Hazaribagh is a densely populated unplanned area of Dhaka city where about 185 leather processing industries have been operating and discharging solid and liquid wastes directly to the low-lying areas, river and natural canals without proper treatment. For this unsympathetic development of the city urban living environment is deteriorating and becoming unlivable. Hazaribagh area is an unplanned area where leather processing industries have begun to develop from 1950s.
Due to the rapid expansion of these industries since 1950s and their untreated toxic effluent discharge, it has a measurable impact on the living environment of this area. The regulatory measures are not that much practiced to restrict pollution. So the contamination level has reached to a level that the citizens are suffering from different pollution related problems. A detailed level policy frame work and planning implication is essential for the development of the area and for ensuring livable environment.
To assess the environmental degradation of heavy metals of water samples, heavy metals and organic carbon content of sediment were analyzed by many project works and thesis. This study is based on secondary source materials and is focused on how these tannery industries evolved in this particular place? Why it has emerged so rapidly? And what impact it has been extending to the surrounding zones especially on the forms and morphology of the neighborhood. TABLE OF CONTENT 1. Introduction4 2. Objectives and scope of the Study5 . Methodology5 4. History of Tannery Industry in Bangladesh6 5. Hazaribagh Tannery in Dhaka City6 6. Hazaribagh Tannery: Impact on the form and morphology in Surrounding Environment 8 6. 1Houses and Residence of Hazaribagh Tannery9 6. 2Road Network and Drainage System of Hazaribagh Tannery10 6. 3Locations of Industries11 6. 4UNIDO environment Programme 12 7. Findings and Analysis12 7. 1 Socio economic condition of surrounding area13 7. 2 Physical condition of surrounding areas14 7. 3 Biodiversity and Pollution14 8.
Tannery Relocation and Settlement of Hazaribagh Tannery and15 Redevelopment of Hazaribagh Tannery Area 9. Recommendation and Conclusion19-21 10. References 22 1. Introduction Tanneries are the oldest industries in Bangladesh of which 95 percent are concentrated mainly in Hazaribagh area of Dhaka city. It is also a potentially rich manufacturing sector in terms of both financial return and social benefits. Hazaribagh with an area of 3. 8 square kilometer is surrounded by Mohammadpur thana on the north, Kamrangirchar thana on the south, Dhanmondi and Lalbagh thanas on the east, Keraniganj upazila and Buriganga river on the west. It is situated on the south-west part of capital Dhaka. The first tannery industry in Dhaka was established hundred years ago. Later on for the higher profit, concentration of industries increased with in a short period of time. This uncontrolled expansion of industrial zone extended its pressure on physical condition of environment and transformed the area to a brown field.
It is now very essential to redevelop the site in planned and controlled manner. Due to the rapid growth of populations demand of housing is also increased and urbanization extended to this peripheral zone. The Hazaribagh area has a great mix up of industrial and residential activities. This residential areas has a huge shortage of ancillary facilities. Further more toxic pollutant from the industries is a serious threat for them. The dumping of untreated wastes from tannery industries in Hazaribag, Dhaka is the major source of pollution of Buriganga.
The chromium released from the Hazaribag tannery industries has been contaminating the water of the river Buriganga for the last forty-five years. This highly polluted water is spreading various diseases including cancer. A statistics available from the Department of Environment reveal that 95 per cent of the tannery industries have been built in unplanned way at the congested places of Hazaribag during the last fifty years. At present during the peak monsoon about 21 thousand and 600 cubic meters of liquid toxic wastes are dumped daily into the river Buriganga from the 185 tannery industries of Hazaribag.
There is no alternative way to dump this liquid toxic waste at the time of continuous production of tannery industries. Unfortunately a recent observation of Hazaribagh clearly shows an active decay and destruction primarily attributed to unplanned growth and poor maintenance. This area now appears no more than an inner city unhygienic environment. Technical compatibility is necessary to improve the houses and the community with certain policies.
