Know: Old World, New World Are the terms old world and new world biased? Old World : Europeans fleeing poverty & religious persecution. New World: North America 1. What conditions existed in what is today the United States that made it “fertile ground” for a great nation? Abundant natural resources Prior inhabitance & cultivation of the land by the Native Americans The Shaping of North America Know: Great Basin:Lake Bonneville covering most of Idaho & Utah today-it drained into the Pacific- drained the west through the Snake River & Columbia River system.
Lake Bonneville’s beaches are visible 1,000 ft. up of the floor of the Great Basin. Salt Lake lost its outlet and evaporation caused it to become saline. Appalachian Mountains: Formed before continental separation. 350 million yrs. Ago. Tidewater Region: Caused by many river valleys. Slope upward to the Appalachians. Rocky Mountains: 135-25 million yrs. ago after continental separation. Great Lakes: weight of the ice caused depressions in the Canadian Shield.This scoured away the topsoil Missouri Mississippi-Ohio River System: Drained the level of the Great Lakes.
2. Speculate how at least one geographic feature affected the development of the United States.
• Select a geographic region, explain how the geographic feature affected the development of the United States in each of the following time periods: 1500-1763 1800-1900 1900-2008 The First Discoverers of America Know: Land Bridge: 35,000 yrs ago the oceans congealed causing the sea level to drop, and exposing the land bridge between Siberia and Alaska. Nomad crossed the land bridge.About 10,000 years ago, as the Ice Age ended, sea levels began to rise and the land bridge was covered with water once again.
3. “Before the arrival of Europeans, the settlement of the Americas was insignificant. ” Assess this statement. Insignificant infers that lower population levels were inferior to the larger population levels in other parts of the world. Also, new research suggests that the native populations of North America were actually much higher than previously thought. The Earliest Americans Know: Maize: corn- transformed groups into agricultural societies as it spread throughout the Americas.Aztecs: Nation-state in present day Mexico Incas: Nation-state in present-day Mexico Pueblo: maize reached the American southwest around 1200 bc. Rio Grande Valley established irrigation systems for their corn. Multistoried terraced buildings (pueblo means “village” in Spanish) Mound Builders: Chaokia: 40,000 in 1100 A. D. around 1300 population began to decline. (Monk’s Mound) Creek, Choctoaw, & Cherokee were among the highest populations. Three-sister Farming: corn, squash, & beans. Beans grew up corn stalk and squash retained moisture in soil. Cherokee: Iroquois: Northeastern woodlands, democratic political system . Describe some of the common features of North American Indian culture. Agricultural- yet impermanent settlements. Did not attempt to dominate nature Use quotes from pages 9-10 in textbook. “They were so thinly spread across the continent that vast areas were virtually untouched by a human presence. ” 4 million……. Indirect Discoverers of the New World Know: Vinland: From Scandanavia 1,000 AD, Newfoundland (covered in wild grapes- hence the name vinland) Crusaders: 1300’s crusaders seeking to free holy land from Muslim control. This gave Europe a taste for foreign goods i. e: ilk, spices, drugs, perfumes- ***sugarMerchants ought cheaper means for the transportation of goods. Venice: Italian trading city Genoa: Italian trading city Describe the impact of sugar and the development of Europe’s “sweet tooth” on the colonization of the Americas. 5. What caused Europeans to begin exploring? Europeans were in search of cheaper trade routes from the East to the West. Europeans Enter Africa Know: Marco Polo: 1295 AD he returned from China. Increased European desires for goods. Caravel: Before its invention Europeans would not sail around the coast of Africa. 1450 invented by Portuguese allowed them to sail more directly into the wind.Bartholomew Diaz: Rounded the tip of Africa in 1488 (Portuguese) Portugal had control of the African coast Vasco da Gama: Reached India in 1498 Ferdinand and Isabella: rid Spain of the “infidels” (the Moors) Wanted to rival Portugal for power. Moors: Muslims who fought the Christians in Spain 6. What were the results of the Portuguese explorations of Africa? Exposure to slave trade by Africans and Arabs led to their own establishment of slave trade networks Slaves used to work on sugar plantations. Set up gold trading posts on the west coast Columbus Comes upon a New World Know: Columbus: 1492 7.What developments set the stage for “a cataclysmic shift in the course of history”?
