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Study on the Impact of Information and Communications Technology Essay

Study on the Impact of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and New Media on Language Learning EACEA 2007/09 FINAL REPORT Commissioned by: Carried out by: © European Commission STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING FINAL REPORT 2 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING

This is the Final Report of the study regarding the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) and new media on language learning which was commissioned by the Education and Culture Executive Agency (call for tenders EACEA 2007/09) and carried out by Ellinogermaniki Agogi through an international team of experts.

Edited and compiled by In conjunction with Reviewers of literature: Field studies: Anne Stevens, The Open University UK Lesley Shield, e-learning consultant Lesley Shield, e-learning consultant (review in the area of CALL) Katerina Zourou, University of Luxembourg (review in other areas) Cyprus Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Spain UK International interviews Data analysis: External advisor: Project Manager: Commissioned by: Pavlos Koulouris, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Peppi Taalas, University of Jyvaskyla Ilona Laakkonen, University of Jyvaskyla Katerina Zourou, University of Luxembourg Daniela Stai, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Dagmar Schaffer, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Pavlos Koulouris, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Daniela Stai, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Pilar Aramburuzabala, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Anne Stevens, The Open University UK Lesley Shield, e-learning consultant Lesley Shield, e-learning consultant Pavlos Koulouris, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Jason Abbott, The Open University Patrik Svensson, Umea University Sofoklis Sotiriou, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Carried out by: This study has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication and the views expressed in it reflect the views only of the contributors and do not necessarily represent those of the European Commission or any other organisation cited.

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The Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 3 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are indebted to all of those who contributed to the study, its preparation and execution. To the many friends, staff and colleagues who collaborated to create the online survey and create localised versions. They worked to identify key contributors and persuade them to spare the time to be interviewed – all provide valuable and unique insights into the ‘underworld’ of informal learning under investigation. Katerina Zourou created the interview schedules for the team.

Special thanks are extended to Lesley Shield who worked alongside the Project Leader at key times to advise, counsel and encourage. Her tireless efforts and considerable input to the final text are greatly valued. Thanks to the team in Ellinogermaniki Agogi in Athens who ensured that the technical structures were in place and operated efficiently enabling analyses to be carried out. Pavlos Koulouris in that team, who closely followed all aspects of this project, established the survey, and set the study in motion. The rest of the team in Athens, with Sofoklis Sotiriou who took responsibility for the administration and contractual details involved.

Jason Abbott, who undertook additional statistical analysis at a late stage, and Patrik Svensson, who acted as external evaluator and advisor; both of them contributed valuable insights and clarity of thought. We also valued the support and input from the Steering Committee in Brussels who provided helpful and thought-provoking comments to our various discussions: Brian Holmes; Gillian McLaughlin; Kristina Cunningham; and Dominique Loir. The realisation of this report has benefited from information, insight, advice, feedback and support from many who are not mentioned here, but appreciated all the same. FINAL REPORT 4 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING 5 FINAL REPORT

STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 METHODOLOGY ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 10 DEFINITION OF TERMS AND APPROACH TO THE STUDY ………………………………………………………………………….. 12 DESK RESEARCH …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 QUANTITATIVE SURVEY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16 QUALITATIVE STUDY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17 CASE STUDIES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20 THE STUDY SAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 USERS’ BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS AND ATTITUDES ……………………………………………. 8 EVERYDAY USE OF ICT……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28 USING ICT FOR LEARNING ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29 USING ICT FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29 MOTIVATION FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 30 ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE USE OF ICT AND NEW MEDIA FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING …………………………………. 0 BARRIERS TO THE USE OF ICT AND NEW MEDIA FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING …………………………………………….. 31 OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, TRENDS: EUROPEAN LEVEL COMPARISONS ACROSS COUNTRIES …………………………………………………………………………………….. 34 AVAILABILITY AND ACCESS TO ICT…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34 ICT AND LANGUAGE LEARNING ………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………. 37 NATIONAL INITIATIVES FOR CHANGE …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 CURRENT LANGUAGE LEARNING PRACTICE …………………………………………………………………………………………. 45 THE INFLUENCE OF ENGLISH …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48 SOCIAL CONTEXT AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING PROMOTION ……………………………………………………….. 49 PUBLIC BROADCAST MEDIA AS AN INFLUENCE ON LANGUAGE USE AND ACQUISITION ……………………………….. 51 PERCEIVED VALUES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 CHANGING BEHAVIOURS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING: FORMAL OR INFORMAL? …………………………………………… 52 MOTIVATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55 PERSONALISED LEARNING ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58 MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING …………………………………………………………………………….. 62 USE OF MOBILES FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING: EVIDENCE FROM RESEARCH ……………………………………………….. 3 STIMULATING DEMAND: GROWING THE EXPLOITATION AMONG OTHER STAKEHOLDERS ……………………………. 65 PERCEIVED ADVANTAGES OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING USING ICT AND OTHER NEW MEDIA ……………… 66 GAMING AS LEARNING TOOL …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67 PROMOTING GROWTH IN LANGUAGE LEARNING: INFLUENCE OF BROADCAST AND PUBLIC MEDIA ……………….. 68 QUALITY PROVISION: TEACHER DEVELOPMENT …………………………………………………………………………………… 71 EMBEDDING CHANGE AMONG PROFESSIONALS: THE BIG CHALLENGE? ……………………………………………………. 2 TEACHERS AS LEARNERS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 74 WAYS FORWARD: STRUCTURING ACCESS TO GOOD PRACTICE AND SOUND EXAMPLES ………………………………. 74 BARRIERS TO CHANGE: LEARNER TRAINING ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 75 APPLYING LESSONS FROM THE PAST TO ADVANTAGE: THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE …………………………………… 77 CORPORATE PERSPECTIVES: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES AMONG EMPLOYERS ……………………………….. 78 IMPLICATIONS OF MOBILITY OF LABOUR …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 EMPLOYER ATTITUDES TO NEW TRAINING POSSIBILITIES ………………………………………………………………………. 82 THE RESPONSE FROM TRAINING PROVIDERS ………………………………………………………………………………………… 83 FINAL REPORT 6 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES: ADAPTING TO MARKET DEMANDS………………………………………………………………… 84 DISTINGUISHING AND DEFINING GROUPS OF LEARNERS ………………………………………………………………………… 5 RISING AWARENESS OF BENEFITS OF EXPLOITING ICT AMONG DEVELOPERS ……………………………………………. 86 ADDRESSING ISSUES OF DEVELOPMENT COSTS ………………………………………………………………….. ………………… 87 PERSONAL COSTS TO USERS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88 WORKING EFFECTIVELY TO EXPLOIT EXPERTISE AND EXPERIENCE …………………………………………………………. 90 ENCOURAGING GREATER UPTAKE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 CHALLENGES TO CHANGE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92 THE CURRENT CLIMATE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93 CONCLUDING REMARKS……………………………………………………………………………….. 94 RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………. 96 COMMUNICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 98 PEDAGOGICAL INNOVATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 99 CROSS-SECTORAL INITIATIVES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 100 7 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING INTRODUCTION Europe’s Information Society emphasises linguistic diversity as a fact of life.

Web TV, online music, movies on mobile phones are a reality for European businesses and citizens, underlining the importance of being able to access and use information in a number of languages. The promotion of linguistic diversity and multilingualism in the emerging landscape of, and through, media and information and communications technology (ICT) is a guiding principle for several European policies (predominantly programmes run by the Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission1, but also as a component of other EC initiatives, such as the European Community’s 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development2 and the eContent and eContentplus Programmes3). Languages, media and new technologies are themes that have been investigated in several different contexts at a European level.