An architect is one who has the socio cultural consciousness, technical assistance, historical knowledge and moreover intuition by which he can foresee the befitting three dimensional redevelopment of an area. As a student of architecture, the main concern of this study is to propose the Community a guideline for healthy living environmental keeping the unique fabric of the area with cultural and historical consciousness. 2. Objectives and scope of the study The study area has been selected here for investigation as an important and ensitive part of the Dhaka city which is associated with very hazardous environment. The major objectives of the study are: • To improvement the accessibility these areas by providing a sustainable living environment. • To revitalize their living standard and to improve social awareness. • To identify of social infrastructure, and environmental condition of Hazaribagh tannery area to minimize those problems. In this study at first the paper describes the history of the tannery industry in Bangladesh as well as the background on the Hazaribag Tannery.
Based on that, this paper analyses some findings of Hazaribagh tanneries and its impact on the form and morphology. This paper than addresses some means and ways to overcome the problem for better living in that area. 3. Methodology The study is based on relevant literature review, their analysis and cross–checking of the situation with field level observation and discussions. 4. History of Tannery Industry in Bangladesh From 1800 to mid 1960 South Asian used the vegetable tanned crust, a non-polluting tanning process which worked well as an environmental friendly process.
The process was introduced in Bangladesh in the late 1940s. At first tanneries emerged in the Hazaribagh of Dhaka and Chandgao of Chittagong. This business was dominated by the Indians. Soon Pakistani entrepreneur replaced the Indians. After independence of Bnagladesh in 1971 changes took place in every sector and the Leather industries were not beyond it. In 1972, Tanneries Corporation has launched by the Government to make this sector more profitable. Afterwards a powerful committee was formed by the EDB (Export Development Bureau) to earn more foreign exchanges.
In 1977, the Government imposed an export duty on wet blue leather which forced the industry to covert crust and finished leather into value added leather products. Many joint ventures took advantage of the Promotion and Protection Act of 1980 which brought a large amount of foreign investment to Bangladesh and the leather industries in Bangladesh flourished. 5. Hazaribagh Tannery in Dhaka City Hazaribagh, Dhaka’s biggest leather processing industrial zone, is in the middle of one of the most densely populated residential districts.
Its industries freely dump untreated toxic waste directly into the low-lying area, river and natural canals. According to the Department of Environment (DoE), nearly 22,000 cubic metres of untreated and highly toxic liquid waste is discharged by the tanneries every day into the water bodies including the River Buriganga, the lifeline of the capital. Aquatic life forms of the Buriganga are seriously threatened. Residents in Hazaribagh area have been complaining for a long time that the tanneries spread bad odor and pollute the air beyond tolerable limits. pic] Dhaka city map In the Hazaribagh area processing of animal hides is done by the deadly chemicals. This work involves soaking the skins in chemical-mixed water, liming and de-liming, scrapping off meat and fat and removing hair from rawhides, and finally tanning. And all this is done with bare hands. Every day workers are exposed to poisonous chemicals like chromium, sulphur, manganese, copper compound, lead and many more. According to experts, the dangerous mixture of chemicals, acids and dyes used in the tanneries are extremely hazardous to human body.
