000, most of the world’s oil came from non-OPEC countries; only two million barrels were produced by OPEC countries.

Since then these figures have changed considerably. Between 2000 and 2010, it is shown that approximately 10 million has come from Middle Eastern OPEC countries, while a further 10 million barrels has been provided by other OPEC or non-OPEC countries. It is predicted that oil production is likely to stabilise between 2010 and 2020. However, a lot more of this oil is expected to come from the Middle Eastern OPEC countries, and under 5 million barrels per day from other areas. 0 5 10 15 20 1980-2000 2000-2010 2010-2020 Forecast in the world oil production -million barrels / day

Non OPEC Other OPEC OPEC Middle east kiransielts. blogspot. com 36 Prepare for IELTS – AC The following diagram shows nitrogen sources and concentration levels in the groundwater of a coastal city. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features. This diagram shows the sources and concentration levels of nitrogen in the groundwater of a coastal city. It can be seen from the diagram that nitrogen is oxidised by lightning or fixed by vegetation. Domestic wastes and fertilizers used in gardens also add to the nitrogen in the water table.

Industries add nitrogen through leaks from storage tanks and wastewater ponds, and the disposal of waste in landfills may lead to more nitrogen entering the water table. The heaviest concentration of nitrogen comes from industry, from household liquid waste, and from landfill. The groundwater flows toward the sea and discharges into the ocean in the groundwater discharge zone. From the water table, some nitrogen is taken up by soil particles. Nitrogen is also added back to the soil by de-nitrification and degassing of ammonia.

Therefore the concentration tends to decrease near the saltwater interface and between the areas of high concentration of nitrogen which descend from industry and waste disposal. In this way the nitrogen cycle goes on. kiransielts. blogspot. com 37 Prepare for IELTS – AC – Insearch The table below shows consumer preferences for the features of automatic washing machines in different countries. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. EXHIBIT ONE: CONSUMER PREFERENCES AS TO AUTOMATIC WASHING MACHINE FEATURES, BY COUNTRY FEATURES UNITED

KINGDOM GERMANY FRANCE SWEDEN Shell dimensions [height and width] 34″ & narrow 34″ & wide 34″ & narrow 34″ & wide Drum material Enamel Stainless steel Enamel Stainless steel Loading Top Front Front Front Capacity 5 kilos 6 kilos 5 kilos 6 kilos Spin speed 700 rpm 850 rpm 600 rpm 800 rpm Water heating system Yes No No Yes Styling features Inconspicuous appearance Indestructible appearance Elegant appearance Strong appearance Washing action Agitator Tumble Agitator Tumble The table shows consumer preferences for washing machines in four different European countries.

In the United Kingdom [UK) and France consumers prefer 34″ and narrow shells whereas in Germany and Sweden they prefer 34″ and wide shells. The load capacity varies slightly between 5 and 6 kilos. The preferred spin speed ranges from 850 rpm [Germany], 800 rpm [Sweden], 700 rpm [UK], to 600 rpm [France]. The preferred drum material is enamel in the UK and France whereas it is stainless steel in the other countries. Consumers in every country except the UK prefer front loading to top loading machines. The British and the Swedes opt for a water heating system, but this is not so elsewhere.

Each country has a different preference for styling features, the British favouring an inconspicuous appearance, the Germans requiring a machine which looks indestructible, the French an elegant machine and the Swedes a strong-looking machine. The final feature, the washing action, sees a division between the UK and France where consumers prefer an agitator, and the other countries where a tumble action is preferred. This ends my report. kiransielts. blogspot. com 38 Prepare for IELTS – AC – Insearch The following graphs give information about the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employment sectors of a developing country.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Sectoral distribution of employment and GDP,1992 Employment GDP Natural Resources 77. 4% 19. 2% Industry 3. 6% 15. 4% Services Trade, restaurants, hotels 4. 9% 37. 1% Transport. communication 1. 6% 8. 4% Government 8. 7% 12. 5% Other 3. 8% 7. 4% TOTAL 100% 100% The table shows the percentage of people employed in different sectors of the economy in 1992, and the percentage of GDP which they produced. The main economic sectors are natural resources, industry and services.