A number of projects connected with ICT-supported language learning have been funded, which through various approaches have aimed to demonstrate the added value that can be obtained from using ICT and new media, either alone or together with face-to-face interactions to create ‘blended’ language learning experiences. In parallel, European markets, increasingly in recent years, have been producing new products and services for language learning through the use of ICT and media. From this increasing body of experience, an understanding is emerging of the need for certain conditions, if the expected benefits of the use of ICT and new media are to be achieved and interventions made more targeted and effective. These include appropriate pedagogical support and teacher training, digitally competent learners, well maintained infrastructure, appropriate digital content.

There are discussions among experts and in the professional communities related to language learning on the arguments that language learning multimedia sources need to be made easier and more interesting to use, that multicultural and multilingual environments need to be developed to make use of Europe’s rich heritage, and that older as well as emerging new media (e. g. interactive TV, mobile internet, podcasting, MP3 players, electronic games) and ‘edutainment’ in general need to play an important role in promoting language learning and multilingualism. In the context of these discussions, the need has become evident for an assessment of the potential value of emerging technologies, and whether they are being, or could be exploited to greater effect, in language learning.

Fresh thinking about the ways in which we may use new tools and technologies in language learning is necessary, on the basis of evidence from the field including the markets currently developing in intersections of ICT, media, and language learning. It is time to examine in both depth and wide scope how language learning is adapting and benefiting from the ever-faster changing world of communications and new technologies, with the exponential growth in the use of mobile and handheld devices and ICT for social and entertainment purposes over the last few years. As technologies converge and boundaries between broadcast and interactive media create new opportunities for direct http://ec. europa. eu/dgs/education_culture/index_en. htm http://cordis. europa. eu/fp7/ 3 http://cordis. europa. eu/econtent/, http://ec. europa. u/information_society/activities/econtentplus/index_en. htm 1 2 FINAL REPORT 8 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING mediation, interactivity and personalisation of home–based delivery, new possibilities for learning are emerging. The debate around the impact of ICT and new media on language learning is naturally influenced, if not determined, by the developments within the wider context of public media and the current debates and dilemmas confronting broadcasting and broadcasters. Issues relating to learning, to take-up among traditional and new users and changes in delivery and use are all part of a much bigger picture.

It can be argued that it is meaningless to consider impact upon learning and language learning in particular without situating these activities within the larger spectrum of change. Thus, an undertaking to assess the potential of ICT and new media and its impact on language learning should aim to capture the essence of changing society in its many dimensions and how such social change can inspire, influence and inform the decisions at strategic and policy levels. The often conflicting perspectives operating in modern society, such as new opportunities versus available time, resources versus costs of use, potential of new technologies versus practicalities of everyday applicability ought to be taken into account, in order to assess where best to intervene, influence or invest effort and resources.

The wider social make-up represented by multiethnic populations, a work-force on the move, global economic movements and pressures, the importance of communicating with others and understanding more about other cultures as well as the global influence of the English language are aspects of today’s world than also need to be taken into consideration. On this background, the present Study on the Impact of ICT and New Media on Language Learning was initiated by the European Commission through its Education and Culture Executive Agency. The aim was to investigate the possibilities of ICT and new media as complements to traditional language teaching and learning methods within and beyond the traditional framework of formal education systems, with the purpose to inform policymaking and future activity in the area of language learning.

The study, which was carried out between June 2008 and May 2009, aimed to assess the current situation concerning the use of ICT and new media for language learning, and cast light over future developments in this area. It concentrated particularly on identifying trends and practices beyond schools and universities, in working life and in personal life, including the use of ICT and new media in formal, non-formal, and informal language learning. It focused on language learners’ behaviours, motivation and attitudes, possibilities for increased language learning outreach, as well as opportunities and challenges, demand and supply factors in the relevant markets. 9 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING METHODOLOGY

The study followed a four-stage plan of development, which is reflected in the four Annexes: • • • • A comparative study ‘on the potential for the use of ICT and new media for language learning in eight European countries (Annexe I) A quantitative survey of the use of ICT and new media for language learning purposes (Annexe II) A qualitative survey on current trends in ICT-supported language learning and possible developments in Europe and beyond (Annexe III) A set of case studies that serve as examples of good practice of the positive impact ICT and new media on language learning (Annexe IV). FINAL REPORT 10 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING The starting point is desk research which provides the background and highlights areas of development and gaps in understanding. This comprised: two literature surveys and a comparative study based on existing data. Together they provide the context and define the parameters of the open survey, qualitative investigations and national reports. In depth reporting is focused on eight countries selected to represent a diversity of size, provision and societal differences in Europe.