Surrounded by high walls and with very little ventilation, the air inside the factories is suffocating with fumes, heat and odour of chemicals. While large factories have some facilities, the condition in smaller factories is deplorable. 6. Hazaribagh Tannery : Impact on the form and morphology in surrounding environment The leather industry sector, which is the fourth largest foreign exchange earner of the country contributing about six per cent of total export earnings, produces 150 metric tons of solid waste every day contaminating the environment and water of the metropolis. 9 per cent of the total wastage comes from processing of hides and skin, and accumulates in the swamp-sludge and the part of the solid waste is collected by the Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) and taken to landfill sites. A woman sits with her child on the threshold of her shack in a bamboo slum. Her home is built directly over a pool of chemical waste from a nearby tannery plant which processes animal hide to make leather. The only way she and her children can get out of their house is by wading through the toxic water
Sewerage and garbage infrastructure is poorly developed in Dhaka and it is estimated that only 18% of domestic sewerage enters the sewerage systems. Al. Highly toxic water released from Hazaribagh Tanneries accumulating in the low-lying areas inside the city’s protected embankment has been diverted into the adjacent water-retention points in the Mahammadpur slum areas. During heavy rainfall or in flood, the toxic water enters into thousands of houses. The area has been used as a dumping place for tannery waste for many years. 6. Houses and Residence of Hazaribagh Tannery The residents of the city’s western part continue to suffer from the adverse effects of pollution caused by some 200 tanneries in Hazaribagh and surrounding areas. The dreadful stink of the tannery district can be smelt from miles away — the residential areas like Rayerbazar, Jhigatola and parts of Dhanmondi. Even the fumes emitted by tanneries often damage their gold and silver ornaments and affects home appliances such as TV, fridge, computer and air conditioner systems. Foot path and the adjacent area of Hazaribagh Tannery
The tanneries discharge the effluents and wastes into the river system causing a large area of acid sludge alongside the flood protection embankment and the liquid wastes are dumped in the river through a flood control regulator-cum-sluice gates. During monsoon months, the flood protection embankments protect Dhaka from heavy flooding while making it difficult to flush-out waste water, thereby creating environmental hazard. During the dry season the waste water is flushed out into the river causing pollution of the river water and affecting the aquatic flora and fauna.
The dumping of the solid wastes is seriously affecting the soil and plants, besides vitiating the air, groundwater and human health etc. The water quality of the river Buriganga during wet season and dry season are heavily polluted so that dissolved oxygen in the river water is found to be nil during the dry season and no aquatic animals can live in this condition. Most of the waste effluents are subjected to natural decomposition in the environment, causing serious pollution problems affecting soil, water, air and human life.
Stressing the need for treatment methods to combat pollution including segregation of processed waste water, sedimentation, neutralisation and biological treatment, about half the tanneries apply some kind of solid waste reuse, while 90 per cent of the finished trimming wastes are used by the local shoemakers in and around the Dhaka City. Chemical analysis suggests that tannery wastes are characterised by strong colour, high biochemical oxygen demand, high pH and high dissolved salts.
Disposal of these wastes into water course or onto land, with or without prior sedimentation, creates a great problem in the environment in the vicinity. So, it has become essential to treat the waste to a certain degree prior to its disposal. 6. 2Road Network and Drainage System of Hazaribagh Tannery At present, the existing sewage outfalls, the sewage lift operations consisting of 16 pumps and local residential drains are not adequate to properly and efficiently remove all the waste products generated by the factories and population of the affected area. This is partly a maintenance problem but an nvironmental problem was created by the discharging of wastewater with excessively high solids content and a dangerous level of chromium among other heavy metals and toxic materials. The waste water is discharged into open drains and ultimately finds way onto land surface and into natural waters in the vicinity. The roads are more or less always covered with smoke and dusts. The smoke basically evolved from the burning materials of the tanneries and it creates serious havoc there Untreated effluents flow unabated through the drains at Hazaribagh tannery zone leaving the workers exposed to health hazards.
The toxic elements also pollute the Buriganga River A clean technology can overcome environmental pollution caused by the tanneries. Physical, chemical and biological cleaning methods for waste water are used in this sector. Physical treatments include mainly screening and primary sedimentation, the only treatment which is provided in most of the tanneries in Bangladesh. Screens are required to remove flashing, hairs and other floating substances. A continuous flow sedimentation tank designed on maximum hourly flow with four hours of detention is found to be effective in 90 per cent removal of suspended solids.
However, in most of the tanneries, the fill and draw sedimentation tanks are used and found to be more efficient. But the effluent may be discharged into the sewer chock age. 6. 3Locations of Industries The water in the low lying areas near Hazaribagh, with a direct link to the Buriganga River, is polluted in such a degree that it has become unsuitable for public uses. In summer when the rate of decomposition of the waste is higher, serious air pollution is caused in the whole of Hazaribagh area, including a part of not too far high-class residential area, by producing intolerable obnoxious odors. . 4 UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Origination) environment programme An Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) study has carried out by and a Dhaka-based consulting firm selected by UNIDO that has submitted a report.
