The Fall of Czar Nicholas’ Government in Russia Essay
At their height, no government imagines Its downfall, although It is a sad truth when looking back at history. Governments could corrupt as easily as a naive child, and so downfall of even the mightiest governments eventually occurs. Corruption Is common In collapsed governments. Whether it be for monetary reasons, or purely bad leaders, it occurred on a regular basis with most governments that had collapsed. But some factors of a collapsing government has nothing to do with corruptions, but rather a death of a ruler, a defeat in a war (or multiple harsh or even an uprising of the people could collapse a strong government.
When a government does collapse, not only does the political system change, but also economic and social changes occur as well. Two cases in which the economic, political, and social systems after the fall of a government were the collapse of Czar Nicholas Sis’s government, which led to the creation of the U. S. S. R, and the fall of Raze Papilla’s government, which led to the creation of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Both had certain historical circumstances that led to their collapse, and many different changes that occurred as a result of the collapse.
When Czar Nicholas II came into power In 1894, he continued the autocratic rule that Russia had in place for more than three decades. To help Russia catch up with the rest of the world, Czar Nicholas II attempted to industrialized Russia. He helped create more factories and increased the production of steel. Although these changes helped Russia in terms of industrialization, new problems occurred, such as horrible working conditions, low wages, and child labor. Trade unions were banned by the government, which angered the working class even more, and helped with the growth of the revolutionary movement.
With many problems coming up for those in the middle class, a revolutionary group was created, a mist the many other revolutionary groups created at this time, that followed the teachings of Karl Marx and focused on the middle class. They thought that the working class would overthrow the government and create a government In which the proletariat, or working class, ruled the nation. This group then split Into two parts, one with radicals and the other with moderates. The Czar showed his weakness in three main conflicts that ultimately led to his overthrowing.
The first was the Russo-Japanese war, in which Russia had broken the agreements that were signed by both themselves and Japan, but was then attacked at Port Arthur in Manchuria, and the news of the many dead Russian soldiers spread quickly around Russia and affected the Car’s reputation in a negative way. Then, on January 22, 1905, about 200,000 workers lined up outside of Czar Nicholas Sis’s palace, where they were non-violently protesting their poor working conditions. Czar Nicholas Sis’s generals gave the soldiers the order to fire at the crowd.
Thousands were wounded, hundreds killed, and all of those who survived were furious. This fury raged on even worse after World War I. Where many Russians felt that the cost of that war, both In monetary and life values, was way too high, but Czar Nicolas II forced Russia through a war they didn’t want to fight, and the war. The high cost of this war lead to food shortages, which was the last straw for many Russians. Then in March of 1917, women rioted throughout Russia, over shortages in bread and fuel mainly, which caused Czar Nicholas II to step down and end the three century Romano rule of Russia.
The fall of Czar Nicholas Sis’s government led to both economic and political hanged within Russia. When the Czar stepped down, he didn’t set up a government to take the place of the one that he ruled, therefore letting fighting within Russia take place for power. Of the many groups fighting, the Bolsheviks came out victorious and took power after the civil war where the communists, Red Shirts, fought off the White Shirts, who were a mixture of many different political groups. Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks, therefore also the leader of Russia.
He did what the Czar couldn’t, and that was to give to the peasant class. He took farmland from wealthier endorsers, and distributed the land to the peasants. He lived up to his promises and gave control of the factories to the workers. Once Lenin was fully in charge, he put into work a new economic plan that was essentially a small – scale version of capitalism, called the New Economic Policy (NEAP). This let farmers who produced a surplus of food to give it to the government.
Linen’s government also had control over banks and major industries, but let smaller businesses and factories operate without his intervention. Political reforms were also brought with this new Bolshevik government alongside the economic changes. To make it easier to rule, Lenin split up Russia into small self-governing republics that answered to the central government. He named the state as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U. S. S. R). The Bolshevik Party was also renamed to the Communist Party, which comes from the book that Karl Marx wrote, Communist Manifesto.
Once the constitution was drafted. It was clear that Lenin was a dictator who held all the power, not the working class. These problems didn’t Just occur form huge countries that were world superpowers like the U. S. S. R, but also in former world known empires, such as roomer Persia, or Iran. Raze Villa, the former Shah, or King, of Iran, had inherited the title, like Czar Nicholas II of Russia. Raze was a Sunnis Muslim, who ruled a Shiite majority population in Iran. The Shah was a secular ruler who was building ties closer to the U. S and adopting their ways.
This angered many of the stricter Muslims of the country because many of these new secular ideas went against the teachings of Islam, which these religious Iranians followed strictly. The rise of religious leaders named Ayatollahs rose as they started to talk of their hatred for western ways. Some f the reforms brought by Villa were the building of Skyscrapers, bringing in of foreign banks, and also gave more rights to women, such as banning the Shadow. These, angered fundamentalists because these were going against Islamic teachings.
This angered much of the population which led to strikes and violent riots in 1978. The Shah feared for his life, so he fled from Iran, this being the second time he fled. (Last time, the US put him back in charge). The country was left in the hands of more radical Islamic fundamentalists. The biggest changes were social changes after the Psalmists took over Iran, but mom political changes also occurred. The biggest political change was the naming of Iran as the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Also, now that anti-secular leaders were in under this Islamic government, were based on literal translations of the Quart. All real political power was given to the mullahs, or teachers of the Quart. But, as stated before, most of the changes were social changes. Many of the rights the women had just received from the former Shah, had been taken away. Instead of making the Shadow illegal, it was now illegal to walk out of your house without a Shadow and a ale guardian with you at all times. Men and women who were not married could not inter-mingle.
Gambling and Alcohol were strictly forbidden, as per the Quart. The western life style that the Shah worked so hard to implement into Iran was banned. Even universities were closed due to their western influence. All western influence, such as books, movies and music were all banned as well. As a world oil producing power, Iran depended on oil for much of its economic growth, and that is still the case today. Governments change, and sometimes, they are for the better, while other times rower is put in the wrong hands.
While corruption is always a reason to rebel, many rebel Just to get rid of the oppressive leadership they have been under, or even because of their religious beliefs. Both Czarist Russia and Assist Iran had been toppled due to the freedom that their people wanted so badly from those governments. The governments on each side have drawn many complaints, one of them, U. S. S. R, has even fell as communist union into merely a democratic state. Political, economic, and social changes will and have occurred many times throughout history due to the collapses of governments.