At a European level, the study encompasses a diversity of research techniques in order to provide evidence from a variety of sources from eight countries within Europe which represent around 56% of the total population of the EU-27 and exemplify different cultures, size of territory and social contexts for language learning (see section on the study sample further below in this chapter, and more details in the Comparative study in Annexe I). The study sample countries are Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Spain, and the United Kingdom. 11 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING Definition of terms and approach to the study The study began by mapping the conceptual landscape for the investigation. An inclusive approach to language learning was adopted to cover formal, non-formal and informal language learning.

The three terms were interpreted as follows, on the basis of existing EU definitions4: • Formal learning: Learning typically provided by an education or training institution, structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support) and leading to certification. Formal learning is intentional from the learner’s perspective. Non-formal learning: Learning that is not provided by an education or training institution and typically does not lead to certification. It is, however, structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support). Non-formal learning is intentional from the learner’s perspective, e. g. elf study via a downloaded resource from a free to use online source. Informal learning: Learning resulting from daily life activities related to work, family or leisure. It is not structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support) and typically does not lead to certification. Informal learning may be intentional but in most cases it is non-intentional (or ‘incidental’/ random). • • The assessment of ‘impact’ relates to the interplay of availability and use of technologies and their applicability to and perception of their use for language learning purposes as informed via the three-part research investigation: • • • quantitative data qualitative data evidence from research.

This three-dimensional approach to developing a body of evidence is critical as outcomes derive from: • • • an overview of current use and perceived values of ICT and new media for language learning purposes an in-depth analysis of varying contexts and cultures to identify commonalities current research in the field identifying recognised developing trends and areas currently being investigated as potentially fertile for development. The team agreed that ‘Impact’ does not equate with ‘effectiveness’. Rather, ‘effectiveness’ is one possible interpretation of the term. ‘Impact’ is related to change in practices leading to an improved learning experience. Such impact may be found in evidence of: 4 European Commission (2000). A Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Brussels, 30. 10. 2000. SEC(2000) 1832. FINAL REPORT 12

STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING • • • Changes in the way languages are learnt and taught Increases in numbers of language learners A paradigm shift in the roles of learners and teachers. These definitions guided the work of the study. Desk research The starting point for the study was desk research. This comprised a two-part desk research exercise and established existing data and evidence from within the area of CALL and from elearning more generally. The first part comprised two major literature reviews while the second part was a comparative study of the context in the eight countries involved in the study. Literature reviews

The reviews focused on two related fields: • • Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) over the past four decades Literature resources in e-learning beyond the field of CALL. Through these literature reviews, the research team mapped the concepts and emerging issues and questions related to the field under investigation, as documented in the relevant international literature. Taken together, the two literature reviews contextualise current uses of ICT and other new media for language learning. Annexe III summarises this work. The first literature review commences with a brief history of the use of ICT and new media for language learning. Two models of that history are presented and discussed in order to clarify and define terms commonly used in the field to ensure a shared understanding.

The review further describes two literature surveys – a pilot survey and a follow-up survey – of articles that were published in specialist computer assisted language learning (CALL) journals in the period 1983 – 2008. By analysing the outcomes of these surveys, the report attempts to identify current trends in the published use of ICT and other new media to support language learning. It was believed that the regular publication of academic journals, in contrast to books or dissertations where the lead time to publication can be several years, would mean these would offer more up-to-date information than other types of CALL-specific resources.