A five-member committee formed by the Ministry of Industries has identified a 7. 5 acre plot of land in a suitable location at Hazaribagh for the construction of the central effluent treatment plant (CETP). A Dutch consultancy firm has been engaged to prepare the engineering requirements to treat the effluent and a landfill for safe disposal of tannery sludge. . Findings and Analysis Wastes generated from the leather processing industries located in the southwestern part of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, pose serious threat to the environment. Ground water as well as the ecosystem of the area is on the verge of huge pollution making its way to be recognized sooner or later as one of the most polluted City in south Asia due to industrial activities. Untreated sewage water is released into the Buriganga.
According to the Environment Department, along with the sewage from Dhaka, up to 40,000 tons of untreated tannery waste is released directly into the river every day. The unregulated operation of such large number of tanneries within a residential area has been identified by many sources as serious threat to the surrounding environment and public health. A study titled Leather Industry: Environmental Pollution and Mitigation Measures conducted by a research organization named Society for Environment and Human Development describes the physical look and smell of the area as frightening, intolerable and horrendous.
According to the said study the Hazaribagh area accumulates large quantity of solid and liquid wastes in the low land on the west side that is ultimately pumped out on the other side of the Dhaka Protection Embankment, i. e. , to the river Buriganga. Such unregulated dumping has caused immense harm to the water quality of the river Buriganga and its aquatic resources that call for immediate remedial measures. Rice and wheat were grown in a pot experiment in soils from the tannery area.
The wheat showed delayed maturity and stunting growth while rice showed late flowering and maturity with dark green colour. In another experiment it was observed that application of tannery effluents to soils of differing textures resulted in reduction of yield of rice, the research said adding that the adverse effect was more pronounced in light soils than in heavy soils. The effluent was also found to negatively affect performance, nodulation and growth of mung beans (dal). 7. 1 Socio economic condition of surroundings area
The water in the low-lying areas near Hazaribagh, with a direct link to the Buriganga River, is polluted in such a degree that it has become unsuitable for public uses. In summer when the rate of decomposition of the waste is higher, serious air pollution is caused in the whole of Hazaribagh area, including a part of not too far high-class residential area, by producing intolerable obnoxious odors. The pollutants of tannery wastes are of inorganic, organic and toxic nature and require elaborate treatment before disposal to prevent physical, chemical and biological pollution of the receiving body of water.
The tannery waste with high concentration of dissolved solids, suspended solids, chloride, color, ammonia and very high BOD and COD with no dissolved oxygen is being discharged every day in the receiving water. Extent of this problem shows how horrible situation the corporate bodies of our country can cause. The recent obligation set by the government to move these tanneries to other places in two years time shows how accommodative and least proactive the businesses are in Bangladesh. 7. 2Physical condition of surrounding areas
The Hazaribagh tannery complex and other industries, primarily the glue and paint industries located in the same general area, have affected water and air quality in a large poorly drained area locked behind a 9 meters high flood control embankment constructed in 1989-1990 in south-west Dhaka City. Up until the time of embankment construction, the contaminants were washed to the Buriganga River by annual flooding. At present, the existing sewage outfalls, the sewage lift operations consisting of 16 pumps and local residential drains are not adequate to properly and efficiently remove all he waste products generated by the factories and population of the affected area. This is partly a maintenance problem but an environmental problem was created by the discharging of wastewater with excessively high solids content and a dangerous level of chromium among other heavy metals and toxic materials. 7. 3Biodiversity and Pollution There are more than 200 small, medium and large tanneries, the majority of whom produce leather on a regular basis and process more than 180 million sq ft or 74,000 tons of raw hide and skin annually. The peak production level is 400 tons a day which takes place during the Eid-Ul-Azha period.
The industry subsequently creates about 106 tons of solid waste, and 13,500 cubic meters of tannery effluent daily, which is discharged into a major river causing irreparable damage to the environment. During peak production levels, the discharge effluent increases to 21,600 cubic meters and the emission of solid waste is about 170 tons per day. The pollution emanating from the tanneries is directly affecting surface water, ground water, the soil and air of the Hazaribagh area. The wastewater discharge from the tanneries is polluting the Buriganga river water and making the water completely unsuitable for any use.
