The job of a police officer is very difficult, it has evolved from just an ordinary individual with no experience and no uniform that kept watch of live stock by walking at night with fire torches to an individual that needs to be able to function under pressure patrolling the streets of our communities in uniforms with a marked vehicle and not to mention to receive income for their services. Police has evolved overtime; in this paper I will describe the impact of Sir Robert Peel on the evolution of policing and its history. Sir Robert Peel Paper Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850) updated England’s criminal code.
He established the first modern police force in London, whose members were nicknamed after him “bobbies. ” Sir Robert Peel wanted a police force that would provide citizens with “the full and complete protection of the law”and“check the increase of crime. ” Sir Robert Peel pushed through the legislation an act called the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829, thus able to accomplish his dream of creating a police force. Under the term of the Metropolitan Act of 1829 the London Metropolitan Police was formed, it was one thousand members strong and all members were easily recognized due to their uniforms that included blue coats and top hats.
Sir Robert Peel Criminal Justice
Sir Robert Peel’s “bobbies” had four specific operating philosophies; the first one was to reduce tension and conflict between law enforcement officers and the public, the second one was to use nonviolence means in keeping the peace, therefore the bobbies did not carry firearms, the third one was to relieve the military from certain duties, such as controlling urban violence, and the fourth one was to be judged on the absence of crime rather than through high-visibility of police actions.
The out come of this was so successful that it was soon implemented in smaller towns in England and the United States there after. Following the American Revolution law enforcement nearly copied the English system. Constables, night watchmen, and sheriffs were appointed; the role of the sheriff was law enforcement and the apprehension of criminals, serving warrants and subpoenas and maintaining the local jails. The sheriff’s responsibilities extended beyond law enforcement and it included collecting taxes and monitoring the system of cattle branding. American metropolitan areas began to form reactive patrol units.
In 1833, Philadelphia became the first city to employ both day and night watchman, following that and working from Sir Robert Peel’s model, Boston formed the first organized police department, consisting o six full-time officers. As the history of police progressed in the United States you can divided police history into 3 different ears. Kelling and Moore (1991) describes the eras as, one; the Political Era, two; the Reform Era, and three; the Community Era. During the Political Era (1840-1930) many police officers saw their positions as opportunities to make extra income. Bribery was common; a police officer would request “favors” which went into the police officers pockets or into the coffers of the local political party as contributions. The Political Era also saw police officers taking an active role in providing social services for their bosses’. ” (1) Politicians realized they can attract more votes by offering social services to citizens than by arresting them. In 1929 President Herbert Hoover appointed the national Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement to assess the American criminal justice system.
The Wickersham Commission was created and was named after its chairman, George Wickersham. The commission focused on two areas of American policing that was in need of reform: one; police brutality and two; the corrupting influence of politics. This was when the Reform Era came into existence. According to the commission “the reform should come about through higher personnel standards, centralized police administrations, and the increased use of technology” (2) During the Reform Era, police chiefs took more control over their departments, adding midlevel positions to the force.
Police chiefs also tried to strengthen their power by bringing larger areas of a city under their control; this would not allow negative influences from politicians or neighborhoods. Finally, the Community Era in which we are currently in; the Omnibus Crime Control Act plays a major role, under this act the federal government provides state and local police departments with funds to create police-community programs. An example of a program is officer-friendly referral operations, this program encourage citizens to come to the police with their crime concerns.
The primary function of the police is to continue to control crime while providing a broader range of social services some of the tactics they us can include foot patrol or public relations, this will allow the officer to interact with the community. Thus, to days police responsibilities include, one; to enforce laws, two; to provide service, three; to prevent crime, and four; to preserve the peace.
Reference Law Enforcement in the 21st Century, Second Edition, by Heath B. Grant and Karen J. Terry. Chapter 2 1) Mark H. Haller, “Chicago Cops, 1890-1925,” in Thinking about Police, ed. Carl Klockars and Stephen Mastrofski (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990),90. 2) William J. Bopp and Donald O. Shultz, A Short History of American Law Enforcement (Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1977), 109-110. Very nice job on the paper and you covered all of the points with excellence. Full credit of 5 points. On your references, do not number them, just put in alphabetical order.