• Europeans desired cheaper products from foreign lands
• Africa was a cheap labor source
• Long-range navigation was possible
• Spain was rising in power as a nation-state
• Renaissance & the spread of knowledge When Worlds Collide Know: Corn: Potatoes: Sugar: Columbus brought over seedl ings of sugar cane Horses: Smallpox: – Hispaniola population dropped from 1 million to 200 in 50 years. 8. Explain the positive and negative effects of the Atlantic Exchange. Positive & negative effects can be argues for almost everything: Cattle HorsesPigs Maize, mantioc, sweet potatoes to Africa The Spanish Conquistadors Know: Only a small minority were actually nobility. Most were professional soldiers & sailors. The rest were peasants ans artisans. Treaty of Tordesillas: 1494 Treaty to discovery of Columbus dividing land b/t Spain and Portugal. Most of the land went to Spain, but Portugal got more land in Africa. Vasco Nunez Balboa: Spanish discoverer of Pacific Ocean of Pananma 1513 & claimed washed by that sea. Ferdinand Magellan: Sailed around the world Juan Ponce de Leon: Sailed to FL Francisco Coronado: From Mexico east through AZ & NM. He encountered the PueblosHernando de Soto: From the East crossed the Mississippi. Particularly brutal to Native Am. Francisco Pizarro: Destroyed the Incas in 1532. Encomienda: Basically enslavement of the natives in return for conversion to Christianity 9. Were the conquistadors great men? Explain. They were great at destroying the existence of native societies of the Americas Makers of America: The Spanish Conquistadors Know: Granada: Moorish stronghold in Spain (city) 1492 it fell to the Spanish after a 10 year siege. For 500 years the Christian kingdoms of Spain had been attempting to rid the area of the North African Muslims Moors: North African Muslims Reconquista”: Ended as a result of Moorish defeat……. The religious zealotry & intolerance of the Spanish was now focuses on the “New World” frontier. 10. Were the conquistadors’ motives successfully fulfilled? Explain. Their individual dreams of glory were not attained. Most had to give booty to their commanders and later the Spanish crown tightened control of the loot. The Conquest of Mexico Know: Hernan Cortez: Conquerer of the Aztecs Tenochtitlan: Aztec capital city Montezuma: Leader of the Aztecs Mestizos: mix race of Aztecs & Spanish 11. Why was Cortez able to defeat the powerful Aztecs? Guns & diseaseThe Spread of Spanish America Know: John Cabot: Giovanni da Verazano: Jacques Cartier: St. Augustine: New Mexico: Don Juan De Onate led Spansih into the Rio Grande Valley in 1598. In the Battle of Acoma, 1599, the Spanish severed the foot of each survivor. The called this area New Mexico and in 1609 founded its capital in Santa Fe. Pope’s Rebellion: 1680, the native Americans destroyed all Catholic Churches and killed preiests and Spanish settlers. The Indians built “kivas” ceremonial religious chamber on the ruins on the Spanish plaza at Santa Fe. Mission Indians: In CA, San Deigo…attempt of Spaniards to convert Indians.These Indians not only lost contact with native culture but were also very susceptible to disease. Black Legend: That Spanish had butchered the natives, stole their gold, and infected them with smallpox. The Spanish actually did a better job of incorporating native cultures into their own than the English did. 12. What is the “Black Legend,” and to what extent does our text agree with it? The textbook rejects this legend overall. I’m skeptical of the textbook’s treatment of this topic. CHAPTER 2: THE PLANTING OF ENGLISH COLONIES GUIDED READING QUESTIONS England’s Imperial Stirrings Know: Henry VIII:Queen Elizabeth: Catholic Ireland: 13. Why was England slow to establish New World colonies? Elizabeth Energizes England Know: Francis Drake: Sir Walter Raleigh: Virginia: Spanish Armada: 14. What steps from 1575-1600 brought England closer to colonizing the New World? England on the Eve of Empire Know: Enclosure Movement: Primogeniture: Joint-stock company: 15. Explain how conditions in England around 1600 made the country “ripe” to colonize North America. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling Know: Virginia Company: Jamestown: John Smith: Powhatan: Pocahontas: Starving Time: Lord De La Warr: 16.Give at least three reasons that so many of the Jamestown settlers died. Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake Know: Powhatan’s Confederacy: Anglo-Powhatan Wars: 17. What factors led to the poor relations between Europeans and Native Americans in Virginia? Virginia: Child of Tobacco Know: John Rolfe: Tobacco: House of Burgesses: 18. “By 1620 Virginia had already developed many of the features that were important to it two centuries later. ” Explain. Maryland: Catholic Haven Know: Lord Baltimore: Indentured Servants: Act of Toleration: 19. In what ways was Maryland different than Virginia? The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland AmericaKnow: West Indies: Sugar: Barbados Slave Code: 20. What historical consequences resulted from the cultivation of sugar instead of tobacco in the British colonies in the West Indies? Colonizing the Carolinas Know: Oliver