Furthermore, the adjoining residential areas are also badly affected by the emission of a bad odour from Hazaribagh. During the dry season, the water quality of the Buriganga and the Turag river deteriorates tremendously due to the low dilution factor. The extent of environmental pollution by the leather industry has been publicised in the country’s media as well as in many foreign media. Many foreign organisations have shown an interest in extending financial and technical assistance by carrying out surveys. Chemical analysis suggests that tannery wastes are characterized by strong color, high BOD, high pH and high dissolved salts.
Disposal of these wastes into water course with or without prior sedimentation, creates a great problem in the environment, especially in the river Buriganga. Wastes are not usually treated to a certain degree before it goes to the river. 8. Tannery relocation and Settlement of Hazaribagh Tannery and Redevelopment of Hazaribagh Tannery Area Relocation of the tannery zone from the city’s Hazaribagh area to the leather estate at Savar remains caught up in the complex procedures of setting up the central effluent treatment plant (CETP) while the pollution continues to play havoc on environment.
Another major obstacle to the relocation project is most of the land and property at Hazaribagh is mortgaged against bank loans. Until the banks release the mortgaged property it would be impossible to shift from there. But still the project sees no headway as various issues remain unresolved. The issue of relocation of the tannery units from the residential areas of Hazaribagh has also been discussed several times at the decision making level of the Government with no concrete result as yet. Losing its beauty and glory, Buriganga is now almost a dead river.
There is no high wave anymore. For miles, it contains poisonous and stinky water obstructing the livelihood of the people living and working on its banks. Using its polluted water, the slum dwellers and low-income group people are getting affected by various waterborne diseases. The tannery industry in Bangladesh is expanding, despite the social problem created due to environmental pollution. The quality of liquid waste discharged from these tanneries varies from 10 to 15 gallons per square feet of hides and skins processed.
This comprising waste water, organic particular and toxic chemicals is discharged in open drains and ultimately finds its way onto land surfaces and in natural waters in the vicinity. As a result, water, air, soil, shelter and food are getting continuously polluted. There are many hazards associated with the chemicals used in the tanning processes. But the hazards can come out in two ways. One is directly by external exposure or inhalation of the chemicals used and retained, or through the waters of canals and rivers after mixing with the released effluents. Substantial work has been done to study this.
But the other way, which is probably not yet studied, is the entering of harmful chemicals into the food chain through the use of solid wastes as feed staff. This is a recent phenomenon happening at large extent for the last several years. The pollutants of tannery wastes are of organic, organic and toxic nature and require elaborate treatment before disposal to prevent physical, chemical and biological pollution of the receiving body of water. The tannery waste with high concentration of dissolved solids, suspended solids, chloride, colour, ammonia etc. is being discharged every day in the receiving water. pic] Hazaribagh Leather Industry and Slums in Dhaka A clean technology can overcome environmental pollution caused by the tanneries. Physical, chemical and biological cleaning methods for waste water are used in this sector. Physical treatments include mainly screening and primary sedimentation, the only treatment which is provided in most of the tanneries in Bangladesh. Screens are required to remove flashing, hairs and other floating substances. A continuous flow sedimentation tank designed on maximum hourly flow with four hours of detention is found to be effective in 90 per cent removal of suspended solids.
However, in most of the tanneries, the fill and draw sedimentation tanks are used and found to be more efficient. No appreciable reduction of dislodged solid, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, colour and chloride can be achieved in the physical treatment process. But the effluent may be discharged into the sewer chockage. The key targets which are identified for reducing environmental impact of leather processing are replacement of chromium, more efficient use of chemicals, sulphide-free unhairing, possibly with hair recovery, utilisation of wastes, reuse of water, odour control, solvent free finishing and N-free delimiting.
Today’s tanners, experts say, are not only hard-pressed by the high costs of compliance with increasingly restrictive environmental legislation, but are also faced with a confusion of competing claims for alternative clean technologies. A practical database is required that would enable the tanner simply and rapidly to shortlist the most appropriate technologies for his specific needs, with the aim of minimising the costs.