In order to take advantage of the fast publication route offered by the Web, journals that appear solely online (e. g. Language Learning and Technology Journal) were included. Criteria were identified for the selection of journals for inclusion in the survey. Further criteria were drawn up to select similar items from the journals’ contents: only peer-reviewed academic articles were to be included, thus excluding items such as software reviews, book reviews or discussions by the journals’ readership. ‘Special issues’, where published articles 13 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ocus on a specific area of CALL were also excluded. While such special issues could be seen to demonstrate the importance of a specific aspect of CALL, they might also result from a proposal made by an individual and thus, the data might be skewed by an influx of items about a specific topic. The content of each included item was examined and tagged according to the categories of technology types used in CALL that are identified in the conceptual framework of the study. From this study it was possible to gain an overview of the types of article published in each journal year on year and across all the journals considered in any particular year.

Whilst the methodology applied allowed only a broad-brush overview to be obtained – refinements to the methodology suggested in the concluding sections of the report provide indications of some possible trends in the use of ICT and other new media to support language learning. As well as considering the types of technologies / approaches addressed in the included articles, the surveys considered them in terms of the categories ‘formal’, ‘informal’ and ‘non-formal’ learning. The second literature review serves to expand literature review beyond CALL, by drawing similarities with publications, findings and outcomes identified in closely-related areas.

These areas are basically 1) Computer Supported Language Learning (CSCL), 2) e-learning and open & distance learning, 3) Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) and 4) mobile and interactive learning. These areas together with CALL form a group of closely linked fields of research, practice and development and are mutually enriched and developed. This literature review also synthesizes findings and draws conclusions by bridging CALL research with research carried out in the above mentioned fields. The second review took as its focus the following areas: • International organizations’ studies and reports: The aim was to seek similar studies or research that has been carried out on the same field by other international organisations, and draw on methodology, findings and recommendations from other studies.

Networks, pan-European e-learning portals: The aim was to look for similar studies or research that has been carried out on the same field by other international organisations. Journals (other than CALL publications) (2005-2009): The aim was to search beyond the area of CALL and through similar fields. Scientific, stakeholders’ and practitioners’ conferences (2005-2009): Three different types of conferences were selected (highly scientific conferences, stakeholders’ and practitioners’ annual meetings) to investigate common characteristics in conferences’ scope and thematic, and investigate convergence (or divergence) of big professional events addressing different type of target groups who are all active in the field of computer supported (language) learning. • • •

This part of the study was prompted by the growing attention on (learning) practices corresponding to the strengthening of the learner-centred paradigm, where emphasis is not on predefined pathways set by educators, but trajectories, both on the individual and the collective strand, co-constructed by learners and supported by various resources (human and material) throughout the learning process. Learners creatively configure, adapt and handle resources and the multiple trajectories that constitute learning processes are highlighted through the attention drawn on practices. An estimated 80% of adult learning takes place FINAL REPORT 14 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING outside formal education. For language learning, it is likely that out-of-class experiences play an equally important role (Benson & Reinders, in press5). However, informal learning has received far less ttention while ‘institutionalized’ learning, classroom methods and materials have been intensively explored over the years. ICT-supported informal learning practices are more difficult to identify. They occur in settings where it is much more difficult to observe practices and learners are not always aware at what extent they are learning and that learning occurs informally. Additionally, there is a wide range of settings and types of learning in informal and non-formal settings that the state of knowledge has not fully explored yet. Comparative study The second part of the desk research was a comparative study. This is presented in Annexe I.

As an initial step in the research sequence, the comparative study aims to develop the framework within which information collected from the field in subsequent steps is located. Based on available data and information, it outlines the wider context of the eight sample countries in which the use of ICT and new media for language learning should be examined. The information used for this comparative study comes mainly from published statistics and datasets of the European Union on aspects of Europeans’ lives which are relevant within the field investigated. These aspects, and the corresponding assumptions which yield them as interesting in the present context, are outlined in Table 1 below.

Provided the corresponding data range is available, the development of the examined statistical indicators is observed in a time frame of 2000 to 2008 (year of commencement of the present research), or to the most recent year before 2008 for which data is available. For the purposes of general comparison between countrie

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