Cromwell: Charles II: Rice: 21. Why did Carolina become a place for aristocratic whites and many black slaves? The Emergence of North Carolina Know: Tuscarora: 22. North Carolina was called “a vale of humility between two mountains of conceit. ” Explain. Late-Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony Know: James Oglethorpe: 23. In what ways was Georgia unique among the Southern colonies?Makers of America: The Iroquois Know: The Iroquois Confederacy: Deganawidah: Hiawatha: Five Nations: Handsome Lake: 24. How did the political structure of the Iroquois prove to be strength and ultimately a weakness? The Plantation Colonies 25. Which Southern colony was the most different from the others? Explain. CHAPTER 3: SETTLING THE NORTHERN COLONIES GUIDED READING QUESTIONS The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism Know: John Calvin, Conversion Experience, Visible Saints, Church of England, Puritans, Separatists 26. How did John Calvin’s teachings result in some Englishmen wanting to leave England?The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth Know: Mayflower, Myles Standish, Mayflower Compact, Plymouth, William Bradford 27. Explain the factors that contributed to the success of the Plymouth colony. The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth Know: Puritans, Charles I, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Great Migration, John Winthrop 28. Why did the Puritans come to America? Building the Bay Colony Know: Freemen, Bible Commonwealth, John Cotton, Protestant Ethic 29. How democratic was the Massachusetts Bay Colony? Explain. Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth Know: Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism, Roger Williams 30.What happened to people whose religious beliefs differed from others in Massachusetts Bay Colony? The Rhode Island “Sewer” Know: Freedom of Religion 31. How was Rhode Island different than Massachusetts? Makers of America: The English 32. In what ways did the British North American colonies reflect their mother country? New England Spreads Out Know: Thomas Hooker, Fundamental Orders 33. Describe how Connecticut, Maine and New Hampshire were settled. Puritans versus Indians Know: Squanto, Massasoit, Pequot War, Praying Towns, Metacom, King Philip’s War 34. Why did hostilities arise between Puritans and Native Americans? What was the result?Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence Know: New England Confederation, Charles II 35. Assess the following statement, “The British colonies were beginning to grow closer to each other by 1700. ” Andros Promotes the First American Revolution Know: Dominion of New England, Navigation Laws, Edmund Andros, Glorious Revolution, William and Mary, Salutary Neglect 36. How did events in England affect the New England colonies’ development? Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands Know: Dutch East India Company, Henry Hudson, New Amsterdam, Patroonships 37. Explain how settlement by the Dutch led to the type of city that New York is today.Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors Know: Wall Street, New Sweden, Peter Stuyvesant, Log Cabins 38. “Vexations beset the Dutch company-colony from the beginning. ” Explain. Dutch Residues in New York Know: Duke of York 39. Do the Dutch have an important legacy in the United States? Explain. Penn’s Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania Know: Quakers, William Penn 40. What had William Penn and other Quakers experienced that would make them want a colony in America? Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors Know: East New Jersey, West New Jersey, Delaware 41. Why was Pennsylvania attractive to so many Europeans and Native Americans?The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies Know: Middle Colonies, Benjamin Franklin 42. What do the authors mean when the say that the middle colonies were the most American? Varying Viewpoints: Europeanizing America or Americanizing Europe? 43. “The picture of colonial America that is emerging from all this new scholarship is of a society unique—and diverse—from its inception. ” Explain CHAPTER 4: AMERICAN LIFE IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY GUIDED READING QUESTIONS The Unhealthy Chesapeake 44. “Life in the American wilderness was nasty, brutish, and short for the earliest Chesapeake settlers. ” Explain. The Tobacco EconomyKnow: Tobacco, Indentured Servants, Freedom Dues, Headright System 45. What conditions in Virginia made the colony right for the importation of indentured servants? Frustrated Freemen and Bacon’s Rebellion Know: William Berkeley, Nathaniel Bacon 46. Who is most to blame for Bacon’s rebellion, the upper class or the lower class? Explain. Colonial Slavery Know: Royal African Company, Middle Passage, Slave Codes, Chattel Slavery 47. Describe the slave trade. Africans in America Know: Gullah, Stono Rebellion 48. Describe slave culture and contributions. Makers of America: From African to African-American 49. And precisely because of the diversity of African peoples represented in America, the culture that emerged was a uniquely New World