It would be essential for the tanner to be able to identify existing users of the technology and independent leather experts, as well as the manufacturers or inventors, whom the tanner could then separately consult. The database should give an indication of the level of development of each technology and its extent of use, since systems inevitably range from those just at research and development (R&D) stage to well-established technologies in widespread use.
This study also recommends building of appropriate waste treatment plants for neutralizing harmful chemicals before disposal of the waste into the environment and called upon the government to fix a legal limit value for discharge of tannery effluent to surface water. Hazaribagh tannery industries are situated in the midst of a densely populated residential area surrounded by slums, and the area is one of the worst polluted areas in Bangladesh. Its total land area is 25 hectares and this zone is categorized as Red zone according to the Department of Environment, where the morbidity rate is highest in the world.
The effluents contain dissolved arsenic, sodium sulfate, lime, acids, salts, dyes, oils, suspended solids, organic matters and heavy metals like chromium, lead, etc and a study showed that very high accumulation of chromium (15,000 mg/kg of sediment) at the topsoil upto a depth of 3m in Hazaribagh area and very high concentration of chromium of about 4000 mg/L has been detected in tannery wastewater. To protect the urban environment of Dhaka City and by recent directives from High Court, Bangladesh Government has decided to shift the tannery industries from Hazaribagh area to Savar.
The works for shifting the industries have already started. The dismantling area will be a real Brownfield, which would need proper investigation of the extent of pollution and to formulate guidelines for the remediation of the contaminated lands with respect to country’s socio-economic context for sustainable urban development in this area. In future, the area will be used for residential, commercial and recreational purposes. The presence of potentially contaminated sites in urban areas may cause potential threat to human beings, causing both surface and groundwater ollution by toxic, inorganic and organic substances. The aim of this research project is to reclaim urban polluted sites in Dhaka City by means of demonstration of the technical and economic feasibility of innovative soil remediation technologies. The action will be focused on the demonstration, by means of pilot experiences, of the technological and economic feasibility of innovative soil remediation technologies for the reclamation of polluted soils in Hazaribagh Tannery area and Tejgaon Industrial area in Dhaka city.
The remediation of soils in urban polluted sites will promote land-use management, the integration of new socio-economic activities in these urban areas, reduce the human exposure to toxic pollutants, promote a sustainable urban planning of these zones and contributing at the same time to quality of life through a more sustainable development of the capital of Bangladesh. 9. Recommendations and Conclusion Dhaka has been growing haphazardly due to lack of appropriate planning.
The study area is very important and sensitive part of the Dhaka city which is associated with very hazardous with environment as well as community. The study of this project recommends the following: • Redevelopment of the land of Tanneries with appropriate planning principles and development with adjoining areas. With the help of the appropriate authority and some developers the total land area may be redeveloped so that it can be habitable. • Max uses of the site can be as green space for eco friendly environment.
In Dhaka most are the places are not echo friendly and are quite densely populated so the proposed area may be made more eco friendly. • Improvement of accessibility of these areas by providing a sustainable living environment. At present the accessibility in the Hazaribagh area is quite difficult & this need to be improved a lot for better living. • Revitalize the living standard & improvement of social awareness of the local people of that area. The social awareness of the local people is also very important & for better living it is most important to develop the social awareness of the people. Conserving some old buildings for important functional purpose. This can be done by transform it an attractive urban community space of urban & civic life which could act as a hub to link the old & the new parts of Dhaka. The country’s 220 tanneries, mostly located in Dhaka, are releasing a large quantity of toxic waste at the time of processing of leather, causing a severe environmental pollution. The pollution is seriously affecting the livelihood of some 0. 1 million people in and around the Hazaribagh area of the capital city.
Some 194 of the tanneries are now housed in the city’s Hazaribagh area, which is on the brink of an environmental disaster. There is no denying that most of the urban-based industries in Bangladesh pollute environment. Of them, tanneries do the extreme damage. Most of the tanneries are located in urban areas and their relocation outside the metropolitan city has not been done. It is essentially a by-product industry utilising hides and skin from animals raised primarily for their