The line graph shows the trends in the percentage of GDP between 1986 and 1995. The first graph reveals that although 77. 4% of the population worked in natural resources in 1992, they produced only 19. 2% of GDP. However, the 3. 6% of the population who worked in industry produced 15. 4% of GDP, and the 15. 2% who worked in the service sector produced 58% of GDP. The second graph shows that the percentage of GDP in the services sector fell steadily from approximately 65% to 53%. In 1986 natural resources provided more than 25% of GDP, but this declined to less than 20% in 1992, recovered in 1993 but fell below 20% in 1995.

Industry earned less than 10% of GDP in 1986, but rose to almost 20% in 1995. The two graphs reveal that GDP was earned primarily by the service sector. kiransielts. blogspot. com 39 Prepare for IELTS – AC – Insearch The graphs below show the enrolment of overseas students and local students in Australian universities over a ten year period. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Enrolments 1989-1999 The two graphs show student enrolment trends over a ten-year period, from 1989-1999, in Australian universities.

The first graph illustrates overseas student enrolments and the second local student enrolments. The first graph clearly shows that new overseas students continue to enrol in Australian universities. In 1999 there were approximately 80,000 overseas students [around half of whom were new students). The rate of increase in the number of overseas students has been dramatic, doubling every five years, from just under 9,000 in 1989, to 20,000 in 1994 and then over 40,000 in 1999. The local student population was around 600,000 in 1999 with just 200,000 of these being new students.

This was just 33% of the local total. It was a significant decline from 50% ten years before, when the total local student population was 400,000 out of which approximately 200,000 were new students. The trends clearly demonstrate that growth can be expected to continue from overseas students but not for local students. The two graphs clearly demonstrate increasing demand for Australian university education by overseas students [increasing 400%] with a significantly smaller increase by local students [just 50%J for this period. kiransielts. blogspot. com 40 Prepare for IELTS – AC – Insearch

The graphs below show the post-school qualifications held by Australians in the age groups 25 to 34 and 55 to 69. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting main features, and make comparisons where relevant. POST SCHOOL QUALIFICATIONS 357,500 Australians aged between 25 and 34 hold a degree. Their main fields of study were: 104,800 Australians aged between 55 and 69 hold a degree. Their main fields of study were: These two pie charts show the differences between two groups of Australians [25 to 34 and 55 to 69 year olds] in terms of their post-school qualifications.

The most striking feature of the pie charts is the huge number of people with qualifications. The younger group is more than three times bigger than the older group [347,500 compared to 104,800). Comparing the two groups, architecture and medicine were less popular with younger graduates; medicine was lower in popularity by almost 4%. However, the biggest loss was to engineering, which was preferred by 19. 27% of the older age group as compared to 9. 35% of the younger age group. Some subjects were more popular with the younger age group.

The biggest gains in graduate numbers were made by Science, Maths and Computers which, as a group, were held by 18. 19%. Administration was 4. 1% more popular in the 25 to 34 year olds. To sum up, the graphs show that the number of young graduates were threefold more than the number of older graduates. Social Sciences, Arts, 19. 48% other, 2. 24% law, 5. 54% medicine, 7. 40% Architecture, 1. 85% Engineering, 9. 36% Veterinary, Agriculture, 2. 10% Science, Mths, Computers, 18. 19 % Education, 14. 76% Administration, 19. 08% Social Sciences, Arts, 20. 42% other, 2. 48% law, 3. 34% medicine, 11. 31% Architecture, 2. 92% Engineering, 19. 7% Veterinary, Agriculture, 2. 00% Science, Mths, Computers, 10. 11 % Education, 13. 17% Administration, 14. 98% kiransielts. blogspot. com 41 Ac task 1 High Impact The graph shows typical levels in enthusiasm, confidence and ability of students attending a ten week IELTS class. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information given below. The given line graph shows the changes in three factors affecting students over a ten week period in an IELTS class. Overall it can be seen that ability increases a lot over the ten week period and confidence also increases but enthusiasm drops over the time.

The most striking point is that at the beginning of the course, students’ enthusiasm is almost 100 per cent whereas confidence and ability are only slightly above 20 per cent. Over the first four weeks, both confidence and ability increase, while enthusiasm declines steadily until the sixth week. Confidence takes a sharp fall but then rises

About the author

This sample is completed by Emma with Health Care as a major. She is a student at Emory University, Atlanta. All the content of this paper is her own research and point of view on The Survey of Adult Education and can be used only as an alternative perspective.

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