creation. ” Explain. Southern Society Know: Plantations, Yeoman Farmers 50. Describe southern culture in the colonial period, noting social classes. The New England Family Know: The Scarlet Letter 51. What was it like to be a woman in New England? Life in the New England Towns Know: Harvard, Town Meetings 52. Explain the significance of New England towns to the culture there. The Half-Way Covenant and the Salem Witch Trial Know: Jeremiad, Conversions, Half-Way Covenant 3. What evidence shows that New England was becoming more diverse as the 17th century wore on? The New England Way of Life Know: Yankee Ingenuity 54. How did the environment shape the culture of New England? The Early Settlers’ Days and Ways Know: Leisler’s Rebellion 55. How much equality was evident in the colonies? CHAPTER 5: COLONIAL SOCIETY ON THE EVE OF REVOLUTION GUIDED READING QUESTIONS Conquest by the Cradle Know: Thirteen Original Colonies 56. What was the significance of the tremendous growth of population in Britain’s North American colonies? A Mingling of RacesKnow: Pennsylvania Dutch, Scots-Irish, Paxton Boys, Regulator Movement 57. What was the significance of large numbers of immigrants from places other than England? The Structure of Colonial Society Know: Social Mobility 58. Assess the degree of social mobility in the colonies. Makers of America: The Scots-Irish Know: The Session 59. How had the history of the Scots-Irish affected their characteristics? Clerics, Physicians, and Jurists Know: Smallpox, Diphtheria 60. Why has the relative prestige of the professions changed from colonial times to today? Workaday America Know: Triangular Trade, Naval Stores, Molasses Act 1. Describe some of the more important occupations in the colonies. Horsepower and Sailpower Know: Taverns 62. What was it like to travel in early America? Dominant Denominations Know: Established Church, Anglicans, Congregationalists, Presbyterians 63. How did the denominations in America affect relations with Great Britain? The Great Awakening Know: Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield, Old Lights, New Lights, Baptists 64. How was the religion encompassed in the Great Awakening different from traditional religion? What was important about the difference? Schools and Colleges Know: Latin and Greek 5. What kind of education could a young person expect in colonial times? Culture in the Backwoods Know: John Trumbull, Charles Wilson Peale, Benjamin West, John Singleton Copley, Benjamin Franklin 66. Did Americans distinguish themselves in the arts during the colonial period? Explain. Pioneer Presses Know: John Peter Zenger 67. Why was the jury verdict in the Zenger case important? The Great Game of Politics Know: Royal Colonies, Proprietary Colonies, Self-governing Colonies, Colonial Assemblies, Power of the Purse, Town Meetings, Property Qualifications 68. How democratic was colonial America?Colonial Folkways 69. What were the advantages and disadvantages of living in America during the colonial period? Colonial America: Communities of Conflict or Consensus? Know: Nash’s Urban Crucible Theory 70. Were the colonies marked more by internal consensus or internal conflict? Explain. CHAPTER 6: THE DUEL FOR NORTH AMERICA GUIDED READING QUESTIONS France Finds a Foothold in Canada Know: Huguenots, Samuel de Champlain, New France 71. How was the colony of New France different from the British North American colonies? New France Fans Out Know: Beaver, Coureurs de Bois, Voyageurs, Robert de La Salle 72.What factors led to the French settlement of New France? The Clash of Empires Know: Treaty of Utrecht, War of Jenkins’s Ear, James Oglethorpe, Louisbourg 73. Describe the early wars between France and Britain. George Washington Inaugurates War with France Know: Fort Duquesne, George Washington, Fort Necessity, Acadians 74. How did George Washington spark the French and Indian War? Global War and Colonial Disunity Know: Benjamin Franklin, Albany Plan of Union, “Join or Die” 75. What was meant by the statement, “America was conquered in Germany? Braddock’s Blundering and Its Aftermath Know: Edward Braddock 6. What setbacks did the British suffer in the early years of the French and Indian War? Pitt’s Palms of Victory Know: William Pitt, James Wolfe, Battle of Quebec 77. What was the significance of the British victory in the French and Indian War? Restless Colonials 78. How did the French and Indian War affect the relationship between the colonies and the mother country? Makers of America: The French Know: Louis XIV, The Great Displacement 79. What contributions to American culture were made by the French? Americans: A People of Destiny Know: Treaty of Paris, Pontiac, Daniel Boone, Proclamation of 1763 80.How did French defeat lead to westward expansion and tension with Native Americans and the British? CHAPTER 7: THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION GUIDED READING QUESTIONS The Deep Roots of Revolution 81. Why does the author say that the American Revolution began when the first settlers stepped ashore? The Mercantile Theory Know: Mercantilism 82. Explain the economic theory of mercantilism and the role of colonies. Mercantilist Trammels on Trade Know: Navigation Laws, Royal Veto 83. How did Parliament enact the theory of mercantilism into policy? The Merits of Mercantilism Know: Salutary Neglect, John Hancock, Bounties 84.In what ways did the mercantilist theory benefit the colonies? The Menace of Mercantilism 85. What economic factors were involved in leading colonists to be displeased with the British government? The Stamp Tax Uproar Know: George Grenville, Sugar Act, Quartering Act of 1765, Stamp Act, Admiralty Courts, Virtual Representation 86. Why were the colonists so upset over relatively mild taxes and policies? Parliament Forced to Repeal the Stamp Act Know: Stamp Act Congress, Nonimportation Agreements, Homespun, Sons of Liberty, Declaratory Act 87. In what ways did colonists resist the Stamp Act? The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston “Massacre”Know: Townshend Acts, Indirect Tax, Boston Massacre, John Adams 88. How did the Townshend Acts lead to more difficulties? The Seditious Committees of Correspondence Know: George III, Lord North, Samuel Adams, Committees of Correspondence 89. How did Committees of Correspondence work? Tea Parties at Boston and Elsewhere Know: British East India Company, Boston Tea Party 90. What was the cause of the Boston Tea Party, and what was its significance? Parliament Passes the “Intolerable Acts” Know: Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, Quartering Act of 1774, Quebec Act 91.What was so intolerable about the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts? The Continental Congress and Bloodshed Know: First Continental Congress, Declaration of Rights, The Association, Tar and Feathers, Minute Men, Lexington and Concord 92. What was the goal of the First Continental Congress? Imperial Strength and Weakness Know: Hessians, Tories 93. What were British strengths and weaknesses at the outset of the war? American Pluses and Minuses Know: George Washington, Ben Franklin, Marquis de Lafayette, Continentals 94. What were the American strengths and weaknesses at the outset of the war? A Thin Line of HeroesKnow: Valley Forge, Baron von Steuben, Continental Army 95. What role was played by African-Americans in the Revolution? Whose Revolution? 96. Which of the four interpretations of the Revolution seems most true to you? Which seems least true? Explain. CHAPTER 8: AMERICA SECEDES FROM THE EMPIRE GUIDED READING QUESTIONS Congress Drafts George Washington Know: Second Continental Congress, George Washington 97. Why was George Washington chosen as general of the American army? Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings Know: Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold, Fort Ticonderoga, Bunker Hill, Redcoats, Olive Branch Petition, Hessians 98.How and why did George III “slam the door on all hope of reconciliation”? The Abortive Conquest of Canada Know: Richard Montgomery 99. Did the fighting go well for Americans before July of 1776? Explain. Thomas Paine Preaches Common Sense 100. Why was Common Sense important? Paine and the Idea of “Republicanism” Know: Republic, Natural Aristocracy 101. Why did Paine want a democratic republic? Jefferson’s “Explanation” of Independence Know: Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence, Natural Rights 102. What does the Declaration of Independence say? Patriots and Loyalists Know: Patrick Henry 03. What kinds of people were Loyalists? Makers of America: The Loyalists 104. What happened to Loyalists after the war? The Loyalist Exodus 105. What happened to Loyalists during the war? General Washington at Bay Know: William Howe, Trenton, Princeton, 106. What were some of the flaws of General William Howe? Burgoyne’s Blundering Invasion Know: John Burgoyne, Benedict Arnold, Saratoga, Horatio Gates 107. Why did the Americans win the battle of Saratoga? Why was it significant? Strange French Bedfellows 108. Why did the French help America win independence? The Colonial War Becomes a World WarKnow: Armed Neutrality 109. Why was foreign aid so important to the American cause? Blow and Counterblow Know: Nathaniel Greene, Charles Cornwallis 110. Would an American Patriot, reading news of the war in 1780, have been happy about the way the war was going? Explain. The Land Frontier and Sea Frontier Know: Iroquois Confederacy, Fort Stanwix, George Rogers Clarke, John Paul Jones, Privateers 111. Was frontier fighting important in the outcome of the war? Yorktown and the Final Curtain Know: Charles Cornwallis, Yorktown 112. If the war did not end at Yorktown, then why was it important?Peace at Paris Know: Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay, Treaty of Paris 113. What did America gain and what did it concede in the Treaty of Paris? A New Nation Legitimized Know: Whigs 114. Did Americans get favorable terms in the Treaty of Paris? Explain. DOCUMENT BASED QUESTION: EXAMINE THE DOCUMENTS ATTACHED FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 11. WRITE A 5 PARAGRAPH ESSAY: Paragraph 1= Give your introduction and thesis statement Paragraph 2-3-4= Supportive evidence using documents and “outside knowledge” based on your text and other sources Paragraph 5= Conclusion